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2 A plane flies toward a stationary siren at ¼ the speed of sound. Then the plane stands still on the ground and the siren is driven away from it at ¼ the speed of sound. In both cases, a person sitting in the plane will hear the same frequency of sound from the siren. A) True B) False 6. The just noticeable difference (JND) of hearing is larger for softer sounds. For example, a 1 khz sound that starts at 80 db has a JND of about 0.5 db, while the same 1 khz sound that starts at 30 db has a JND of about 1 db. Which statement below best describes the interpretation of this experimental result? A) It s easier to hear small differences in frequency if the sound starts out louder. B) It s easier to hear small differences in loudness if the sound starts out softer. C) It s easier to hear small differences in loudness if the sound starts out louder. D) It s easier to hear small differences in loudness if the sound starts out higher in pitch. E) It s easier to hear small differences in loudness if the sound starts out lower in pitch. 7. Which pair of tones would have a slow very distinct beat? (Assume both are equally loud initially.) A) 50 Hz and 52 Hz B) 50 Hz and 60 Hz C) 50 Hz and 100 Hz D) 50 Hz and 500 Hz E) 50 Hz and 5 khz The next two questions both refer to a giant clothesline wiggling at the front of class, oscillating in a simple standing wave pattern, driven by a piston at some fixed frequency. (The picture is a snapshot in time.) 8. If the length of the rope is L=5 m, what is the wavelength of this wave? A) 1 m B) 2 m C) 5 m D) 10 m E) 25 m 9. Consider a spot on the string located two fifths of the way along (i.e. at 2/5 L ). (I have drawn a heavy dot in the picture there to guide your eye). What can you say about the motion of this spot as time goes by? A) The spot wiggles left and right. B) The spot travels to the right. C) The spot wiggles up and down. D) The spot remains motionless. E) The spot goes around in a circular pattern. L

3 The next two questions address the picture at right. The picture shows the air pressure in the room as a function of position, at some instant in time. It is a snapshot of air pressure. The horizontal axis is distance, in meters, away from the source of the sound. Note the distance scale at the bottom of the graph. The entire graph is 16 m, each of the tick marks on the x axis is separated by 1 m, each of the faint vertical lines is 0.5 m apart. 0 8 m 16 m 10. What sound will you perceive when you hear this in other words, what is the frequency of the fundamental vibration of this waveform? A) 344 Hz B) 86 Hz C) 43 Hz D) 16 Hz E) 4 Hz 11. In addition to the fundamental vibration, a higher harmonic is present in this graph. Which harmonic is it? A) the 3 rd harmonic B) the 4 th harmonic C) the 5 th harmonic D) the 6 th harmonic E) the 7 th harmonic 12. In the middle ear, the eardrum is connected to the oval window by the ossicles, which transmit force between the eardrum and the oval window. The eardrum is about 20 times larger in area than the oval window. What effect does this difference in area have? A) The difference in area makes the pressure on the oval window larger. B) The difference in area makes the pressure on the oval window smaller. C) The difference in area makes the force on the oval window larger. D) The difference in area makes the force on the oval window smaller. E) The difference in area doesn t much affect the force or the pressure. 13. When you strum a guitar, you produce a fundamental tone. If you now place your finger to play the 3 rd harmonic (n=3), what does the new tone sound like? A) The 3 rd harmonic sounds 1 octave above the fundamental. B) The 3 rd harmonic sounds 2 octaves above the fundamental. C) The 3 rd harmonic sounds 3 octaves above the fundamental. D) The 3 rd harmonic sounds 4 octaves above the fundamental. E) None of the above is a correct description of the sound of the 3 rd harmonic. 14. A given note has a period of 0.4 milliseconds. What is its frequency? (Choose the closest answer.) A) About 150 Hz B) About 250 Hz C) About 1.5 khz D) About 2.5 khz E) About 15 khz

