# H BRIDGE INVERTER. Vdc. Corresponding values of Va and Vb A+ closed, Va = Vdc A closed, Va = 0 B+ closed, Vb = Vdc B closed, Vb = 0 A+ B+ A B

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1 1. Introduction How do we make AC from DC? Answer the H-Bridge Inverter. H BRIDGE INVERTER Vdc A+ B+ Switching rules Either A+ or A is always closed, but never at the same time * Either B+ or B is always closed, but never at the same time * *same time closing would cause a short circuit from Vdc to ground Va Load Vb A B Corresponding values of Va and Vb A+ closed, Va = Vdc A closed, Va = 0 B+ closed, Vb = Vdc B closed, Vb = 0 Page 1 of 19

2 H BRIDGE INVERTER Vdc Corresponding values of Vab A+ closed and B closed, Vab = Vdc A+ closed and B+ closed, Vab = 0 B+ closed and A closed, Vab = Vdc B closed and A closed, Vab = 0 A+ B+ Va Load Vb A B The free wheeling diodes permit current to flow even if all switches did open These diodes also permit lagging currents to flow in inductive loads Page 2 of 19

3 But is a square wave output good enough? Not for us! Sinusoidal load voltage is usually the most desirable. But how do we approximate a sinusoidal output with only three states (+Vdc, Vdc, 0)? The answer: Unipolar PWM modulation V cont V tri V cont Vcont > Vtri, close switch A+, open switch A, so voltage Va = Vdc Vcont < Vtri, open switch A+, close switch A, so voltage Va = 0 Vcont > Vtri, close switch B+, open switch B, so voltage Vb = Vdc Vcont < Vtri, open switch B+, close switch B, so voltage Vb = 0 V cont, V cont, and V tri Page 3 of 19

4 A + closed, A open, so V a = V dc. Else A closed, A + open, so V a = 0. V a = V dc V a = 0 V b = V dc V b = 0 B + closed, B open, so V b = V dc. Else B closed, B + open, so V b = 0. Page 4 of 19

5 Vdc Idealized Load Voltage (Va Vb) Waveform If you switch fast enough, the FFT has a very large fundamental component with the period shown, plus strong high-frequency components in sidebands centered around 2, 4, 8, times the triangle wave frequency. If those highfrequency components are 30 or more times the frequency of the control wave, they are easy to block at the output. 0 Vdc Page 5 of 19

6 Unipolar PWM inverters (also known as Class D or switching amplifiers) efficiently amplify a small input signal V cont. The output voltage to the load is either +V dc, V dc, or zero, depending on whether V cont and V cont are greater or smaller than a reference triangle wave V tri. The output load voltage contains a replica of V cont, and also strong harmonics centered about even multiples of m f, where m f is the ratio of the reference triangle wave frequency with respect to the frequency of V cont., i.e, ftri m f. fcont The amplifier operates on the principle of comparing V cont (and V cont ) to a reference triangle wave V tri. This principle is illustrated in Figure 1. V cont V tri V cont Figure 1. V cont, V cont, and V tri The illustration given has m a = 0.9, where m a is the ratio of peak control voltage to peak triangle voltage. The logic used to operate the four switches in the H-Bridge configuration of Figure 2 is as follows: V cont > V tri, close switch A +, open switch A, so voltage V a = V dc V cont < V tri, open switch A +, close switch A, so voltage V a = 0 V cont > V tri, close switch B+, open switch B, so voltage V b = V dc V cont < V tri, open switch B +, close switch B, so voltage V b = 0 Page 6 of 19

7 30-40V dc A + B + Freewheeling diodes (optional in this circuit because the MOSFETS used have adequate internal reverse diodes) + V a a b A +V load B + V b High-frequency capacitor to provide ripple current from DC source V load = V a V b Figure 2. Four MOSFET switches configured as an H-Bridge (note that the MOSFET source nodes are not all at the same potential, thus requiring isolated firing circuits for A + and B + ) The resulting load voltage is shown in Figure 3. (Note see the Appendix for a more complete graphical development of Figure 3). The harmonics in this waveform are high-frequency side bands 2kf tri ± f cont, 2kf tri ±3f cont, 2kf tri ±5f cont, and so forth, for k = 1, 2, 3, ), where f tri is the frequency of the triangular wave, and f cont is the frequency of V cont. Waveforms for m a = 0.5 and 1.5 are shown in Figures 4 and 5. The magnitudes of the load voltage frequency components, taken from [1], are shown in Table 1. For small m a, many of these values are large in relation to the fundamental. However, as long as m f is large, the undesired high frequency components are relatively easy to filter at the load, so that the output load voltage resembles V cont reasonably well. Figure 3. Load voltage (V load = V a V b ) with m a = 0.9 (i.e., in the linear region) Page 7 of 19

