Rhytisma acerinum on maple (Europe)

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1 Tar spot of in Canada Tom Hsiang and Lynn Tian Dept. Environmental Biology University of, Ontario, Canada Maples trees ( spp.) are very important throughout Canada saccharinum = silver ) Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore ) Acer platanoides (Norway ) Acer saccharinum (silver ) Acer rubrum (red ) Acer saccharum (sugar ) Maples in Canada ( species) East: saccharum, rubrum, saccharinum, spicatum. West: macrophylla, circinatum Introduced: pseudoplatanus, platanoides, campestre... platanoides rubrum saccharum Sugar Maple vs. Norway - clear sap in the leaf petiole vs. white sap - orange fall color vs. simple yellow) - shaggy bark on older trees vs. small grooves Silver - leaf lobes more triangular vs. squarish saccharinum lobes 3-6 very deep lobes - seeds more globose vs. flattened seeds silvery underneath earthworksboston.org/images/maple%20leaf%20comparison..org/images/maple%20leaf%20comparison.jpg iastate.edu/trees_of_ /trees_of_iowa/trees_of_iowa_drawings/tsilverm.gif Presentation Overview DNA sequencing for identity and phylogenetic analyses of tar spot on s Spore release periods and control Why does tar spot seem to be increasing? a very showy disease on leaves but considered just an aesthetic nuisance Objective 1 Determine species of Rhytisma present on s in eastern Canada Tar spot of - history In North America, tar spot is caused by Rhytisma acerinum, but there are differences from the European R. acerinum Hudler et al., Cornell (1998, Mycotaxon 68:405) said that Rhytisma acerinum was imported from Europe, and affects European species Hudler et al. proposed Rhytisma americanum on native North American s based on morphology & DNA-RFLP differences Rhytisma acerinum on (Europe) Rhytisma acerinum on sycamore pseudoplatanus,, Europe)

2 Rhytisma punctatum on big-leaf macrophyllum,, Western Canada) Rhytisma punctatum on big-leaf from B.C. Rhytisma punctatum on mountain spicatum, Eastern Canada) Rhytisma punctatum on striped pensylvanicum,, Eastern Canada) Rhytisma punctatum on striped pensylvanicum,, Eastern Canada) Rhytisma americanum? on silver saccharinum, Ontario) Rhytisma americanum? on silver saccharinum,, Quebec) silver ( saccharinum) Rhytisma americanum?? on red rubrum,, Ontario) Rhytisma americanum?? on silver-red hybrid from Ontario Rhytisma?? on Manitoba negundo) ) from Ontario Rhytisma?? on Manitoba negundo) ) from Ontario Rhytisma acerinum? on field campestre) ) from Ontario Rhytisma acerinum? on field campestre) looks like R. punctatum?

3 Rhytisma? on which? collected Oct 2007 & 2008 in DNA tests were used for both plant host & fungal pathogen to confirm identity Rhytisma acerinum? on Norway platanoides) Rhytisma?? on Norway ( platanoides) ) in Canada looks like R. acerinum? Rhytisma?? on Norway?? from Wisconsin early July () late July - Niagara Falls early August - mid September () Tar spot of - history of research 1990 s studies at Cornell University (New York) Rhytisma acerinum on European s Rhystima americanum on native s study at the University of on tar spot funded by Landscape Ontario & NSERC DNA extraction and sequencing Tar spot fungi could not be cultured Samples of various species were gathered from across Canada, and two from Europe Qiagen DNA extraction from tar spot (fresh, overwintered and herbarium specimens) DNA was amplified with conserved fungal ribosomal DNA ITS primers and sequenced Relationships between Rhytisma species Unrooted distance tree based on NJ-bootstrap of ITS sequences Rhytisma salicinum (willow tarspot) Lophodermium pinastri (pine needlecast) Rhytisma americanum (on silver & red s) sugar field Manitoba Norway England Germany Rhytisma acerinum (on Norway ) Objective 2 Spore Dispersal Period correlated with climate Rhytisma acerinum (on sycamore ) Rhytisma punctatum (on bigleaf & striped ) Rhytisma acerinum on sycamore 2004/12/12 Poland 2006/6/2 Italy 2006/6/2 Italy Norway, soaked 24 hrs 2006/5/18

