1 Veterinary World, EISSN: Available at RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin increases freezability of buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis) by increasing cholesterol to phospholipid ratio J. S. Rajoriya 1, J. K. Prasad 1, S. K. Ghosh 1, Snehal S. Ramteke 1, N. C. Barik 1, G. K. Das 1 and Megha Pande 2 1. Germ Plasm Centre, Division of Animal Reproduction, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India; 2. Animal Physiology Lab, Central Institute for Research on Cattle, Meerut Cantt, Uttar Pradesh, India. Corresponding author: J. S. Rajoriya, JKP: SKG: SSR: NCB: GKD: MP: Received: , Revised: , Accepted: , Published online: doi: /vetworld How to cite this article: Rajoriya JS, Prasad JK, Ghosh SK, Ramteke SS, Barik NC, Das GK, Pande M (2014) Cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin increases freezability of Buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis) by increasing cholesterol to phospholipid ratio, Veterinary World 7(9): Abstract Aim: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) on freezability of buffalo. Materials and Methods: Murrah buffalo bull semen samples with progressive motility of 70% and greater were used. After the evaluation of motility and livability, four equal fractions of semen samples were made. Group I was kept as control and diluted with Tris, whereas Group II, III and IV were treated with CLC solution at the rate of 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg/ml respectively to obtain sperm/ml as final concentration. The aliquots of all the groups were incubated for action of CLC, followed by dilution and freezing. Evaluation at pre-freeze and post-thaw stage of progressive motility, viability and level of cholesterol and phospholipid was done. Results: The mean cholesterol content (μg/ of Group I, II, III and IV at pre-freeze stage was 21.55±0.63, 49.56±1.38, 55.67±0.45 and 47.79±1.01 and at post-thaw stage were 13.18±0.45, 34.27±0.71, 36.21±0.48 and 33.68±0.56, respectively. At pre-freeze stage, cholesterol content was significantly (p<0.01) higher in Group III in comparison to other groups. The mean cholesterol and phospholipids content of fresh sperm was 24.14±0.58 and 51.13±0.66 μg/ sperm cells, respectively, and C/P ratio of at fresh stage was 0.47± Conclusion: CLC treatment maintains the C/P ratio and plays an important role in maintaining membrane architecture of. Hence, addition of CLC may be helpful in increasing freezability of buffalo by increasing the C/P ratio of. Keywords: buffalo, cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin, cholesterol:phospholipid (C/P) ratio. Introduction Buffalo are more susceptible to damages during freezing and average post-thaw motility has been reported to be lower than cattle . There are some specific biochemical factors that affect the ability of to prevent damages caused by the cryogenic procedures. One of the many possible causes of lower freezability of buffalo bull semen compared with cattle bull can be due to the differences in the lipid ratio of the . Sperm sensitivity to cold shock damage is determined by membrane phospholipid composition as well as the membrane C/P ratio . Sperm possessing high C/P ratio (rabbit and human sperm) are more resistant to the cold shock damage than sperm which have low cholesterol: phospholipid ratios (boars, stallions, rams, and bulls) . The integrity of the plasma membrane is important for the to withstand harmful effects of the cryopreservation process. Capacitation Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attributin License (http:// creative commons.org/licenses/by/2.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited. can be reduced by adding cholesterol or cholesterol analogs to the medium , and can be stimulated by cholesterol acceptors such as β-cyclodextrins . Cholesterol is a hydrophobic molecule and is not soluble in aqueous semen diluents. Cyclodextrin have been used to insert or remove cholesterol from synthetic and cell membranes. Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides obtained by the enzymatic degradation of starch, and they possess an external hydrophilic face and an internal hydrophobic core  that can encapsulate hydrophobic compounds such as cholesterol. Cholesterol content of sperm membranes can be modified using cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) . Since cholesterol efflux from the sperm membranes plays an important role in sperm capacitation, it is possible that increasing sperm cholesterol content, using CLC technology, may reduce premature sperm capacitation thereby increasing the lifespan of a cryopreserved sperm cell, in addition to increasing the number of sperm that survive cryopreservation. Cholesterol also decreases the capacitation like changes (cryocapacitation) that occurs when sperms are frozen. CLC have been used in several species like Veterinary World, EISSN:
