Mass of a Reaction Product

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1 Mass of a Reaction Product OBJECTIVE: To use the principles of stoichiometry to determine the theoretical yield of a simple reaction, measure the actual yield, and calculate the per cent yield. BACKGROUND: A balanced chemical equation includes a great deal of useful information. Not only does it tell you, in a concise manner what the reactants and products are, but it also tells the relative amounts of each substance. The coefficients in the balanced chemical equation give the mathematical relationships that exist among the moles of each substance involved. When the coefficients are expressed as ratios you can predict the amount of a product that will form from a given amount of a reactant (as well as the amount of one reactant to use given the amount of another, and the amounts of reactants needed to create a certain amount of a product). Using the coefficients of a balanced equation in this way is the essence of stoichiometry. In this experiment you will react a measured amount of sodium carbonate with an excess of hydrochloric acid (that is, more than enough to use up). The products of the reaction are sodium chloride, water, and carbon dioxide (a gas). The carbon dioxide gas will bubble out of the solution and be lost. Measuring the decrease in mass gives the amount of carbon dioxide produced. Using the principles of stoichiometry you can then calculate the mass of carbon dioxide that should have been formed, and determine the per cent yield of the experiment. Of course, if everything works exactly perfectly, the per cent yield should be 100% that is, the mass that is predicted to be formed should be the same as what is actually made. APPARATUS Centigram balance 2 Thin Beral pipets 1 - Condiment cup 2-50 ml or 100 ml Beakers Plastic wrap Goggles ml Beaker REAGENTS Solid sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) 3M Hydrochloric acid (HCl) SAFETY PRECAUTIONS: SODIUM CARBONATE Hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation (lung irritant). HYDROCHORLIC ACID Very hazardous in case of skin contact (corrosive, irritant, permeator), of eye contact (irritant, corrosive), of ingestion. Slightly hazardous in case of inhalation (lung sensitizer). Non-corrosive for lungs. Liquid or spray mist may produce tissue damage particularly on mucous membranes of eyes, mouth and respiratory tract. Skin contact may produce burns. Inhalation of the spray mist may produce severe irritation of

2 respiratory tract, characterized by coughing, choking, or shortness of breath. Inflammation of the eye is characterized by redness, watering, and itching. Skin inflammation is characterized by itching, scaling, reddening, or, occasionally, blistering. PROCEDURE 1. Put on your goggles. Take care in using the 3M hydrochloric acid as it is corrosive. If you spill it on the lab table you can neutralize it promptly with dilute sodium bicarbonate solution. If you spill some on your hand rinse thoroughly and promptly with water in the sink. 2. Use the centigram balance to measure the mass of the condiment cup. If you are using a digital balance, use the tare button to make certain the balance reads 0.00 g at the start, then place the cup on the center of the balance pan. Record the mass of the empty cup on the report sheet. 3. If you are using a triple beam balance, set the sliders to add 0.50 g to the current mass. If you are using a digital scale, press tare again to reset the display to 0.00 g. Add something close to 0.50 g (between 0.45 g and 0.55 g) of sodium carbonate to the condiment cup. Record the exact mass of the cup with sodium carbonate (if you are using a triple beam balance), or of the added sodium carbonate (if you are using a digital scale). Be careful not to spill any sodium carbonate on the balance pan. 4. Wrap a small piece (a 4 or 5 inch square) of plastic wrap over the top of the cup. 5. Using a very sharp pencil or the tip of a scissors, poke three small holes in the plastic wrap that are just big enough to admit the tip of a Beral pipet. Distribute the holes so that they are equally spaced around the plastic on top of the cup about ¼ inch from the edge and about ¼ inch from each other. 6. Go to the reagent table and get two pipets in one of the small beakers (50 ml or 100 ml) that you find there. Fill both pipets completely with 3M HCl solution and place them bulb down (tip up) in the beaker. Use special care when handing and transporting the hydrochloric acid. 7. Reset the balance to zero (0.00 g) and find the mass of all the equipment you have used so far: The beaker with the two filled pipets and the condiment cup with sodium carbonate in it and the plastic wrap over it. Record this mass. 8. Begin the reaction: Carefully insert the top of one of the Beral pipets through one of the holes of the plastic wrap and lower it about halfway into the cup of sodium carbonate. Add the acid one drop at a time to the sodium carbonate. Add the acid slowly and wait for the bubbling to slow down before adding more acid. After adding about 10 drops of acid, gently swirly the solution to mix it. Continue to add acid and swirl gently until the reaction stops. You may have to use acid from the second pipet. Make certain that there are no tiny pieces of unreacted solid in the condiment cup.

