Transport-Layer Support for Interactive Multimedia Applications. Stephen McQuistin Colin Perkins

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1 Transport-Layer Support for Interactive Multimedia Applications Stephen McQuistin Colin Perkins

2 Interactive Multimedia Applications Multimedia traffic comprises the majority of Internet traffic: 57% in 2013, predicted to grow to 75% by 2018* WebRTC standards are likely to increase interactive multimedia traffic share These applications have strict latency bounds Important to consider these bounds throughout the protocol stack: this work focuses on the transport layer

3 Ossification (PR-)SCTP and DCCP The transport layer has ossified around TCP and UDP: new protocols see very limited deployment This ossification is caused by middleboxes in the network: firewalls, NATs, caches.. These middleboxes often inspect IP segment payloads, dropping packets with unfamiliar transport headers

4 TCP vs UDP TCP guarantees reliability and provides congestion control, but introduces delay UDP doesn t introduce delay, but it also doesn t offer reliability guarantees or congestion control While most applications use UDP, this is frequently blocked by enterprise firewalls Goal: give applications more control over latency in TCP

5 Unordered, Time-Lined TCP We propose unordered, time-lined, TCP (utltcp), a set of modifications to TCP Adds three services to TCP: unordered message delivery, time-lines, and dependencies

6 Architecture User-level intermediary layer Kernel extensions Partial deployment of kernel extensions possible, but intermediary layer needed at both endpoints Application System API utltcp Intermediary Layer TCP utltcp extensions

7 Messages and Framing Other modifications require partial reliability, and messages are needed to support this Applications pass messages to the intermediary layer, which encodes them to be sent over TCP s byte stream At the receiver, the kernel extensions remove the in-order delivery buffer; segments are passed to the intermediary layer as they arrive The intermediary layer then decodes the segments, and passes the messages to the application Other modifications: Nagle algorithm is disabled, and path MTU is exposed

8 Messages and framing out-of-order reassembly queue dequeued when in-order TCP incoming segment from network in-order requested bytes to application receive queue utltcp incoming segment from network receive queue next segment to application

9 Time-lines and sub-streams Applications can specify a deadline by which a message must be received This reflects the delivery model needed by interactive applications: a VoIP message, for example, is only useful if it arrives before it needs to be played out utltcp combines the deadline with a round-trip time (RTT) estimate and play-out delay value to estimate if a message will arrive on time If it won t, then it tries to find a replacement in the sending buffer Sub-stream support allows non-time-lined data to be multiplexed on the same connection

10 Time-lines data sent from application (increasing timestamps) TCP retransmission request network layer segment resent data sent from application (increasing timestamps) utltcp Time-line and dependency check if expired, find alternative and replace retransmission request network layer segment resent Inconsistent retransmissions: same TCP sequence number, different payload

11 Dependencies Applications can express dependencies between two messages using sequence numbers If a message expires, then its dependents also expire A message with an expired dependency will only be sent if no other replacements can be found

12 Initial Analysis It takes approximately 1 RTT for a retransmission to arrive Sender Receiver This retransmission will only be useful if the play-out buffer is greater than 1 RTT seq 1 seq 2 seq 3 seq 4 seq 5 ack 1 ack 1 ack 1 ack 1 ~1 RTT seq 1

13 Deployability Only wire-visible change to TCP: inconsistent retransmissions Tested by deploying Raspberry Pi devices in homes, and connecting to mobile networks All wired providers deliver inconsistent retransmissions successfully 3 of the 4 mobile providers tested deliver cached TCP segments, while 1 delivered inconsistent retransmissions

14 Future work Further analysis: when will there be a suitable replacement in the queue? Further deployability measurements Real-world evaluations to show that the protocol helps in realistic conditions

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