2 bull, ram, stallion, boar and donkey s semen cryopreservation . The objective of this study was aimed to assess the effect of CLC treatment on C/P ratio and freezability of buffalo. Materials and Methods Climate and experimental animals Geographically Bareilly is located at 28 o 10 North latitude and 78 o 23 East latitude at an altitude of 172 m above the mean sea level. Bareilly is known to have a moderate climate. Summer season goes up to 40 C, whereas winter goes down up to 8 C. The rainy season starts in June and extends up to September with humid and warm conditions. Four healthy breeding buffalo bulls maintained at Germ-Plasm Center of Animal Reproduction Division, IVRI, Izatnagar, Bareilly were utilized for the study. Chemicals All chemicals were reagent grade and purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). CLC preparation Methyl-β-cyclodextrin was loaded with cholesterol as described . Briefly, 200 mg of cholesterol was dissolved in 1 ml of chloroform in a glass tube. In second glass tube, 1 g of methyl-β-cyclodextrin was dissolved in 2 ml of methanol. A 0.45 ml aliquot of the cholesterol solution was added to the cyclodextrin solution, and the mixture was stirred until the combined solution appeared clear. This was followed by pouring of mixture into a glass petri dish and removing of solvents using a stream of nitrogen gas. The resulting crystals were allowed to dry for an additional 24 h and then were removed from the dish and stored in a glass container at 22 C. A working solution of CLC was prepared by adding 50 mg of CLC to 1 ml of Tris diluent at 37 C and mixing the solution briefly using a vortex mixer. Collection of semen and its processing Semen was collected by using an artificial vagina as per the standard method. A total of 40 ejaculates, ten from each bull (10 4 = 40) were collected. The percentage of progressively motile sperm in each sample was determined by semen quality analyzer (SQA-Vb; MES, Israel). Only ejaculates containing >70% motile were used in the study. At fresh stage evaluation for progressive motility, viability and level of cholesterol and phospholipid were done. After the initial semen evaluation, four equal fractions of the samples were made. The Group I (control) was diluted with Tris, while Group II, III and IV were treated with CLC solution  at the rate of 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg/ml respectively to obtain sperm/ml as final concentration. The aliquots of all the groups were incubated at 37 C for 15 min for action of CLC. After incubation, each sample was diluted to sperm/ml in Tris-egg yolk-glycerol dilutor. Semen freezing and its evaluation The extended semen was packaged in 0.5 ml French straws and subjected to a combined cooling with equilibration period of 3 h at 5 C. The straws were kept in automatic programmable biological cell freezer (IMV technology, France) until temperature of straws reached 145 C. Then straws were plunged into liquid nitrogen ( 196 C) for storage. Semen samples were evaluated at pre-freeze and post-thaw stage for progressive motility, viability and level of cholesterol and phospholipid. Viability of was assessed using fluorescent dye Hoechst (H33258). Pre-freeze evaluation was done immediately after the equilibration period. Frozen straws were thawed at 37 C for 30 s after 24 h of freezing for post-thaw evaluation. Cholesterol and phospholipid estimation in Washing of Washing of was necessitated for estimation of cholesterol and phospholipid content of. Immediately after evaluation fresh, pre-freeze and frozen-thawed were washed using Percoll density gradient  to remove egg yolk particles, dead cells, and debris as described below: 1 ml layer of 40% Percoll (v/v, Sigma Aldrich, USA) in a non-capacitating medium (NCM) was pipetted carefully over 1 ml layer of 80% Percoll (v/v in NCM) in a disposable 15 ml centrifuge tube. 1 ml fresh or thawed semen was gently layered on top of the two steps Percoll column. This test tube was centrifuged at 400 g for 30 min. After centrifugation, the pellets were washed once again with NCM and resuspended in NCM to make desired concentration of sperm depending upon experiments. This procedure was followed to make an aliquot of 1 ml (in duplicate) of all the four groups in cryovials and stored at 20 C till used for cholesterol and phospholipid estimation. Cholesterol assay The cholesterol content in was estimated as per the method of . Phospholipid assay Phospholipid in the lipid extract of was estimated by the method of . Statistical analysis All the data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago) using one-way analysis of variance and significant means were compared using Duncan s multiple range test. Results and Discussion CLC has been used for semen cryopreservation of animal species such as bull, ram, stallion, boar, donkey with varying degree of its beneficial effect on Veterinary World, EISSN:
