AP UNITED STATES HISTORY SUMMER READING GUIDE. Text: American Colonies by Alan Taylor

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1 AP UNITED STATES HISTORY SUMMER READING GUIDE Text: American Colonies by Alan Taylor Important note: Students must secure a copy of the text on their own. You can obtain a copy at various book stores, through Amazon.com or at the public library. Due date and assessment: During the first week of school, this reading guide will be graded for a homework (25% category) grade. Answers should be brief, but be sure to specifically address the questions with answers from the text of American Colonies. It will be helpful to include page numbers for reference with your answers. Following a class discussion, students will take a test that focuses on the content covered in the questions on the attached Reading Guide. Therefore, this reading guide will be a study guide for the test. In sum, students will receive two grades from this assignment: a homework grade for completion of the guide and a test grade with questions directly from the specific information addressed in the questions on the guide. Objective: Students taking AP United States history have, in the prior academic year, completed a class that covers early modern and modern World History. In AP U.S. History, we will begin the year by looking at European exploration and colonization of the Americas. Therefore, students should begin seeing connections between the World and European part of the story with which they are already familiar. American Colonies provides a survey of the most recent scholarship in exploration and colonization of the Americas. Each chapter should be viewed as an important major topic or category of analysis in early American history. Students should familiarize themselves with the questions for each chapter before reading that particular chapter and write out answers as they encounter them in the book. Enjoy reading and discovering! (see questions below)

2 American Colonies by Alan Taylor READING GUIDE for AP United States history students *You will read the introduction and chapters 1-12 as your summer reading assignment. If you are interested, you may skim through the other chapters. *For each of the three British Colonial North American regions (Southern/Chesapeake, New England, and Mid-Atlantic) you need to compare and contrast and begin to analyze their differences. While reading chapters 6, 7,8, 9, 11, and 12 (which cover the British North American Colonies) keep a chart for each region and try to compare and contrast. To make a chart, take three sheets of paper (one for Southern/Chesapeake, one for New England, and one for Mid-Atlantic) and label them with each region and columns for the following categories: 1) political, 2) economic, 3) social, 4) culture. The goal is to begin thinking about the differences and similarities of each of the three regions in political/government structure, economics/work life of colonists, social life, and cultures. We will be discussing and analyzing these topics in the colonial period during the first few weeks of the course. INTRODUCTION Read this carefully; it is an indispensable guide to understanding the entire book. Specifically note the following: 1. In what ways does Taylor explain to the reader he plans to broaden the picture of the period of colonization of North America? 2. Taylor claims that from that North America decreased in population. How does he explain this phenomenon in light of the massive immigration to the "New World" during the same period? How does this change our understanding of colonization? 3. What causes and effects of European exploration does Taylor cite? 4. What role does race play in the New World? 5. Describe the Atlantic perspective, environmental history, and ethnohistory that Taylor mentions. 6. What is "teleology" and what is "contingency" and why is Taylor discussing them? CH 1: "Natives, 13,000 B.C. A.D. 1492" 1. What point does Taylor make about attempting to make evaluations of what groups were "worse" or more destructive in the pre-columbian and early colonial eras? 2. How did North America first become populated? 3. Define the Hohokam and Anasazi (who, where, what are the unique characteristics). What are pueblos? 4. Define Mound builders (who, where, what are the unique characteristics). What is Cahokia and where is it? What are the defining characteristics of Cahokia? 5. How did Native Americans view the supernatural? What is animism? 6. Compare Native American civilizations and cultures to European civilizations and cultures in this era. CH 2: "Colonizers, " 1. What major developments and changes are taking place in Europe in the fifteenth century and prior to that time led to new opportunities for exploration? 2. Describe how the Crusades in Europe were a catalyst for further exploration how European Christians viewed the world after the holy wars. 3. Who were the leaders in Atlantic exploration? 4. What lessons did early European explorers learn from their colonizing experiences on the Azores, Canaries, and Madeiras? 5. Describe the Columbian Exchange and its impact on Europe and America.

