World War II. Chapters 24 & 25

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1 World War II Chapters 24 & 25

2 Lecture Questions 1. What two factors gave rise to totalitarian regimes? 2. What are totalitarian regimes? 3. What are some of the major differences between fascism and communism? 4. Who wrote Mein Kampf and what did it call for? 5. What is appeasement and why did European countries use it? 6. What is internationalism and why did FDR support it?

3 Allies and Axis Great Britain France Soviet Union Germany Italy Japan United States

4 Causes of World War II World War I and the Treaty of Versailles Left Germany humiliated, economically struggling Global economic depressions Europe s economic infrastructure destroyed and no money to rebuild This gives rise to totalitarian regimes in Italy and Germanyis a concept used to describe political systems where a state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private life 20 th century phenomenon, rely heavily on propaganda

5 Rise of the Dictators: Italy Benito Mussolini-Fascism Mussolini founded the Fascist Party in 1919 Fascism: believed in aggressive nationalism, pro capitalism The nation is more important than the individual Wanted to build its military and expand country Anticommunist-stood for protection of private property and the middle class

6 Rise of Dictators: USSR Joseph Stalin-Communism Communism believed in oneparty rule, suppressed individual liberties, punished opponents Anti-capitalism Communists took over in the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution Stalin began to industrialize the USSR in the 1930s USSR becomes enemies of Italy and Germany

7 Rise of the Dictators: Germany Adolf Hitler-Nazi Party (Fascism) Fought in WWI Political and economic chaos in Germany after war lead to radical political parties Hitler eventually becomes leader of Nazi Partynationalistic and anticommunist Appointed prime minister in 1933

8 Mein Kampf Early in Hitler s rise to power, was arrested while trying to seize power in Munich While in jail, wrote Mein Kampf, My Struggle Called for the unification of all Germans, particularly blonde-haired, blue-eyed-aryansmaster race Called for expansion and claimed Eastern Europeans and Jews were inferior

9 Rise of the Dictators: Japan Hideki Tojo-Japanese Military- Nationalism/fascism Japan struggling with its own depression, high unemployment and social unrest Military leaders decide to invade Manchuria, China for its rich resources Prime minister tries to stop the war but assassinated From then on, the military controlled the civilian government Tojo takes over as prime minister and part of the military leadership of the country Japan wanted total control of Asia and the Pacific

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11 Appeasement Hitler was in power by the late 1930s Rebuilt German army by 1940, bent on conquest Germany, Italy and Japan signed a pact-work together to fight Communism Later known as the Axis Powers Europe did not try to stop Hitler, instead favored appeasement-policy of giving concessions in exchange for peace

12 Appeasement Reasons for it: Shadow of WWI loomed, leaders fearful of another bloody battle Hitler s demand to unite all German-speaking regions into one nation reasonable People thought that Nazis would be more interested in peace once they gained more territory France and G.B. opposed Germany s expansion but gave in anyway

13 American Neutrality Occupied with Great Depression European countries began to refuse to pay back war debts to U.S. and other countries Americans believed American businesses had swayed public opinion to make money of war Roosevelt, however, supported internationalism-idea that trade between nations creates prosperity and helps prevent war

14 WWII Dictators Dictator Name Country Type of Govt. Benito Mussolini Italy fascism Joseph Stalin Soviet Union Communism Adolf Hitler Germany fascism Hideki Tojo Japan Military Nationism/Fascism

15 Lecture Questions 1. What nation was invaded first by the Axis Powers? 2. What nation was invaded next? 3. Who are the prime ministers of France and Great Britain? 4. How did FDR help the allies before we declared war? 5. What was our reaction when WWII began (what was our policy)? 6. What event lead to the U.S. to declare war?