3 semen cryopreservation. It was further postulated that CLC can be useful to certain extent for cryopreservation of buffalo bull. Seminal attributes of buffalo at fresh stage Sperm progressive motility and viability The initial progressive motility of a semen sample gives a good indication of the fertility of the bull and ability of to withstand the stress of the cryopreservation process. Furthermore, the viability of of a semen sample has been significantly correlated with motility and fertility of. In the present study, initial progressive motility and viability were 83.28±2.71 and 84.43±2.45%, which were comparable to the values previously reported by various researchers [10,14], but higher than the values reported by . The difference may be attributed to the various factors that affect motility and viability like bull s age , season, frequency of collection and sexual excitement before semen collection. Cholesterol-phospholipids content and C/P ratio of The mean cholesterol and phospholipid content of fresh sperm were 24.14±0.58 and 51.13±0.66 μg/ sperm cells, respectively and C/P ratio of at fresh stage was 0.47± The result was in agreement with some previous report [16,10]. The cholesterol content of varies widely between bulls as well as different ejaculates of the same bull. Many studies have shown that capacitation is accompanied by a change in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane involving a decrease in the membrane C/P ratio . These changes appear to be a reversible phenomenon that influences the fluidity and ionic permeability of the plasma membrane . The lipid composition of the sperm plasma membrane plays an important role in determining the membrane fluidity, sperm motility and viability . Lipids in the sperm play important role in sperm physiology and metabolism. Phospholipids are important structural component of membranes. The intrinsic importance of phospholipids in membrane structure and the expression of enzyme activity indicate their significant role in cellular reactions to environmental change. Sperm sensitivity to cold shock damage is determined by the membrane C/P ratio and phospholipid composition . Species that possess sperms with high C/P ratio (human and rabbit) are more resistant to cold shock than species presenting membrane low C/P ratio such as stallion, ram and bull . C/P ratio in buffalo at fresh and post-thaw stage was 0.44±0.05 and 0.16±0.063, respectively . Hence, loss in C/P ratio was about 63.63%. However, the C/P ratio in cattle bull varied from 0.42 to 0.45 . There is an active participation of sperm plasma membrane in the process of capacitation, mainly through loss of cholesterol . Cholesterol efflux leads to changes in membrane architecture and fluidity that gives rise to the capacitation of the frozen sperm cells. Seminal attributes of buffalo at prefreeze and post-thaw stage Sperm progressive motility and viability The mean value of motility at pre-freeze (81.25±2.39%) and post-thaw (69.50±0.29%) was significantly (p<0.01) higher in Group III when compared with other three groups. (Tables 1 and 2). In the present study, an approximate of 17.57% improvement in the progressive motility was observed after treatment with 3 mg CLC, which was higher than the values (12.5%) after treatment with 2 mg CLC as reported . The exact mechanism by which cholesterol improves sperm cryosurvival is still not known. The possible mechanism behind increased progressive motility of following cryopreservation after incorporation of cholesterol in sperm membrane is due to protection of mitochondria . The per cent livability among control and treatment groups in pre-freeze stage (Table-1) did not show any significant difference (p<0.01) however, at post-thaw stage it showed significant difference (p<0.01) amongst all the groups with highest in Group III followed by II, IV and I (Table-2). Higher viability at post-thaw stage after CLC treatment may be due to stabilizing effect of sperm plasma membrane  and hence reduced loss of sperm during cryopreservation was observed. Cholesterol-phospholipids content and C/P ratio of The mean cholesterol content (μg/ of Group I, II, III and IV