8 Figure 4. Load voltage (V load = V a V b ) with m a = 0.5 (i.e., in the linear region) Page 8 of 19

9 Figure 5. Load voltage (V load = V a V b ) with m a = 1.5 (i.e., in the overmodulation region) Page 9 of 19

10 Table 1. RMS magnitudes of load voltage frequency components, with respect to (for ftri >> fcont) Frequency m a = 0.2 m a = 0.4 m a = 0.6 m a = 0.8 m a = 1.0 fcont 2ftri ± fcont 2ftri ± 3fcont 2ftri ± 5fcont 4ftri ± fcont 4ftri ± 3fcont 4ftri ± 5fcont 4ftri ± 7fcont As ma decreases, the on-times pulses in Figure 3 get proportionally smaller, linearly decreasing the rms value of the fundamental component of the inverter output (see Figure 4). As ma increases beyond 1.0, then overmodulation occurs, and the on-time pulses near the centers of the output waveform gradually merge (see Figure 5). As ma becomes very large (i.e., 5 or 10), all of the on-time pulses merge, and the inverter output becomes a square wave with predominantly low-frequency harmonics (i.e., 3 rd, 5 th, 7 th, etc.). The variation of the rms value of the no-load fundamental output with ma is shown in Figure 6 (taken from [1]). V dc 2 2ftri cluster 4ftri cluster 4 V dc 2 V1rms asymptotic to square wave value V dc ma linear overmodulation saturation Figure 6. Variation of RMS value of no-load fundamental inverter output voltage (V1rms ) with ma Page 10 of 19

11 In our application, Vcont will be a 60Hz signal taken from a benchtop waveform generator. During the tune-up procedure, Vcont will have a peak value of 4.0V (which is displayed as VPP on the waveform generator). The triangle wave will be about 150kHz. 2. The Control Circuit and Firing Logic The PWM inverter control circuit is shown in Figure 7. The purpose of this control circuit is to produce firing signals for the four H-Bridge MOSFETs. Firing signal VA controls MOSFETs A+ and A. Firing signal VB controls MOSFETs B+ and B. When VA is high, A+ is on and A is off. When VA is low, A+ is off and A is on. The B-side of the H-Bridge works the same way with VB. Thus, node voltages Va and Vb in Figure 2 will be working-voltage replicas of firing signals VA and VB, respectively, and Vload = Va Vb will be a working voltage replica of [VA VB]. The purposes of the four ICs in this circuit are 2W, DC-DC converter chip to produce isolated ±12V from one plug-in 12V regulated wall wart DC power supply. The wall 0V output of the DC converter chip will not be connected to the wall wart ground. One dual Op Amp one side sums two input voltages to produce a mono signal, and the other side can attenuate or boost the mono signal. Another dual Op Amp with only one side used. Has adjustable gain to produce Vcont. Waveform generator generates the triangle wave. Regulated ±12Vdc input keeps the waveform steady and helps to eliminate DC in the output. Comparator performs the PWM comparison logic, and sinks enough current so that the MOSFET drivers switch on-and-off properly. Because comparisons are made between voltages that can be positive or negative, the comparator chip must powered by a ± supply voltage (in our case ±12V), and the comparator chip output is either +12V, or 12V. See the Appendix for IC pin configurations. Page 11 of 19

12 Figure 7. PWM Control Circuit Dual Op Amp NTE864 Precision Waveform Generator. Spec on Cfreq is 680pF yields 200kHz, 500µF yields 0.001Hz Page 12 of 19