16 Invasion of Poland After appeasement, Hitler demanded Danzig, Polish sea port-appeasement had failed In 1939, Britain announced that if Poland went to war, France and G.B. would defend them On Sept. 1, 1939, Germany invade Poland, Soviet Union invaded in the East Used new type of warfare-blitzkrieg-lightning war-used large numbers of massed tanks to break through and rapidly encircle enemy positions. Also used airplanes to drop bombs and paratroopers to enemy supply lines

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18 Fall of France After Poland fell, Germany Attacked Norway and Denmark Then attacked France, going through Belgium, around the Maginot Line (bunker and fortifications along the French- German border) France occupied but Prime Minister Charles DeGaulle led an underground resistance Hitler expected Britain to surrender next, but the people s spirit and leadership of Winston Churchill, prime minister, surprised him G.B. refused to surrender

19 United States Enters to War Two days after G.B. and France declare war, U.S declared neutrality Roosevelt not happy with this Roosevelt sends supplies, navy destroyers to G.B., finding a loophole in the Neutrality Act of 1939 Americans torn on the issue of war

20 Pearl Harbor: Dec. 7, 1941 U.S. stays neutral in beginning of war, following policy of isolationism Puts economic pressure on Japan in order to deter them from attacking G.B. This infuriates Japan, tensions grow Japan plans to seize the Philippines, resource-rich G.B. and Dutch colonies in the Pacific and attack Pearl Harbor-naval base On December 7, 1941, Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

21 Lecture Questions What factor is key to victory in modern war? What two groups made up a large portion of the factory workers? Why were goods rationed? What were some positive and negative effects of propaganda? What were the Japanese internment camps and why were they used in WWII? Name some key roles of women and African Americans in the war.

22 Mobilizing for War In modern war, industrial output is key to victory U.S. workers were twice as productive as Germans, five times more productive than the Japanese Turns the tide of the war in favor of the Allies Roosevelt had begun to mobilize for war before Pearl Harbor, just in case

23 Tanks Replace Cars Automobile factories use assembly lines to make tanks, jeeps, trucks, airplanes Women made up a large portion of the workforce Rationing of food, rubber, copper, silk and other items provided more materials for the factories

24 War Bonds and Propaganda War bond drives held to quickly raise money Modern media and advertising used Propaganda also used to persuade Americans to be prowar Also led to racism against German and Japanese Americans

25 Japanese Relocation Japanese Americans blamed for Pearl Harbor attacks 120,000 Japanese, (77,000 were U.S. citizens), forced into internment camps In 1988, President Reagan apologized and gave $20,000 to each surviving Japanese American who was interned

26 GIs In 1940, Congress passed the Selective Service and Training Act-first peacetime draft in American history American soldiers called GIs, because their uniform and equipment was labeled GI for government issue

27 The Segregated Army Segregated army Most military leaders did not allow black soldiers to fight, used for construction and supply units Tuskegee Airmen-black fighter pilots In the Battle of Anzio in Italy

28 Women in the War Joined armed forces, not allowed in combat roles Instead, served in clerical, administrative jobs and as nurses Women s Army Corps (WAC) formed in 1942, first time women allowed to serve Also female pilots-women Air Force Service Pilots (WASPs)

29 Lecture Questions 1. What was the U.S. s response to the Holocaust? 2. What is the significance of the Battle of Midway? 3. What strategy did the U.S. use in the Pacific theater to get closer to Japan? 4. Who won the Battle of Stalingrad and why is it important? 5. Who is the prime minister of Great Britain during WWII? 6. What are the three things gained in Operation torch? 7. What part of Europe is considered the soft underbelly?

30 The Holocaust The Holocaust-persecution and murder of Jews in Europe under the Nazi regime The disabled, Gypsies, homosexuals, Slavic people and anyone who opposed the Nazis were persecuted American response: Govt. refused to loosen up on quotas, turned many Jews away The opposite of love is not hate, it's indifference. The opposite of art is not ugliness, it's indifference. The opposite of faith is not heresy, it's indifference. And the opposite of life is not death, it's indifference. -Elie Wiesel

31 The Final Solution In time, Nazis began the deport Jews to concentration campsdetention centers or extermination campswhere Jews were executed in massive gas chambers All of this was part of Hitler s final solution to solve the Jewish problem

32 Never Again Over 6 million Jews will be murdered by the Nazis, as well as millions of others who were considered inferior In all, an estimated 14 million people were murdered by the Nazis during World War II

33 Pacific Theater: Battle of Midway Pacific Theater, fighting against Japan Few hours after Pearl Harbor, Japan attacked Philippines, islands fall to Japan Next, Japan attacks Midway Islands, last American stronghold in Pacific-Battle of Midway Turning point on Pacific Theater, Japan goes on the defensive, just 6 months after Pearl Harbor attack