at pre-freeze stage was 21.55±0.63, 49.56±1.38, 55.67±0.45 and 47.79±1.01 and at post-thaw stage were 13.18±0.45, 34.27±0.71, 36.21±0.48 and 33.68±0.56, respectively. At pre-freeze stage, cholesterol content was significantly (p<0.01) higher in group III in comparison to other groups. At post-thaw stage, it was also significantly (p<0.01) higher than Group I and IV and non-significantly higher than Group II (Table-2). The mean values of phospholipids content of (μg/ in Group I, II, III and IV at pre-freeze stage were 90.48±0.54, 90.33±0.53, 90.23±0.59 and 92.15±0.52 and at postthaw stage were 79.45±0.38, 79.09±0.34, 82.35±0.51 and 85.17±0.45, respectively. There was no significant difference observed in the phospholipids content among different groups in the pre-freeze stage, however, in the post-thaw stage, Group IV (treated with 4.0 mg dose of CLC) showed significantly (p<0.01) higher values followed by Group III. An appreciable reduction in phospholipid content of from pre-freeze to post-thaw stage was observed in the study that might be due to cold shock and freeze-thaw lead to phospholipid efflux in buffalo . The present study indicated that pre-freeze and post-thaw values Veterinary World, EISSN:
4 Table-1: Seminal attributes in buffalo bulls at pre-freeze stage (mean±se). Group Initial progressive motility (%) Livability (%) Cholesterol Phospholipid Control b ± a ± c ± a ± c ±0.044 CLC 2.0 mg/ spermtaozoa b ± a ± b ± a ± b ±0.098 CLC 3.0 mg/ spermtaozoa a ± a ± a ± a ± a ±0.039 CLC 4.0 mg/ spermtaozoa b ± a ± b ± a ± b ±0.074 a, b, C Means with dissimilar superscript in a column differ significantly (p<0.01). SE=Standard error C/P Table-2: Seminal attributes in Buffalo bulls at post-thaw stage (mean±se). Group Initial progressive motility (%) Livability (%) Cholesterol Phospholipid Control d ± d ± c ± c ± c ±0.036 CLC 2.0 mg/ spermtaozoa b ± b ± ab ± c ± a ±0.057 CLC 3.0 mg/ spermtaozoa a ± a ± a ± b ± a ±0.037 CLC 4.0 mg/ spermtaozoa c ± c ± b ± a ± b ±0.047 a, b, c, d Means with dissimilar superscript in a column differ significantly (p<0.01). SE=Standard error C/P of phospholipid content of were higher than fresh. This happened because of phospholipid present in egg yolk dilutor (contain 80% phospholipid) used in the study, incorporated into the sperm membrane thereby increasing the phospholipid content of. Similar type of finding indicated that phospholipid content of increased after egg yolk based dilutor for cryopreservation of boar semen . The phospholipid content of increased significantly after freezing and thawing in high and average class viability when compared to low-class viability. This result indicated active sperm lipid metabolism might be responsible for the increase in lipid content . Treatment with CLC in Group III increased cholesterol content by 2.3 fold at pre-freeze and 1.5 fold at post-thaw stage. However, phospholipid content was increased by 1.7 fold at pre-freeze and 1.6 fold at post-thaw stage in comparison to a fresh stage. CLC-treated sperm presented high cholesterol content in the membrane (between 1.93 and 2.7 folds) than control sperm in bulls, stallions and rams have been reported . This may be attributed to the reason that with an increase in cholesterol content in the plasma membrane the sperm resistance to cold shock during freeze-thawing increases. High membrane cholesterol levels inhibit crystallization of membrane hydrocarbon chains at low temperature, thereby eliminating the phase transition . On the other hand, CLC-treated sperm exhibited wider osmotic tolerance limits than control sperm in bulls, stallion, rams and boars [1,25-27]. This could provide resistance to increase post-thaw survival of sperm. Significantly higher (p<0.01) C/P ratio at pre-freeze stage in the of Group III (0.62±0.039) was observed in comparison to other groups (Table-1). At post-thaw stage C/P ratio was significantly higher (p<0.01) in both Group II and III in comparison to Group I and IV. There was no significant difference in the C/P ratio of Group II and III was observed (0.43±0.057 vs. 0.44±0.037). It is well-documented that sperm with higher C/P ratio is more resistant against cryodamage. In the present study incubation with CLC increase, the cholesterol content at post-thaw stage and also significantly increase in the phospholipid content possibly from the source of egg yolk leads to an increase in C/P ratio at postthaw stage. As no significant difference in C/P ratio at post-thaw stage between Group II and III was noticed in the present study, however, significantly higher post-thaw motility and viability in the of Group III is an indication of improvement in seminal parameters after