Metabolic Pathways - postabsorptive. Metabolic Pathways - absorptive. Hormonal Control of Blood Glucose. 1. Absorptive state is about Glucose storage

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1 Metabolic Pathways - absorptive GI tract Hormonal Control of Blood Triglyceride Amino Acids α-ketoacids protein All tissue adipose Metabolic Pathways - postabsorptive Lactate & pyruvate protein Lactate & pyruvate glycerol α-ketoacids glycerol adipose ketones Blood Nervous tissue ketones All other tissue 1. Absorptive state is about storage by & liver by adipose All tissues use as the source 2. Postabsortive state is about preserving for the nervous system Utilizing stores to produce blood Switching other tissues to fat 1

2 Sources of blood 1. olysis Breakdown of glycogen to and Muscle is indirect via lactate & pyruvate 2. Lipolysis Breakdown of trigylcerides in adipose 3. Gluconeogenesis Production of new from any precursor Hormonal Control of Blood What controls: production of glycogen, protein and triglyceride during absorption? Use of during absorption and the switch to fat postabsorption? uptake by liver during absorption and release of postabsorption Hormonal Control of Blood Endocrine pancreas Only 2% of entire pancreas, the rest produces digestive enzymes (exocrine) Islets of Langerhans Insulin (β cells) Glucagon (α cells) Somatostatin (Δ cells) Insulin Stimulus for secretion is high blood Secreted by β cells Leads to uptake and storage in liver, and fat tissue. Effect is to blood 2

3 Control of insulin secretion How does control insulin secretion from β cell? Blood Blood depolarization Blood GIP from GI tract Parasympathetic NS β cells Sympathetic NS or Epinephrine Glut2 glucokinase K+ channel Ca++ 6 phosphate Glycolysis & Citric acid cycle ATP Ca++ dependent release of Insulin containing vesicles plasma insulin Effects of Insulin Muscle and Fat Tissue Insulin initiates transfer of s to cell membrane Effects in Muscle & Fat GLUT4 synthesis s blood production of glycogen SNARE dependent transport storage vesicle Insulin 3

4 Effects of Insulin insulin stimulates the synthesis of an enzyme (glucokinase) Required to trap in the cell initiates glycogen production Effects in GLUT2 X synthesis 6-phosphate glucokinase trapped Summary of response to insulin Plasma insulin Glucagon uptake Amino acid uptake & protein synthesis fat uptake Triglyceride synthesis liver uptake synthesis Triglyceride synthesis Secretion stimulated by low blood Activates enzymes for gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis Leads to blood levels Plasma insulin uptake breakdown protein breakdown fat uptake Triglyceride breakdown & release of glycerol and fatty acid liver release into blood due to glycogen breakdown & gluconeogenesis Ketones released 4

5 Glucagon Control primarily under inhibitory paracrine control by insulin insulin β α blood insulin glucagon blood insulin glucagon Also sympathetic NS can glucagon release Regulation Summary Endocrine pancreas Secretion of several hormones important for blood regulation Insulin uptake and storage Different effects on liver and & fat Glucagon production Diabetes 2 million Canadians $9 billion per year health care costs Insulin isolated by Banting & Best 1922, U of T Dept of Physiology (1923 Nobel Prize) Type 1 No or very little insulin produced Type 2 Reduced cellular response to insulin Consequences Death Blindness Kidney disease Limb amputation End of Hormones 5

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