CANADA IN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT. Data Report 2016 International Trade

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1 CANADA IN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Data Report 2016 International Trade

2 1 CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM - DATA REPORT HIGHLIGHTS Canada s trade to GDP ratio is around 63% making it one of the more open economies in the world. Canada accounts for approx. 2.5% of global exports and imports. Bilateral trade is a key component of Canada s engagement with the developing world. Total trade (exports and imports) with developing countries (low, lower and upper middle income) reached $184 billion in 2015, or about 18% of Canada s international trade. Trade with developing countries, while small as a share of overall trade, has been growing at almost 3 times as fast as Canada s overall trade since THIS SECTION DISCUSSES: Canada s trade with major developing country partners How have trade patterns been trending, in terms of import and export performance, rates of growth, balance of trade (and other factors)? Which are the fastest growing developing country trade partners for Canada? Regional trade patterns Trends across different income groups INTERNATIONAL TRADE What does Canada buy from developing countries and what does it sell to developing countries? Which developing countries have a revealed comparative advantage in the Canadian import market? Are Canada s trade policies aimed at developing countries coherent from a development perspective? It also benchmarks Canada s performance against other comparable advanced economies, for example: How does Canada s trade pattern with developing countries compare with that of other advanced economies? Most advanced economies trade primarily with other advanced economies at a similar level of development. In many cases trade tends to be concentrated with one or two major partners e.g. 17% of France s international trade is with Germany, 21% of the Netherlands trade is with Germany, 21% of Japan s trade is with China, 29% of Australia s trade is with China. Even by these standards however, Canada s trade is highly concentrated with one partner 66% of Canada s trade is with the United States, making it by far the most concentrated major bilateral trading relationship in the world. Canada s trade has been diversifying towards developing countries, however this trend reversed in the years following the financial crisis, as the share of high income countries increased. Developing countries are increasing their share in the Canadian import market, but by comparison Canadian exports to the developing world remain low (even compared to other advanced economies). Structural factors limit the extent to which and the pace at which Canada s trade can diversify towards faster growing developing countries there are a limited number of product areas in which Canadian exports are globally competitive, and a limited number in which Canadian exports are sustainably competitive in developing countries; on the other hand, Canadian demand for products in which developing countries are competitive is linked to the overall performance of the economy. Canada has a substantial trade deficit with developing countries as a whole, which means these countries gain (in net financial terms) from trade with Canada, as they sell more to, than buy from, Canada. Canada s fastest growing major developing country trade partners (over the past 5 years) include: Vietnam, India, Indonesia and Turkey. Trade with the top 10 developing country trade partners has grown at nearly twice the rate of Canada s overall trade over the past 5 years. Canada primarily buys apparel, clothing, and textiles from the developing world; and primarily sells edible vegetables, fruits, cereals and fertilizers. Canada is a key trade partner for a number of smaller developing countries (especially in Latin America and the Caribbean). While Canada offers a range of market access measures and trade support through preferential trade agreements and free trade, which benefit many developing countries, there remains scope to improve trade policy coherence from a development perspective as many of Canada s priority development partners loose more by way of import tariffs than they gain by way of aid from Canada. Canada needs a differentiated approach that takes into account the varied capacities and circumstances of developing countries, and a more integrated strategy that better links trade and aid policy.

3 3 CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM - DATA REPORT CANADA S TOP 20 DEVELOPING COUNTRY TRADE PARTNERS TRADE DEFICIT TRADE SURPLUS *all data and rank order is for 2015 unless otherwise specified = rate of growth in total trade fo the fastest growing developing country trade partners (CAGR calculated from ) Canada s top 20 developing country trade partners account for $173.3 billion in total trade, making up 94% of trade with developing countries; or approximately 17% of Canada s trade with all countries. 1 CHINA BoT: -$45.4B TOTAL: $85.8B Upper-middle Income +8.25% 2 MEXICO BoT: -$24.6B TOTAL: $37.8B +7.07% 3 INDIA BoT: $372M TOTAL: $8.26B +15.4% 4 BRAZIL BoT: -$1.49B TOTAL: $5.99B +2.21% 5 VIETNAM BoT: -$3.46B TOTAL: $4.72B +26.9% 6 PERU BoT: -$2.44B TOTAL: $4.08B Upper-middle Income -0.02% 11 BANGLADESH BoT: -$656M TOTAL: $2.3B +10.1% 12 PHILIPPINES BoT: -$774M TOTAL: $2.06B +6.89% 7 THAILAND BoT: -$2.22B TOTAL: $4B +5.63% 9 MALAYSIA BoT: -$1.85B TOTAL: $3.42B Upper-Middle Income +2.2% 13 COLOMBIA BoT: -$70.5M TOTAL: $1.59B +3.41% 14 SOUTH AFRICA BoT: -$277M TOTAL: $1.48B +5.26% 15 NIGERA BoT: -$574M TOTAL: $1.39B -5.96% 16 ALGERIA BoT: -$741M TOTAL: $1.16B % 8 INDONESIA BoT: $142M TOTAL: $3.48B +11% 10 TURKEY BoT: -$229M TOTAL: $2.36B +11.8% 17 EGYPT BoT: -$334M TOTAL: $1.15B +5.03% 18 DOMINICAN REPUB. BoT: -$921M TOTAL: $1.12B +29.4% 19 CAMBODIA BoT: -$1B TOTAL: $1.05B Low income +23.8% 20 PAKISTAN BoT: +$332M TOTAL: $1.03B +5.33%