treatment with CLC. Comparing the C/P ratio at fresh stage and post-thaw stage between Group I and III; in the control group a reduction in C/P of about 64% was noticed in comparison to about 6% in Group III (treated with 3 mg CLC/ This clearly indicates that CLC treatment may maintain the C/P ratio unlike fresh stage and play important role in maintaining membrane architecture of. Hence, addition of CLC may helpful in increasing freezability of buffalo by increasing the C/P ratio of. Conclusion Maximum beneficial effect on semen cryopreservation was observed at dose rate of 3.0 mg CLC/ spermtaozoa. Addition of CLC significantly improved semen freezability as revealed by higher progressive motility, livability, and C/P ratio. Authors Contributions JSR planned and carried out research work for his PhD thesis programme in collaboration with guide (JKP). Author is thankful SKG and GKD for providing lab facility during my research work. SSR and NCB: collection of sample and estimation of parameters during my research work. MP helped Veterinary World, EISSN:
5 during preparation of manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Acknowledgments The authors are thankful to Director, Indian Veterinary Research institute, Izatnagar , Bareilly for providing facilities and fund during thesis research work of first author. Also, we thankfully acknowledge, Dr. Amit Dohare, PhD Scholar, Division of LES, IVRI for his help during statistical analysis. Competing Interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. References 1. Andrabi, S.M.H. (2009) Factors affecting the quality of cryopreserved buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull. Reprod. Dom. Anim., 44: Andrabi, S.M.H., Ansari, M.S., Ullah, N., Anwar, M., Mehmood, A. and Akhter, S. (2008) Duck egg yolk in extender improves the freezability of buffalo bull. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 104(2-4): Holt, W.V. (2000) Fundamental aspects of sperm cryobiology: The importance of species and individual differences. Theriogenology, 53(1): Pamornsakda, T., Pojprasath, T., Suwimonteerabutr, J. and Tharasanit, T. (2011) Effects of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins on the quality of frozen-thawed equine epididymal sperm. Cryobiology, 63(2): Oliveira, C.H., Vasconcelos, A.B., Souza, F.A., Martins- Filho, O.A., Silva, M.X., Varago, F.C. and Lagares, M.A. (2010) Cholesterol addition protects membrane intactness during cryopreservation of stallion sperm. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 118(2-4): Serin, I., Aksoy, M. and Ceylan, A. (2011) Cholesterolloaded cyclodextrin inhibits premature acrosomal reactions in liquid-stored, Anim. Reprod. Sci., 123(1-2): Dobziuk, H. (2006) Molecules with holesc Cyclodextrins. In: Dodziuk, H. editor. Cyclodextrins and Their Complexes. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co, Weinheim, Germany, p Purdy, P.H. and Graham, J.K. (2004) Effect of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin on the cryosurvival of bull sperm. Cryobiology, 48(1): Spizziri, B.E., Fox, M.H., Bruemmer, J.E., Squires, E.L. and Graham, J.K. (2010) Cholesterol loaded-cyclodextrins and fertility potential of Stallions. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 118: Kumar, A. (2012) Studies on effect of cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin on freezability and in vitro fertility of buffalo Spermatozoa. Ph.D. Thesis Submitted to Deemed University, IVRI, Izatnagar, U.P, India. 11. Strom H,B., Larson, B., Linde-Forsberg, C. and Rodriguez- Martinez, H. (2000) Evaluation of chilled and frozen-thawed canine using a zona pellucida binding assay. J. Reprod. Fertil., 119: Bligh, E.G. and Dyer, W.J. (1959) A rapid method of total ******** lipid extraction and purification. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol., 37: Bartlett, G.R. (1959) Phosphorus assay in column chromatography. J. Biol. Chem., 234: Singh, M., Ghosh, S.K., Prasad, J.K., Kumar, A., Tripathi, R.P., Bhure, S.K., and Srivastava, N. (2014) Seminal PDC-109 protein vis-à-vis cholesterol content and freezability of buffalo Spermatozoa. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 144(1-2): Shukla, M.K. and Misra, A.K. 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Sci., 118(2-4): Walters, E.M., Rieke, A., Graham, J.K. and Critser, J.K. (2008) Improved osmotic tolerance Limits of boar treated with cholesterol-loaded methyl-β- cyclodextrin. Theriogenology., 70(8): Glazar, A.I., Mullen, S.F., Liu, J., Benson, J.D., Critser, J.K., Squires, E.L. and Graham J.K. (2009) Osmotic tolerance limits and membrane permeability characteristics of stallion treated with cholesterol. Cryobiology., 59: Veterinary World, EISSN:
