Corporate GHG accounting

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1 Corporate GHG accounting Anastassia Manuilova Research Scientist Sustainable Saskatchewan March 3 rd, 2010

2 Agenda Introduction Climate change Corporate GHG accounting Main principles Programs, standards and guidelines GHG accounting procedures Data collection, management and reporting Questions and answers

3 Saskatchewan Research Council Sustainability group (Environment & Forestry Division) Life Cycle Assessment GHG accounting: organizational and project level SRC Carbon Footprint project Product/service carbon footprint Sustainability strategies and programs (e.g. corporate social responsibility)

4 Climate change

5 Why does this matter? Climate change arriving sooner than expected Out of 31 days in January 2010, 22 were above the daily normal and 9 of these by more than 10 C Faster sea level rise, warming of polar land masses and melting of Arctic ice major changes in coastlines and inundation of low-lying areas Shifts in circulation patterns in the atmosphere and the oceans impacts on marine ecosystem productivity, fisheries, ocean CO 2 uptake and terrestrial vegetation

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10 The Greenhouse effect

11 World GHG emissions by sector Source: World Resource Institute

12 Corporate GHG accounting

13 Voluntary reporting program GHG registry for North America: The Climate Registry (General Reporting Protocol) Six GHG emissions (CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6) From operations in North America (Canada, the U.S. and Mexico) At the facility level Annual reporting on a calendar year basis Third party verification is required

14 The Climate Registry Registry ensures consistency between reporting programs, helps establish common currency, environmental integrity in emissions accounting and reporting Registry is operational since 2008 Saskatchewan companies currently registered: SaskTel and Saskatchewan Gaming Corporation

15 Benefits from developing a GHG emissions inventory Tracking, verifying and achieving corporate social responsibility goals Identifying opportunities to reduce emissions and costs Benchmarking company performance and identifying opportunities to improve competitiveness Participating in GHG emissions markets Providing information to stakeholders Preparing for future GHG policies

16 Standards and guidance, programs and emissions trading exchanges International standards/guidance GHG Protocol Corporate Standard ISO Voluntary emissions trading exchanges Chicago Climate Exchange Montreal Climate Exchange Regulatory cap-and-trade programs EU Emissions Trading Scheme UK Emissions Trading System

17 GHG accounting process Assign resources and determine the key roles and responsibilities of the project team Set the inventory goals Map the organizational structure Determine the inventory approach (Control or Equity Share approach) Set the operational boundaries Identify and assess data and sources QA/QC data and prepare for entry into automated system Estimate emissions Identify and estimate mitigation strategies Document and communicate results

18 Organizational and operational boundaries Organizational boundaries determine which operations are owned or controlled by the company and therefore should be included in the inventory Operational boundaries determine which operations and sources generate emissions

19 Organizational and operational boundaries Source: WRI/WBCSD GHG Protocol

20 Equity share approach Control approach Operational control Financial control Source: The Climate Registry General Reporting Protocol

21 Financial and operational control Source: The Climate Registry General Reporting Protocol

22 Company s GHG emissions sources Source: WRI/WBCSD GHG Protocol

23 Company s GHG emissions sources Scope 1 Direct emissions from stationary combustion Direct emissions from mobile combustion Direct emissions from manufacturing processes Direct fugitive emissions (refrigerants HFCs/PFCs) Scope 2 Indirect emissions from electricity use Indirect emissions from imported steam, heating, cooling and electricity Scope 3 Business travel and employees commuting to and from work Extraction, production and transport of purchased materials Transportation and use of sold products and services Transportation of waste and waste disposal

24 IKEA customer transportation Survey of customer transportation to and from its retail stores Scope 3 emissions 66% of IKEA s emissions inventory was from Scope 3 customer travel Public transportation options and home delivery services

25 Base year A base year is the year against which a company s emissions are tracked over time It can be either one year or a series of consecutive years Company shall choose and report a base year for which verifiable emissions data are available