4 5 CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM - DATA REPORT REGIONAL TRADE STATISTICS (2015) *all data and rank order is for 2015 unless otherwise specified WHAT DOES CANADA IMPORT FROM POOR * DEVELOPING COUNTRIES? SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA BoT: -$252M % of total trade 0.51% total trade value: $5.4B -4.0% EAST ASIA & PACIFIC BoT: -$63.2B % of total trade 15.2% total trade value: $159B 6.7% MIDDLE EAST BoT: -$535M % of total trade 1.03% total trade value: $11.1B -3.5% apparel, clothing, & textiles (combined) $4.5B 24% 11% electrical equipment & machinery $2.1B 8% precious metals & stones $1.5B LATIN AMERICA & THE CARIBBEAN BoT: -$28.9B % of total trade 5.73% total trade value: $61.5B 4.8% EUROPE & CENTRAL ASIA BoT: -$28.9B % of total trade 10.7% total trade value: $113B 2.6% SOUTH ASIA BoT: -$163M % of total trade 1.17% total trade value: $12.3BB 12.4% NORTH AMERICA BoT: -$115B % of total trade 65.6% total trade value: $689.7B 6.7% *low and lower middle income developing countries only cereals $2B coffee, tea, spices & cocoa related products $775M 16% furniture $500M footwear $745M 7% edible fruits and nuts $611M fish, crustaceans, seafood $427M minerals & fuels $1.3B WHAT DOES CANADA EXPORT TO POOR * DEVELOPING COUNTRIES? fertilizers $950M 8% 25% vegetables, fruits, oil seeds, & other seeds & fruits $2.8B = rate of growth in total trade fo the fastest growing developing country trade partners (CAGR calculated from ) TRADE BY INCOME GROUPS (2015) *IMPORTS vs EXPORTS LOW INCOME $1.45B $345M % of total trade 0.13% total trade value: $1.8B -7.8% UPPER-MIDDLE INCOME $119B $37B % of total trade 14.8% total trade value: $156B +4.7% LOWER-MIDDLE INCOME $18B $11.2B % of total trade 2.66% total trade value: $29B +7.6% HIGH INCOME $397B < $469B % of total trade 90.6% total trade value: $866B +6.1% DATE BROUGHT INTO FORCE CANADA S FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS 5 recent FTAs brought into force with developing countries: HONDURAS PANAMA JORDAN COLOMBIA PERU October 1 April 1 October 1 August 15 August Concluded FTAs that involve developing countries: TPP and Ukraine Exploratory discussions: Thailand, Philippines, Turkey and MERCOSUR

5 7 CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM - DATA REPORT POLICY COHERENCE: IMPORT TARIFFS, TRADE, & DEVELOPMENT $4.3B Canada collects approximately $4.3 billion in import tariffs a year *based on 2013 data Most developing countries are over-represented in tariff collection relative to their share in Canadian imports The single largest tariff source is China, which alone accounts for 41% of tariffs collected - yet only accounts for 11% of total imports into Canada. Other examples include Vietnam, India, and Indonesia: *based on 2013 data Tariffs Collected VS Total Imports Into Canada CHINA 41% 11% VIETNAM 3.6% 0.4% INDIA 2.5% 0.6% INDONESIA 1.7% 0.3% This is because developing countries are often competitive in the Canadian import market in the very product areas that carry tariffs. Tariffs collected as a share of imports are higher in the case of most developing countries, relative to the Canadian average. Apparel, clothing and textiles are the largest combined product area off which tariffs are collected at approximately $1.7 billion; or 40% of total tariffs In many cases tariffs collected exceed all aid (including aid for trade ) provided by Canada to the same countries, including several development focus and partner countries: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES WITH A COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE IN CANADA S IMPORT MARKET A country has a revealed comparative advantage when its share in the Canadian import market is greater than its share of exports globally. This is a simple way of estimating which developing countries are particularly competitive in the Canadian market. GUYANA ST. KITTS & NEVIS 8x BERMUDA JAMAICA 5x BAHAMAS; CAMBODIA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; MALAWI; NICARAGUA; PERU; SURINAME ALGERIA; ARMENIA; BANGLADESH; COSTA RICA; GUATEMALA; HONDURAS; MEXICO; PANAMA HOW DOES CANADA S TRADE PATTERN WITH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES COMPARE WITH THAT OF OTHER ADVANCED ECONOMIES? Canada has a substantial positive balance of trade with high income countries, primarily due to mineral exports to the US. About 25% of imports into Canada come from developing countries (low, lower and upper middle income); and 9% of exports from Canada go to developing countries. 3x 1-3x *analysis is based on UNCOMTRADE data over the period For these developing countries Canada is a key trade partner and export destination. For example, Guyana s share in the Canadian import market is 12times its share of global exports, and Guatemala s share of the Canadian import market is 50% higher than its share of global exports. Canada offers preferential market access and other trade related support in many of these countries. SHARE OF IMPORTS COMING FROM DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Aid Provided VS Tariffs Collected VIETNAM $94M $155M INDONESIA $36M $74M PHILIPPINES $20M $25M SRI LANKA $19M $23M 41% AUSTRALIA 25% CANADA 42% 31% 28% 22% 21% 23% 21% 31% 18% UK SWITZERLAND SWEDEN SPAIN NETHERLANDS JAPAN ITALY GERMANY FRANCE 47% USA The share of imports into Canada that come from developing countries is similar to other advanced economies like France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and UK; however, developing countries have a much higher share of imports in Australia, Japan, and the US (primarily driven by China)