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Fighting the Battles: Conducting a Clinical Assay 6 Vocabulary: In Vitro: studies in biology that are conducted using components of an organism that have been isolated from their usual biological surroundings
Amylase: a sample enzyme Objectives: After completion of this laboratory exercise you will be able to: 1. Explain the importance of enzymes in biology. 2. Explain the basic properties of an enzyme as a
AN OWNER S GUIDE TO ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION Introduction Artificial insemination (AI) is the technique used to transfer appropriately processed semen collected from a stallion into the uterus of the mare
TECHNICAL REPORT STUDY CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF RATTAN SHOOT FROM PLANTATION IN THAILAND by Assistant Professor Dr. Noojaree Prasitpan Chemist Analyzer of the ITTO Project on PD 24/00 Rev.1 (I): Promotion
Isolation of Cholesterol from Egg Yolk Preparation: Bring a hard-boiled egg yolk to lab! Cholesterol (1) is a major component of cell membranes. An egg yolk contains about 200 milligrams of cholesterol,
G e n e C o p o eia TM Expressway to Discovery RNAzol RT RNA Isolation Reagent Most effective reagent for isolation of total RNA and small RNA from samples of various origin Cat. No. E01010A User Manual
EXPERIMENT VI PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTEINS I- Protein isolation and dialysis In order to investigate its structure and properties a protein must be obtained in pure form. Since proteins
Cell Membrane Properties Purpose of the lab: review the structure and function of the cell membrane understand the three types of transport across a membrane, and the special case of osmosis using Elodea
Analysis of the Vitamin B Complex in Infant Formula Samples by LC-MS/MS Stephen Lock 1 and Matthew Noestheden 2 1 AB SCIEX Warrington, Cheshire (UK), 2 AB SCIEX Concord, Ontario (Canada) Overview A rapid,
Enzymes: Amylase Activity in Starch-degrading Soil Isolates Introduction This week you will continue our theme of industrial microbiologist by characterizing the enzyme activity we selected for (starch
For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures. Relative Quantitation of Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Cell Membrane GPEtn Lipids Using the QTRAP System with mtraq Reagents Karin A. Zemski-Berry,
Western Blotting Sive Lab Protocol March 2007 Prepare samples: For zebrafish embryos: Option 1: Take live embryos and put into 1.5 ml tube with E3. Centrifuge gently for 1-2 minutes -yolk lipids will rise
THESES OF PhD DISSERTATION KAPOSVÁR UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ANIMAL SCIENCE Department of Breeding and Production of Ruminants and Horse Head of Doctoral School: Dr. PÉTER HORN Member of the Hungarian Academy
THE EFFECT OF DILUTION ON THE CONCENTRATION OF SODIUM, POTASSIUM, CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM IN RAM AND BULL SPERMATOZOA P. J. QUINN, I. G. WHITE and B. R. WIRRICK Department of Veterinary Physiology, University
thebiotutor AS Biology OCR Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport Module 1.2 Cell Membranes Notes & Questions Andy Todd 1 Outline the roles of membranes within cells and at the surface of cells. The main
Genetic Engineering: Transforming Bacteria Introduction Lesson Introduction In this laboratory experiment, students will transform the phenotype of bacteria through the use of genetic engineering. A non
DNA SPOOLING 1 ISOLATION OF DNA FROM ONION INTRODUCTION This laboratory protocol will demonstrate several basic steps required for isolation of chromosomal DNA from cells. To extract the chromosomal DNA,
Unit 2: Cells, Membranes and Signaling CELL MEMBRANE Chapter 5 Hillis Textbook HOW DOES THE LAB RELATE TO THE NEXT CHAPTER? SURFACE AREA: the entire outer covering of a cell that enables materials pass.
Transport Across Cell Membranes CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURE A phospholipid bilayer makes up the main part of the cell membrane Each phospholipid molecule contains a charged polar head (H 2 O-loving) and non-polar,
HARVESTING AND CRYOPRESERVATION OF HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS (hescs) OBJECTIVE: can be cryopreserved in a liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) freezer for long-term storage. This Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)
METAFECTENE SI Especially developed for the transfection of mammalian cells with sirna or mirna For ordering information, MSDS, publications and application notes see www.biontex.com Description Cat. No.