5 You loosen a very tight guitar string, decreasing the tension by a factor of nine. What happens to the speed of the wave on the string? A) It goes down by a factor of 3. B) It goes down by a factor of 9. C) It goes up by a factor of 3. D) It goes up by a factor of 9. D) It stays the same, wave speed does not depend on tension. 21. I was singing while walking outside. When I walked into a tunnel, I noticed that my singing sounds much better inside the tunnel than it does outside. Why? (Pick the best explanation.) A) Because singing excites a resonance of the tunnel, and resonant sounds are more aesthetically pleasing. B) Because the sound waves diffract (spread out) when traveling through the opening of the tunnel, so the sound is easier to hear. C) Because the air temperature inside the tunnel is than from the temperature outside, which causes the frequency of the sound to shift to more pleasing notes. D) Because the sound waves inside the tunnel destructively interfere with each other, producing a pattern of loud and soft spots in the tunnel that sounds nice. E) Because the sound reflects (echoes) many times off the wall of the tunnel, and the time delay between when the different echoes reach my ear creates a richer sound. 22. What can you say about the allowed harmonics of an ideal wind instrument which is a simple narrow pipe that is closed on one end, but open on the other end? A) It has only odd numbered harmonics (i.e. you only hear frequencies which are an ODD number times the fundamental). B) It has only even numbered harmonics (i.e. you only hear frequencies which are an EVEN number times the fundamental). C) It has all harmonics, exactly the same pattern as a plucked string. D) It produces NO harmonics, only the fundamental will be heard. E) It produces a purely anharmonic pattern, where the higher frequencies are not related in any way to the fundamental. The next two questions refer to the picture below right, which shows a waveform of a pure tone (think of an oscilloscope trace, calibrated to measure pressure versus time of a pure tone). Notice the features of the graph labeled i and ii. 23. Which feature of the graph do you have to change (and how?) in order to make the pitch go down by an octave? A) Make feature i larger by a factor of 2. B) Make feature i smaller by a factor of 2. C) Make feature ii larger by a factor of 2. D) Make feature ii smaller by a factor of 2. E) None of the above changes will do the trick. 24. If you want to increase the sound intensity level (SIL) you hear by +6 db, what change do you have to make? A) Increase feature i by a factor of 4. B) Increase feature i by a factor of 6. C) Increase feature ii by a factor of 4. D) Increase feature ii by a factor of 6. E) None of the above changes will do the trick. pressure (above normal) i: (below normal) ii: time, t

6 Considering a string on a bass guitar with a fundamental (n=1) frequency of the note we call E2. When you are hearing this 4th harmonic (n=4) of this string, what note are you perceiving? A) E12 B) E7 C) E5 D) E4 E) None of the above corresponds to the 4th harmonic of this string. 26. Consider a giant organ pipe which plays a tone whose fundamental frequency is at the very low end of normal human hearing (which typically ranges from about 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz). Which harmonic number of this pipe is about the highest one most people could perceive? A) Somewhere around n=3. B) Somewhere around n=10. C) Somewhere around n=200. D) Somewhere around n=1,000. E) Somewhere around n=20, A native American bass flute is roughly 1 meter long, and is open at both ends. What is the lowest note can be played on this instrument? A) About 340 Hz. B) About 170 Hz. C) About 34 Hz. D) About 1 Hz. E) There is no lowest note on an open flute, a highly skilled player can go as low as they want. 28. If you cap off one end of the flute in the previous problem, what happens to the fundamental frequency? A) It goes down by an octave. B) It goes down, but by much less than an octave C) It goes up by an octave D) It goes up, but by much less than an octave E) It stays the same. 29. If the intensity of sound (measured in W/m 2 ) increases by a factor of 5, what happens to the decibel level? A) It goes up by a factor of 20 from whatever value it starts at (decibels are multiplied by 20). B) It goes up by a factor of 5 from whatever value it starts at (decibels are multiplied by 5). C) It increases by +3 db. D) It increases by +5 db. E) It increases by +7 db. 30. A violinist tunes her instrument before a concert by tightening one of the strings. As you listen to this, you hear the pitch of the note she plays increasing slightly. How does the speed of the produced sound wave (traveling through the air towards you) change as the frequency goes up? A) The higher the frequency, the faster the sound wave travels to you. B) The higher the frequency, the slower the sound wave travels to you. C) Frequency makes no difference, sound waves of all frequencies travel to you at the same speed.