6 9 CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM - DATA REPORT KEY DATA SOURCES SHARE OF EXPORTS GOING TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 49% AUSTRALIA 9% CANADA 39% 20% 19% 19% 18% FRANCE GERMANY ITALY JAPAN 11% NETHERLANDS SPAIN 13% SWEDEN 22% SWITZERLAND 15% UK 39% USA The share Canada s exports that go to developing countries is lower than most comparable advanced economies INTERNATIONAL TRADE CHASS (Computing in the Humanities and Social Sciences), University of Toronto Trade Analyser database. Accessed: February CBSA (Canada Border Service Agency) Customs Tariff database. Accessed: February tariff-tarif/menu-eng.html GAC (Global Affairs Canada) Negotiations and Agreements by Country. Accessed February 25, Government of Canada, Open Data Canadian International Merchandise Trade Database (raw). Accessed November 2015 to February Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada Canadian Importers Database. Accessed: February eic/site/cid-dic.nsf/eng/home United Nations UN Comtrade Database. Accessed: February TECHNICAL DETAILS Canada s top 20 developing country trade partners are ranked according to total trade (exports and imports) in World Bank income classification is applied. Developing countries are those in low, lower middle income and upper middle income countries. Countries with which Canada has a trade deficit are marked in red while countries with which Canada has a trade surplus are in green. Regional and income trade statistics are calculated by applying the World Bank s regional classification. Cumulative annualized growth rate (CAGR) is calculated over the period. Product level trade analysis is conducted using the harmonized system (HS) at the HS2 level. Some HS2 codes that are closely related (such as in the area of apparel) may be combined. Free trade agreement status is as of May HOW DOES CANADA S BALANCE OF TRADE WITH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES COMPARE WITH THAT OF OTHER ADVANCED ECONOMIES? Canada has a substantial trade deficit with developing countries around $74 billion driven primarily by China and Mexico, but it also has a deficit with lower income developing countries This means developing countries gain (in net terms) financially from trade with Canada as they sell more to than buy from Canada. Trade and development policy coherence is analyzed using import tariff data at the HS10 level and trade data at the same level, which is aggregated up to facilitate comparison. Data come from the University of Toronto CHASS project and raw Canadian International Merchandise Trade (CIMT) data from the open data portal (see data sources for details). Aid for trade data are drawn from OECD-DAC, and comparative aid data are from OECD-DAC and Canadian open data. Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) is calculated at the country level. In this case RCA is conducted at the aggregate (and not product) level. The ratio compares the share a given country has in the Canadian import market, relative to the share it has in the global export market. When the ratio is above 1, a country has a RCA in the Canadian import market. For e.g. if a country x has 2% market share in Canadian imports, but only makes up 1% of global exports, its ratio would be 2x. Data for this analysis is drawn from UNCOMTRADE. The ratio is averaged over a period range , to smoothen volatility (which is especially important in dyad level trade data for relatively small trading partners). Comparison with other advanced economies is conducted using UNCOMTRADE data. This includes analysis of the share developing countries make up in the respective import markets of the comparator economies, and the share of exports that go to developing countries. Balance of trade analysis (exports imports) is conducted using UNCOMTRADE data. Data are for AUSTRALIA +$24B FRANCE GERMANY ITALY JAPAN -$40B +$8B -$25B -$75B twitter NETHERLANDS SPAIN SWEDEN SWITZERLAND UK USA -$53B -$50B +$4B +$18B -$65B -$506B

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