Cellular Respiration

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1 Cellular Respiration

2 INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION Nearly all the cells in our body break down sugars for ATP production Most cells of most organisms harvest energy aerobically The aerobic harvesting of energy from sugar is called cellular respiration Cellular respiration yields CO 2, H 2 O, and a large amount of ATP

3 Cellular respiration banks energy in ATP molecules Cellular respiration breaks down glucose molecules and banks their energy in ATP The process uses O 2 and releases CO 2 and H 2 O ATP powers almost all cell and body activities

4 Glycolysis There are two important ways a cell can harvest energy from food: fermentation and cellular respiration. Both start with the same first step: the process of glycolysis which is the breakdown or splitting of glucose (6 carbons) into two 3-carbon molecules called pyruvic acid (pyruvate) The energy from other sugars, such as fructose, is also harvested using this process. Glycolysis is probably the oldest known way of producing ATP..

5 Glycolysis Cont d There is evidence that the process of glycolysis predates the existence of O 2 in the Earth s atmosphere and organelles in cells: Glycolysis does not need oxygen as part of any of its chemical reactions. It serves as a first step in a variety of both aerobic and anaerobic energy-harvesting reactions. Glycolysis happens in the cytoplasm of cells, not in some specialized organelle. Glycolysis is the one metabolic pathway found in all living organisms.

6 Summary Of Glycolysis Summary of the steps of Glycolysis: a. 2 ATP added to glucose (6C) to energize it. b. Glucose split to 2 PGAL (3C). (PGAL = phosphoglyceraldehyde) c. H+ and e- (e- = electron) taken from each PGAL & given to make 2 NADH. d. NADH is energy and e- carrier. e. Each PGAL rearranged into pyruvate (3C), with energy transferred to make 4 ATP (substrate phosphorylation). f. Although glycolysis makes 4 ATP, the net ATP production by this step is 2 ATP (because 2 ATP were used to start glycolysis). The 2 net ATP are available for cell use. g. If oxygen is available to the cell, the pyruvate will move into the mitochondria & aerobic respiration will begin.

7 Glycolysis

8 Net Yield from Glycolysis Net Yield from Glycolysis 4 NADH 2 CO 2 4 ATP ( 2 used to start reaction)

9 Fermentation If no oxygen is available to the cell (anaerobic), the pyruvate will be fermented by addition of 2 H from the NADH (to alcohol + CO 2 in yeast or lactic acid in muscle cells). This changes NADH back to NAD+ so it is available for step c above. This keeps glycolysis going! In fermentation these pyruvic acid molecules are turned into some waste product, and a little bit of energy (only two ATP molecules per molecule of glucose actually four are produced in glycolysis, but two are used up) is produced. Out of many possible types of fermentation processes, two of the most common types are lactic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation.

10 Lactic Acid Fermentation Lactic acid fermentation is done by some fungi, some bacteria like the Lactobacillus acidophilus. in yogurt, and sometimes by our muscles. Normally our muscles do cellular respiration like the rest of our bodies, using O2 supplied by our lungs and blood. However, under greater exertion when the oxygen supplied by the lungs and blood system can t get there fast enough to keep up with the muscles needs, our muscles can switch over and do lactic acid fermentation. In the process of lactic acid fermentation, the 3-carbon pyruvic acid molecules are turned into lactic acid. It is the presence of lactic acid in yogurt that gives it its sour taste, and it is the presence of lactic acid in our muscles the morning after that makes them so sore. Once our muscles form lactic acid, they can t do anything else with it, so until it is gradually washed away by the blood stream and carried to the liver (which is able to get rid of it), our over-exerted muscles feel stiff and sore even if they haven t been physically injured.

11 Lactic Acid Fermentation

12 Alcohol Fermentation Alcohol fermentation is done by yeast and some kinds of bacteria. The waste products of this process are ethanol and carbon dioxide (CO2). Humans have long taken advantage of this process in making bread, beer, and wine. In bread making, it is the CO2 which forms and is trapped between the gluten (a long protein in wheat) molecules that causes the bread to rise, and the ethanol (often abbreviated as EtOH)evaporating that gives it its wonderful smell while baking.

13 Alcohol Fermentation

14 Cellular Respiration An analogy can be drawn between the process of cellular respiration in our cells and a car. The mitochondria are the engines of our cells where sugar is burned for fuel and the exhaust is CO2 and H2O. Note that in a car that burned fuel perfectly, the only exhaust should theoretically be CO2 and H2O also.

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16 Cellular Respiration There are three steps in the process of cellular respiration: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. Occurs in the mitochondria Pyruvic acid from glycolysis diffuses into matrix of mitochondria & reacts with coenzyme A to for acetyl-coa (2- carbon compound) CO2 and NADH are also produced

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18 Kreb's Cycle Named for biochemist Hans Krebs Metabolic pathway that indirectly requires O2 Kreb's Cycle is also known as the Citric acid Cycle Requires 2 cycles to metabolize glucose Acetyl Co-A (2C) enters the Kreb's Cycle & joins with Oxaloacetic Acid (4C) to make Citric Acid (6C) Citric acid is oxidized releasing CO2, free H+, & e- and forming ketoglutaric acid (5C) Free e- reduce the energy carriers NAD+ to NADH and FAD+ to FADH2 Ketoglutaric acid is also oxidized releasing more CO2, free H+, & e- The cycle continues oxidizing the carbon compounds formed (succinic acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, etc.) producing more CO2, NADH, FADH2, & ATP H2O is added to supply more H+ CO2 is a waste product that diffuses out of cells Oxaloacetic acid is regenerated to start the cycle again NADH and FADH2 produced migrate to the Electron Transport Chain (ETC)

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20 Net Yield from Kreb's Cycle (2 turns) 6 NADH 2 FADH2 4 CO2 2 ATP

21 Electron Transport Chain Found in the inner mitochondrial membrane or cristae Contains 4 protein-based complexes that work in sequence moving H+ from the matrix across the inner membrane (proton pumps) A concentration gradient of H+ between the inner & outer mitochondrial membrane occurs H+ concentration gradient causes the synthesis of ATP by chemosmosis Energized e- & H+ from the 10 NADH2 and 2 FADH2 (produced during glycolysis & Krebs cycle) are transferred to O2 to produce H2O (redox reaction) O2 + 4e- + 4H+ 2H2O

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23 Energy Yield from Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis 4 NADH2 O FADH2 2 ATP Kreb's Cycle 6 NADH2 2 FADH2 2 ATP Total 10 NADH2 x 3 = 30 ATP 2 FADH2 x 2 = 4 ATP 4 ATP 38 ATP

24 Most cells produce molecules of ATP per glucose (66% efficient) Actual number of ATP's produced by aerobic respiration varies among cells

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26 ATP (Adenosine triphosphate ) Energy carrying molecule used by cells to fuel their cellular processes ATP is composed of an adenine base, ribose sugar, & 3 phosphate (PO4) groups The PO4 bonds are high-energy bonds that require energy to be made & release energy when broken ATP is made & used continuously by cells Every minute all of an organism's ATP is recycled Phosphorylation refers to the chemical reactions that make ATP by adding Pi to ADP ADP + Pi + energy «ATP + H2O Enzymes (ATP synthetase& ATPase) help break & reform these high energy PO4 bonds in a process called substrate-level phosphorylation When the high-energy phosphate bond is broken, it releases energy, a free phosphate group, & adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

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