3 6. What and where is Hispaniola? 7. Why have historians of North America called it a widowed land? What three factors caused Old World (European) diseases to be so deadly? 8. What is ecological imperialism and what did it mean for North America? 9. What sort of relationship does Taylor describe the Native Americans and the Europeans have developed at the end of this chapter? CH 3: "New Spain, " 1. Analyze the artistic depictions of Spanish colonization on pp What version of colonization do these drawings represent? From what perspective are they presented? Who is the intended audience? What can these two pictures of colonization tell us about this period? 2. Explain the significance of Spanish colonization in the Americas in the 1500s. Describe the clashes of civilizations that take place. 3. How did Native and Spanish peoples view God and the transformations taking place around them? 4. Explain the exchanges and tensions among conquistadores, monarchs, and missionaries. 5. Explain how Spain became so wealthy and powerful (in this "Age of Spain"), and describe the causes of the rivalry between the Spain and England. What significance did gold and silver have? CH 4: "The Spanish Frontier, " 1. Analyze the map on p ) where are the Pueblo villages located? 2) where did de Soto explore? 3) where did Coronado explore? 4) where did de Vaca explore? 5) where is the Spanish fort of St. Augustine (San Agustin) located? 2. What were explorers like Cabeza de Vaca, Hernando de Soto, and Francisco de Coronado looking for? 3. What two groups were vying for control of Florida territory, and what caused their mutual enmity? 4. Describe the impact of Franciscan missionaries on the Spanish frontier. 5. Explain the Pueblo Revolt and why it is significant. CH 5: "Canada and Iroquoia, " 1. Analyze the document on p. 91. What event does it depict? From what perspective is it depicted and how can you tell? 2. Who settled in the northern part of North America? Why did they choose this location? What native groups did they encounter there? 3. Who is Jacques Cartier? 4. Explain the mutuality of dependency between French and Indians. With what Indian groups did the French ally? Who are the Five Nation Iroquois? 5. Describe the importance of the fur trade to New France. 6. What new product did the French introduce to Indians and what effect did it have? 7. Explain trade relations between the Indians and French. 8. Who was Samuel de Champlain and what influence did he have on New France? 9. Describe the Five Nations and how they were affected by French colonization. What relationship existed between the two groups? 10. What roles in trade and colonization did the Dutch play in this region? 11. What role does religion plan in New France? How do seventeenth century Europeans view others? 12. Reflect on the insight Taylor offers in this sentence on p. 113: "But nothing was ever quite that clear-cut in the paradoxical complexities of the colonial world." What is he referring to specifically, and what broader truth is he expressing to us? CH 6: "Virginia, " 1. Analyze the document on p What event is depicted? What does this tell us about early English interactions with Native Americans?

4 2. Who seized the opportunity to lay claim to the mid-atlantic seaboard of North America? Explain. 3. Describe sixteenth century (Elizabethan) England. What changes were shaping society and the economy and how do the developments relate to colonial conquest? 4. Where is Roanoke and what happened there? 5. Describe England's first successful colony, and the significance of Powhatan. What were English- Indian relations like in the early years of Jamestown? 6. What cash crop became the economic cornerstone of Virginia and who is credited with its development? How did this crop save Virginia colony? CH 7: "Chesapeake Colonies, " 1. Analyze the drawings on p What is represented in these drawings and what does it tell us about the social order as it developed in Virginia by 1700 or so? 2. Describe the social hierarchy in the Chesapeake. 3. Explain how indentured servants contributed to the growth of Chesapeake colonies. Also, what importance did slavery and race have in the social structure? 4. Describe the Chesapeake power structure and political climate. 5. What opportunities did the Chesapeake offer to laborers, and how did this contrast with England? 6. Describe the uneasy political climate leading up to Bacon s Rebellion (and explain what happened in Bacon s Rebellion). What were the effects afterward? 7. Discuss the transition away from using indentured servants to enslaved laborers. Compare and contrast indentured servants and slaves. 8. Explain the changing importance of skin color and social class as the Chesapeake colonies developed. CH 8: "New England, " 1. Analyze the engraving on p Who is this and what does his appearance and attire tell us about Puritan culture? 2. What features made New England a distinctive cultural region? 3. Compare and contrast New England and the Chesapeake (economy, social order, religion, etc.). 4. Who were English Puritans and what did they believe? 5. Analyze the map on p ) What are the major colonies of New England? 2) What other major European colonial empires were competing with the English in the region? 3) List the major Native American peoples of this region. 6. Discuss the different waves of Puritan migration to North America. 7. Explain the connection to Puritan religious views and economic prosperity (or lack of it). 8. Compare and contrast farmers and traders in New England. 9. Describe the role of women in Puritan society. 10. Explain what is meant by the term Bible Commonwealth. 11. How did Puritans view God s relationship to them and to the rest of the world? CH 9: Puritans and Indians, List and briefly describe the different Native American peoples of New England. 2. What happened in the Pequot War and how did it impact relations between Puritans and Indians? 3. Describe praying towns. 4. What happened in King Philip s War? What connections did it have to the Pequot War? How did New Englanders treat the captive Indians after the war and what did this signal for relations with Indians? CH 10: The West Indies, How did English colonization in Barbados compare to North American colonization efforts? 2. What was the primary cash crop in Barbados? Why? 3. Explain the significance to West Indies colonies to the development of slavery and plantation

5 systems. CH 11: Carolina, Analyze the painting on p ) who is depicted here? 2) what does this tell us about life in Carolina colony? 3) what does this tell us about the culture of this particular group of people? 2. Explain the connections between the West Indies and the Carolina colony. 3. What was the major cash crop in Carolina? Why? 4. Explain the reasons for the founding of Georgia colony. CH 12: "Middle Colonies, " 1. Analyze the document on p ) What is depicted here? 2) Who do you see in the picture (look closely)? 2. Compare and contrast the Middle Colonies with New England and the Chesapeake. 3. What groups of people had settled in this area? 4. Describe New Netherlands and its transition to New York. 5. Discuss the creation of Pennsylvania and its unique culture. Explain Quaker beliefs. 6. Discuss the distinctive cultural and social order of the Middle Colonies.

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