The Need for a PARP in vivo Pharmacodynamic Assay Jay George, Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer, Trevigen, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD For further infomation, please contact: William Booth, Ph.D. Tel: +44 (0)1235
Product Manual Lipid Extraction Kit (Chloroform Free), Trial Size Catalog Number STA-612-T 10 preps FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY Not for use in diagnostic procedures Introduction Lipids are a diverse group of
ab185915 Protein Sumoylation Assay Ultra Kit Instructions for Use For the measuring in vivo protein sumoylation in various samples This product is for research use only and is not intended for diagnostic
Section 7 Basic principles of cryopreservation 85 Basic principles of cryopreservation Spermatozoa were the first mammalian cells to be cryopreserved successfully (Polge et al., 1949). This success was
Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control
Southern Blot Analysis (from Baker lab, university of Florida) DNA Prep Prepare DNA via your favorite method. You may find a protocol under Mini Yeast Genomic Prep. Restriction Digest 1.Digest DNA with
Cell Biology - Part 2 Membranes The organization of cells is made possible by membranes. Membranes isolate, partition, and compartmentalize cells. 1 Membranes isolate the inside of the cell from the outside
The relationship between semen evaluation methods and fertility in the bull Eileen Linford, F. A. Glover, C. Bishop and D. L. Stewart Cattle Breeding Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food,
Peptide Antibody Production A) Peptide BioSynthesis (http://www.biosyn.com, 800-227-0627) B) Conjugation of peptide to KLH (Imject Maleimide Activated KLH, PIERCE=Thermo #77605, 10 mg) C) Peptide affinity
Vvvv Triacylglycerols (TAGs), Soaps and Detergents at the molecular level Jeff Corkill, Department of Chemistry, Eastern Washington University RECALL: chemical structure->reactivity->function NON COVALENT
Gen. Physiol. Biophys. (1987). 6, 197 201 197 Short communication n-heptane and /i-hexane Enhance in a Dose-Dependent Manner Insulin Binding to Erythrocytes and Its Degradation Š. ZÓRAD, I. K.L1MEŠ, E.
VIROMER RED In vitro plasmid DNA and mrna Standard Transfection PRODUCT INFORMATION... 2 GENERAL... 2 RED OR YELLOW?... 3 PROTOCOL GUIDELINES... 4 GENERAL REMARKS... 4 CELL CULTURE AND PLATING... 4 FORWARD/REVERSE
Mouse glycated hemoglobin A1c(GHbA1c) ELISA Kit Catalog Number. CSB-E08141m For the quantitative determination of mouse glycated hemoglobin A1c(GHbA1c) concentrations in lysate for RBC. This package insert
99m Tc-Hematoporphyrin linked albumin nanoparticles for lung cancer targeted photodynamic therapy and imaging Su-Geun Yang, Ji-Eun Chang, Byungchul Shin, Sanghyun Park, Kun Na and Chang-Koo Shim* *Corresponding
Seahorse XF Cell Mito Stress Test Kit Part # 103015-100 User Guide For use with Seahorse XF e and XF Extracellular Flux Analyzers For Research Use Only 1 Table of Contents Product Description... 2 Introduction...
UNIT: Proteins 16tproteins.wpd Task Determination of Total Protein, Albumin and Globulins Objectives Upon completion of this exercise, the student will be able to: 1. Explain the ratio of albumin and globulin
Running protein gels and detection of proteins 1. Protein concentration determination using the BIO RAD reagent This assay uses a colour change reaction to give a direct measurement of protein concentration.
FluoroTag FITC Conjugation Kit Product Number FITC1 Storage Temperature 2 8 C TECHNICAL BULLETIN Product Description The FluoroTag FITC Conjugation Kit is suitable for the conjugation of polyclonal and
THESES OF THE DOCTORAL (PHD) DISSERTATION UNIVETSITY OF WEST HUNGARY FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENSIS INSTITUTE OF ANIMAL BREEDING Program supervisor: Kovácsné dr. habil. Gaál Katalin CSc Theme