3 9. Record your observations on the Report Sheet. 10. Add two more drops of acid to make certain that all of the sodium carbonate has reacted. 11. Reset the balance to zero (0.00 g) and again find the mass of all the pieces of equipment you have used (listed in step 7). 12. Place both pipets with any remaining acid back into their beaker and return them to the reagent table where you found them. 13. Slowly spill the reaction solution down the drain. Rinse it down with water. Thoroughly rinse out the condiment cup, dry it, and return it to its place. 14. Wash your hands thoroughly. Begin the calculations as instructed at your desk.

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5 Mass of a Reaction Product Data Sheet Name Per Date DATA TABLE Mass of condiment cup with sodium carbonate (triple beam balance) ± g Mass of empty condiment cup (triple beam balance) ± g Mass of sodium carbonate added to cup (calculate for triple beam balance, or enter mass for digital scale) ± g Combined mass of all items before reaction (step 7) ± g Combined mass of all items after reaction (step 11) ± g Calculated mass of CO 2 produced ( missing ) report uncertainty correctly. Record your observations of the reaction below: ± g ANALYSIS 1. What is the actual yield of carbon dioxide produced? 2. The word equation for the reaction is: solid sodium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid solution to produce water, sodium chloride in solution, and carbon dioxide gas. On the line below, write and balance the chemical equation using chemical symbols. 3. Use the periodic table to find and record the molar mass of each of the following two reagents to at least four significant figures: a) sodium carbonate: 1 mol = g b) carbon dioxide: 1 mole = g 4. Use the steps of stoichiometry to determine how many grams of carbon dioxide you would have produced (if everything in this experiment worked perfectly) given the mass of sodium carbonate that you added to the condiment cup. Show your work on the next page and give your answer to the correct number of significant figures.

6 5. What is the theoretical yield of carbon dioxide? g 6. Determine the per cent yield of carbon dioxide. Show your work and use a reasonable number of significant figures. % 7. Name and state the scientific law that requires your percent yield to be 100% if the entire reaction was perfect, and there were no errors in your procedure or measures. 8. Your teacher will help you to calculate an approximate per cent uncertainty for the entire experiment. Based on your calculated per cent yield and the estimated acceptable uncertainty given by your teacher, is the law you stated in question seven valid for this experiment? Why or why not?

7 Mass of a Reaction Product Sample Student Data Name Per Date DATA TABLE Mass of condiment cup with sodium carbonate (triple beam balance) ± g Mass of empty condiment cup (triple beam balance) ± g Mass of sodium carbonate added to cup (calculate for triple beam balance, or enter mass for digital scale) 0.50 ± 0.02 g Combined mass of all items before reaction (step 7) ± 0.02 g Combined mass of all items after reaction (step 11) ± 0.02 g Calculated mass of CO 2 produced ( missing ) report uncertainty correctly ± 0.04 g Record your observations of the reaction below: The reaction mixture bubbled each time I added a little HCl. When all the powder was gone, the bubbling stopped. ANALYSIS 1. What is the actual yield of carbon dioxide produced? 0.19 g 2. The word equation for the reaction is: solid sodium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid solution to produce water, sodium chloride in solution, and carbon dioxide gas. On the line below, write and balance the chemical equation using chemical symbols. Na 2 CO 3 (s) + 2 HCl (aq) > H 2 O (l) + 2 NaCl (aq) + CO 2 (g). 3. Use the periodic table to find and record the molar mass of each of the following two reagents to at least four significant figures: a) sodium carbonate: 1 mol = _105.99_ g b) carbon dioxide: 1 mole = _44.01_ g 4. Use the steps of stoichiometry to determine how many grams of carbon dioxide you would have produced (if everything in this experiment worked perfectly) given the mass of sodium carbonate that you added to the condiment cup. Show your work on the next page and give your answer to the correct number of significant figures.

8 0.50 g X 1 mol Na 2 CO 3 X 1 HCl X g CO 2 = g CO g Na 2 CO 3 1 Na 2 CO 3 1 mol CO 2 5. What is the theoretical yield of carbon dioxide? 0.21 g 6. Determine the per cent yield of carbon dioxide. Show your work and use a reasonable number of significant figures g CO 2 x 100 = 90% 0.21 g CO 2 90 % 7. Name and state the scientific law that requires your percent yield to be 100% if the entire reaction was perfect, and there were no errors in your procedure or measures. The Law of Conservation of Mass states that matter is conserved, or that matter cannot be created or destroyed. 8. Your teacher will help you to calculate an approximate per cent uncertainty for the entire experiment. Based on your calculated per cent yield and the estimated acceptable uncertainty given by your teacher, is the law you stated in question seven valid for this experiment? Why or why not? My teacher reported that the reasonable uncertainty is 20% up or down. My results are 90% yield, which is within 10% of the right answer which is 100%. Therefore, I believe that the Law of Conservation is true, because 20% uncertainty means that my answer could really be as large as 108% or as small as 72%, and this range includes 100%

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