4 2005/5/8 Poland Niagara Falls Norway, soaked 24 hrs 2006/6/5 Norway, soaked 24 hrs 2006/5/18 Tar spot cross section stroma asci Tar spot cross section Rhytisma acerinum asci 2006/6/2 Italy Rhytisma acerinum asci 2006/6/2 Italy Rhytisma acerinum ascus ascus lynn\ queenpark ascospores inside ascus all entwined ascospore emerging from tip of ascus Rhytisma acerinum ascospores 2006/6/2 Italy Rhytisma acerinum asci (70 μm m long) undifferentiated asci swollen with ascospores discharing ascospores from tip discharged cap open deflated 2006 climate & spore data max Temp (C) min Temp (C) precip (mm) spore release (percent empty asci) Started May % by June climate & spore data 60 Started by May 25, max Temp (C) % spore min Temp (C) 50 release by July 3 rain (mm) spore release Apr 16-May 16-Jun 17-Jul Spore release data tar spot of Norway ( (R. acerinum) no more spores after 25 June 1985 in New York no more spores after 22 June 2006 in no more spores after 3 July 2007 in no more spores after 15 June 2008 in in early May, apothecia would open after soaking ascospores first seen in cross sections early May first empty asci observed in late May 06, 07 & 08 Objective 3 Why is the incidence and severity of tar spot increasing in Eastern Canada? Norway tar spot came from where? Norway most common shade tree planted after Dutch elm disease in mid-1900 s 1930 s introduced from Europe? 1940 s localized outbreak in Ohio 1983 tar spot outbreak Upstate New York 1990 s tar spot on Norway reported from Great Lakes Region (Ont( Ont, Que & the Maritimes) No reports from the Prairie provinces or B.C. where there are many Norway s Furthest western sample from Wisconsin When did it arrive in Ontario? The National Herbarium in Ottawa has dried samples of tar spot on Norway (& other European s) 1947 & 1946 (Ottawa) 1954 & 1953 (London) 1994 (Ottawa) Probably in Ontario since the 1940 s

5 Is it getting worse? Frequent newspaper reports of tar spot St. Catharines Standard (Aug , Nov ) Barrie Examiner ( Sept ) Orillia Packet (Sept ) Global National News (Twice in Nov 2007)» claimed to be devastating sugar in Montreal, but these turned out to be Norway (I got samples) Why is it getting worse? Vick & Bevan (1976, Env. Pollut.. 11:203) in the U.K. found that tar spot (and lichens) are strong indicators of pollution inhibited by high SO2 Sulfate deposition & acid rain sulphur dioxide gas emitted by power stations & automobiles reacts with hydroxyl radicals sulphur trioxide gas which combines with water sulphuric acid in rain makes acid rain Sulfate deposition & tar spot ec.gc.ca/.ca/cleanair-airpur/caol/canus/report/2006canus/images/figure1_l_e.gifgif 1994? Canada has been successful in reducing emissions of SO2,, major contributor of acid rain Less acid rain might allow for more tar spot images from Summary of results current epidemic of tar spot of Norway in the east is caused by Rhytisma acerinum,, also found on field and sycamore s R. americanum on silver and red s R. acerinum on sugar & Manitoba s (need more samples) Punctate spots on Norway, silver, or sugar resembling bigleaf or striped multiple black specks are not R. punctatum Spore release from mid-may to late June Implications of the results If fungicides are used against tar spot, make an application by mid-may and again by mid-june (depending on weather & growth) The European R. acerinum may be adapting to attack native North American s, and we need to monitor the situation Better air quality, more tar spot? Thank you for your attention Any Questions?

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