26 Base year recalculation Structural changes (mergers, acquisitions and divestments) Changes in calculation methodology or improvements in the accuracy of emissions factors or activity data Discovery of significant errors that are collectively significant

27 Base year - acquisition Source: The Climate Registry General Reporting Protocol

28 Base year - divestment Source: The Climate Registry General Reporting Protocol

29 Quantifying GHG emissions Identify sources of GHG emissions for all operations Electricity use Motor vehicles (cars, trucks, buses, construction equipment, etc.) Stationary combustion (generators, boilers, power plants, refineries, manufacturing facilities) Power, heat or cooling Industry-specific process and fugitive emissions Collect background information For electricity electricity bills For vehicles fuel purchases and/or mileage For stationary combustion fuel purchases For process emissions process engineering resources

30 Quantifying GHG emissions GHG emissions of a given activity = Activity data (mass/volume/kwh/km) Emission factor (CO 2 e per unit) (100 km) (0.18 kg CO 2 /km) = 18 kg CO 2

31 Direct emissions from stationary combustion Identify all types of fuel directly combusted in your operations Identify annual consumption of each fuel (at the facility level) Select the appropriate emission factor for each fuel Calculate each fuel s CO 2 emissions and convert to metric tons Calculate each fuel s CH 4 and N 2 O emissions and convert to metric tons Convert CH 4 and N 2 O emissions to CO 2 -equiv. and sum all subtotals

32 Data quality tiers Tier A designates the preferred or most accurate approach Tier B represents an alternative second-best approach Tier C represents the least accurate, but still acceptable approach

33 Canadian emissions factors. Source: The Climate Registry General Reporting Protocol

34 Biofuels Biofuels such as wood, wood waste and landfill gas may be combusted in addition to fossil fuels Company must report CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion (Scope 1) separately from CO 2 emissions from biomass combustion (separately from the scopes) The same step-by-step procedure for determining GHG emissions from fossil fuels applies to non-fossil fuels Emissions of CH 4 and N 2 O from biomass combustion are included in Scope 1 and are not treated differently from CH 4 and N 2 O emissions from fossil fuel combustion

35 Direct emissions from mobile sources Onroad and non-road vehicles (cars, trucks, buses, trains, ships, airplanes, tractors and construction equipment) Emissions from alternative fuel vehicles Natural gas, propane, hydrogen Electric cars Emissions from biofuels

36 Fugitive emissions from refrigerants Sources: HVAC systems, appliances (refrigerators, dehumidifiers, AC) and owned vehicles equipped with AC Equipment manufacturers and equipment users who service their own equipment use mass balance to determine HFC and PFC emissions Simplified screening method - if total HFC and PFC emissions are 5% of total company s GHG emissions

37 Indirect emissions from purchased electricity 4 methods: Actual electricity use monthly electricity bills Building-specific data estimation useful for facilities shared by more than one organization (Area of you company s space)*(total building electricity use)/(total building area) = Estimated electricity use of your organization Similar building estimation Generic building data

38 Scope 3 emissions Business travel Rental cars Personal vehicle use Company s vehicle Airline travel Train travel Employees commuting to and from work Survey

39 Common pitfalls in calculating GHG emissions Up-to-date real estate inventory Rental space Up-to-date inventory of owned and leased vehicles and other machinery Biofuels and electric vehicles Units - results may be off by a factor 3! Emissions factors use regionally specific factors (Canada, US)

40 Calculation tools GHG Protocol

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42 Data collection and management system Establishing a data collection and management system can improve efficiency, reduce costs and help maintain data consistency Which data need to be collected? What are the sources of data? Who will collect the data? Making sure staff is adequately trained Maintaining data quality Designing and implementing the data system

43 Thank you! Questions?

44 Contact information If you have any questions please contact: Anastassia Manuilova, MSc., P.Eng. Research Scientist, Ecosystems Environment and Forestry Research Drive Regina, SK Canada S4S 7J7 Tel:

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