34 Island Hopping in the Pacific Strategy of island-hopping to get close enough to Japanese home islands to launch air attacks Battle of Iwo Jima gave the U.S. a base to launch Allied heavy bombers Battle of Okinawa was the last major island needed before invasion of Japan Japanese never gave up, led to high American casualties

35 European Theater: Battle of Stalingrad Soviets fight to hold onto Stalingrad and protect oil fields During the winter of 1942 Battle of Stalingrad-turning point in Europe, put Germans on defensive

36 European Theater: Operation Torch Stalin, now part of the Allied Forces, asks Roosevelt and Winston Churchill (British Prime Minister) for help on eastern front Allied forces begin to attack along periphery, or edges of the German Empire (Northern Africa) Operation Torch: Northern Africa Opened up new front, take pressure off of soviets Protected oil fields Free Mediterranean Sea

37 Soft Underbelly of Europe Allies launch an attack onto mainland Europe through Italy Called the soft underbelly of Europe Italian king and top generals get rid of Mussolini Italy surrenders to Allies Hitler retaliates, invades northern Italy, takes over Rome

38 Lecture Questions 1. Who are the Big Three? 2. What was operation Overlord? 3. When was D-Day, where did the invasion begin and why is it so important? 4. What is the significance of the Battle of the Bulge? 5. What is VE Day? 6. Who took over after FDR died in office?

39 Planning Operation Overlord The Big Three meet- Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill Agree to invasion of Normandy, France Plan called Operation Overlord-code name

40 D-Day: June 6, 1944 By spring of 1944, over 1.5 million American soldiers, 12,000 airplanes, and 5 million tons of equipment had been sent to England Conditions needed for attack: Moonlit night Low tide at dawn Good weather

41 The Longest Day On June 6, 1944, conditions were adequate enough to launch attack Invasion succeeded Allied forces began to reclaim occupied France Turning point in the European Theater

42 Battle of The Bulge Third Reich begins to collapse Allies close in on Germany, Hitler plans last desperate offensive attack Germans move swiftly westward German lines bulged out, attack called the Battle of the Bulge

43 V-E Day Soviet Union attacked from the east, U.S. and British on the west Allies capture Berlin Hitler committed suicide, body is burned On May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered unconditionally Next day May 8, 1945, proclaimed V-E Day, victory in Europe

44 The Pacific Theater Roosevelt died before V-E Day, died of a stroke on April 12, 1945 V.P. Harry S. Truman takes over Germany defeated but fighting with Japan intensifies Japan refused to agree to an unconditional surrender

45 Lecture Questions 1. What is the Manhattan Project and what famous scientist worked on it? 2. Who made the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan and what was the reason? 3. What city was bombed first? Which one was second? 4. When did Japan finally surrender? 5. What is the United Nations and why was it created? 6. What nations make up the permanent members of the Security Council? 7. Why were the Nuremburg Trials held?

46 Manhattan Project Allies discover Germany was working on an atom bomb British and American scientists, along with Jewish, German-born Albert Einstein, knew that they had to stop Germany from becoming the first to create the bomb American project to build the atomic bomb codenamed the Manhattan Project On July 16, 1945, the U.S. detonated the world s first atom bomb in Los Alamos, New Mexico

47 The Decision to Drop the Bomb Truman issued an ultimatum, either surrender or suffer prompt and utter destruction Japan doesn t respond On Aug. 6, 1945, a B-29 bomber, the Enola Gay, dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima 80, ,000 die instantly

48 The Second Bomb Three days later, Japan refused to surrender Soviet Union declares war on Japan Atom bomb dropped on Nagasaki Killed 35,000-74,000 people

49 V-J Day On Aug. 15, 1945, Japan surrenders Day called V-J Day, World War II over Now the world must rebuild

50 United Nations Roosevelt wanted a new international political organization to prevent war In 1944, delegates from 39 countries met and created the United Nations (UN) Five permanent members of the UN, also make up the Security Council: the United States, Great Britain, France, Soviet Union and China-the big five powers who defeated the Axis powers Has the power investigate any international problem and propose settlements for peace

51 Enemy on Trial Allies create the International Military Tribunal War criminals went to trial for their crimes At the Nuremberg trials, German leaders were tried most were convicted Even though they claimed they were following orders, half were sentenced to death-forced to take responsibility for individual actions Japan had similar trials

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