13 +12V VA Vtri Vcont If Vcont > Vtri, Then VA = 12V, so VA = 24V (w.r.t. 12V) Else VA = 12V, so VA = 0V (w.r.t. 12V) Endif If Vcont > Vtri, Then VB = 12V, so VB = 24V (w.r.t. 12V) Else VB = 12V, so VB = 0V (w.r.t. 12V) Endif VB Vtri Vcont 12V Dual Comparator 220kΩ resistors between Inputs+ and Outputs provide hysteresis to prevent rapid switching due to noise V con V tri V cont Vcont > Vtri, close switch A+, open switch A, so voltage Va = Vdc Vcont < Vtri, open switch A+, close switch A, so voltage Va = 0 Vcont > Vtri, close switch B+, open switch B, so voltage Vb = Vdc Vcont < Vtri, open switch B+, close switch B, so voltage Vb = 0 VA and VB outputs, relative to 12V, are produced to switch the H-bridge MOSFET driver chips. These two voltages are related to the logic on page 1 and to the circuit in Figure 7. Page 13 of 19

14 Version Nov. 6, Calibration and Checkout For tests 3b through 3e, I suggest that you use one of the AC wall warts (marked with yellow paint) for Vcont. Its output is isolated, so there will be no grounding issues between it and the scope. Note From now on, anytime that you use your circuit, you should always Make sure that your triangle wave skewness is OK Tune out any DC in the triangle wave Make sure Vcont is a negative replica of Vcont The results shown here were taken with one of the older scopes. However, you will be able to obtain approximately the same screen shots with the newer benchtop scopes. 3a. View and Adjust the Triangle Wave For my tests, I used a 1.5nF capacitor for CF. You can use either 1.0nF or 1.5nF. The frequency of my triangle wave generator varied with CF as follows: Cap Marking Freq 102 = 1000 pf = 1 nf 200 khz 152 = 1500 pf = 1.5 nf 137 khz 222 = 2200 pf = 2.2 nf 98 khz 472 = 4700 pf = 4.7 nf 44 khz 103 = pf = 10 nf = 0.01 μf 19 khz 104 = pf = 100 nf = 0.1 μf 1.7 khz Adjust the skewness multiturn pot so that rise and fall times match in the first two digits. Use a multimeter to read the DC voltage at point VtriDC on your PCB. Switch on the ZeroDC switch, and adjust the 100 multiturn pot to reduce VtriDC to about ±1mV. Page 14 of 19

15 Version Nov. 6, b. View Vcont and establish Vcont Some of the yellow-painted AC wall warts are equipped with an audio jack to plug directly into your Left or Right input channel. AC wall wart Vcont and Vcont Adjust B100k gain potentiometer so that Vcont is about 2.0 Vrms. Adjust the Vcont multiturn pot so that Vcont is the negative replica of Vcont. Page 15 of 19

16 Version Nov. 6, c. View Output VAB in the Linear Region With Vcont 2 Vrms, ratio ma will be less than one and thus in the linear region. Remove your channel 2 scope probe, and move channel 1 over to view output VAB. When the switching noise is filtered from the screen, VAB should be a close approximation to Vcont (but with a reduced magnitude). Linear region. VAB without scope filter Linear region. VAB with scope filter Page 16 of 19

17 Version Nov. 6, d. View Output VAB in the Overmodulation Region If Vcont has symmetry, output VAB should always have symmetry, too, even in overmodulation or full saturation. The flat spots should be symmetric in the positive and negative portions of VAB. Any DC offset in the triangle wave or in Vcont will produce asymmetry in VAB. Overmodulation Region, unfiltered Overmodulation Region, filtered Page 17 of 19

18 Version Nov. 6, e. FFT of VAB The FFT of VAB shown here has span = 500 khz, and center frequency 250 khz. Theoretically the clusters of high-frequency switching noise should be centered around 2 Ftri ( 270 khz) and 4 Ftri 540 khz (which is off scale here). The vertical scale is 20dB per division. It appears that the non-ideal 135 khz cluster is about 40dB down from the ideal 270 khz cluster. 40dB down is a factor of khz 150 khz 250 khz 300 khz Page 18 of 19

19 Version Nov. 6, f. Vcont, -Vcont, and VAB for 1 khz and 10 khz Now, test out your circuit with higher frequencies. Take your Vcont signal from a benchtop waveform generator. It is essential that the scope be powered through a ground buster so that VAB can be viewed. Adjust gain B100k and the multiturn pot so that Vcont and Vcont are 2.0 Vrms. I temporarily placed a 0.01μF capacitor across VAB to help filter out the switching noise. That explains the drop in VAB magnitude. Remove the 0.01μF before operating the H-bridge, else the PWM switching signal will not reach the H-bridge. Vcont and Vcont for 1 khz Vcont and Vcont for 10 khz Filtered VAB for 1 khz Filtered VAB for 10 khz Page 19 of 19

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