7 The next 2 questions refer to a half-closed 3 m long pipe (one end is sealed, the other end is open to the atmosphere). This pipe has a standing pressure wave in it (that's just one of the ordinary modes we've talked about in class, the wave shown happens to have n=3). The overpressure in the tube at one instant in time is shown as a solid line. The overpressure at a later time is shown dashed. Over- Pressure m 2 m 3 m L=3 m 31. Which end of this pipe is the open end? Choose the correct answer and the correct reason. A) The right end is open, because you should have a pressure antinode at the open end B) The right end is open, because you should have a pressure node at the open end C) The left end is open, because you should have a pressure antinode at the open end D) The left end is open, because you should have a pressure node at the open end E) The graph shown cannot possibly correspond to any real standing wave in a tube. 32. A dust particle is located 2/3 of the way along the tube, i.e. at the 2 m spot (shown as a black dot in the figure above). How will the dust speck move as time goes by due to the standing pressure wave? A) The speck wiggles left and right. B) The speck travels steadily in one direction until it leaves the tube. C) The speck wiggles up and down (i.e. towards the top and bottom of the tube, not towards the ends). D) The speck remains essentially motionless. E) The speck moves around in a circular pattern. 33. The speed of a wave on a 1 meter long bass string is. A) 2 m/s B) 1 m/s C) 344 m/s D) 172 m/s E) There is not enough information given to determine. 34. You are listening to two speakers. The distance from you to one of the speakers is precisely half a wavelength longer than the distance to the other one. Assume the speakers are wired to produce sound in synch (in phase) with one another. What do you hear when the speakers play the same pure tone? A) A very soft or no sound (that is, it s much softer than the loudness of either speaker alone). B) A sound that beats (that is, it gets louder and softer, louder and softer, with time). C) A sound louder than either speaker alone would produce. D) A sound of distinctly different frequency than either speaker alone would produce. E) A sound the same loudness as either speaker alone. 35. In a concert, a solo violinist begins the piece, playing at a steady 40 db. Then more violins join in. They all play at the same intensity, and the sound intensity level (SIL) in the room is now 50 db. How many violins (total) are now playing? A) 5 B) 10 C) 13 D) 15 E) 20

8 Our perception of sound comes from the inner ear. There is a basilar membrane which runs down the cochlea, with hair cells located along this membrane. What mechanism associated with the inner ear best helps us perceive how high or low the pitch of a given sound is? A) The vibration rate of the individual hair cells carries much of the frequency information. B) The amplitude of the vibration of individual hair cells carries much of the frequency information. C) The spectrum of the electric signal produced by the individual hair cells carries much of the frequency information. D) The location of vibrating hair cells along the membrane carries much of the frequency information. E) Brain signal processing (nothing physical, it's pure software) determines much of the frequency information. 37. An car is driving very fast toward a group of stationary people, while blaring music from its speakers. The sound hear by the stationary listeners sounds lower in pitch than the sound heard by listeners in the car. A) True B) False 38. I play a pure tone of frequency 10 khz, which reflects off the cliff I am facing. The bumps and irregularities on the cliff are about 1 m wide. What will happen and why? A) The sound will largely reflect specularly because the surface is rough. B) The sound will largely reflect specularly because the surface is smooth. C) The sound will largely reflect specularly, it doesn t matter whether the surface is smooth or rough. D) The sound will largely reflect diffusely because the surface is rough. E) The sound will largely reflect diffusely because the surface is smooth. 39. I measure the just noticeable difference (JND) of a particular sound and find that it is 2 db. What intensity ratio is detectable for this sound? A) An intensity ratio of 1.3 or larger is a noticeable difference. B) An intensity ratio of 1.3 or smaller is a noticeable difference. C) An intensity ratio of 1.6 or larger is a noticeable difference. D) An intensity ratio of 1.6 or smaller is a noticeable difference. E) An intensity ratio of 2.0 or larger is a noticeable difference.

9 Consider a sound wave which decomposes into the following three pure tones (the relative amplitudes in these three pictures are drawn to scale). overpressure overpressure overpressure f 1 3f 1 5f 1 time time time The frequency spectrum for this wave looks like (choose the closest one): Spectrum Spectrum A B Spectrum f1 frequency C 5f 1 Spectrum f 1 frequency D 5f 1 f 1 frequency 5f 1 f 1 frequency 5f 1

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