Learning It is all about Change. Important terms in Classical Conditioning. John Watson and Little Albert Jones Conditioning Emotional Responses

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Learning It is all about Change. Important terms in Classical Conditioning. John Watson and Little Albert Jones Conditioning Emotional Responses"

Transcription

1 Learning It is all about Change Humans as well as animals have instincts. Relatively consistent reactions to some stimuli or events in our environments. But it would not be adaptive to have all our responses determined. Survival is increased with we have the ability to show adaptive change. How does change in behavior occur? Early British philosophers suggested change occurs depending on the associations that we experience in the events in our lives (Associationism). When two events are contiguous in time we learn to associate one with the other (Hobbes & Locke). Behaviorists in psychology adopted associationism as their model and set about examining the rules that govern how this change in relationship of events takes place. Pavlov s dog experiments. The discovery of psychic reflexes Important terms in Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus (U)- the stimulus which automatically leads to an Unconditioned response Food Unconditioned Response (UCR)- an involuntary response to a particular stimulus Salivation Conditioned Stimulus ()- the previously neutral stimulus that is paired with the Unconditioned Stimulus Bell Conditioned Response (CR)- the response that has been learned to a Conditioned Stimulus Salivation Before Conditioning During Conditioning (NS) Bell NS Bell U Meat Powder U Meat Powder No response UCR Salivation UCR Salivation After Conditioning E. B. Twitmeyer Bell CR Salivation Watson s Demo John Watson and Little Albert Jones Conditioning Emotional Responses Learned Phobia rat U loud noise CR fear UCR fear Mother Love?? mom U food CR pleasure UCR pleasure Do you and your S.O. have your song.

2 Conditioned Emotional Responses From whom would you buy a Pepsi? Watson s goals: Complex emotions (such as fear) are learned and not result of unconscious processes Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. or 7 Question Classical Conditioning. Gary Gustie is going to take the Sarah Sorority out for the first time and asks Joe Cool what he might do to make it more likely that she will fall for him. Joe says take her to a restaurant with the music and the food she enjoys, and talk about things she is interested in. If Joe is right how might classical conditioning explain it? à U à UCR Gary Music, Rest., etc Enjoyment Gary à Enjoyment Since Mildred saw Hitchcock s Psycho She won t use the shower. Andy becomes afraid when there are male Arabic passengers on his plane flight. Jane and Kristin played together on the volleyball team that won a national championship. Now when they see each other they can t help giving each other high fives and giggling. Joe totaled his car at the intersection of sunrise Drive and the Gustavus exit. Now when he approaches that intersection his stomach tightens. George recently lost his father with whom he often played golf. Since his death he has lost interest in the game. Unfortunately Sarah gets sick on the cheese cake and now every time she sees Gary she wants to barf. Explain how that happened. Higher Order Conditioning First order Needle() Drug(U) Vomiting(UCR) Needle() Vomiting(CR) Second order Alcohol() Needle() Vomiting(CR) Alcohol() Vomiting (CR) Third order Room() Alcohol() Needle() Vomiting(CR) Room() Vomiting(CR) Note: In Higher Order Conditioning the is able to function as a reinforcer (U).

3 Acquisition-Extinction-Spontaneous Recovery Pavlov s Beliefs and U Interval and Conditioning Pavlov was a strong believer in associationism and thought that the becomes a substitute for U. This happened because the two stimuli occur close together in time (contiguity). How is the bell a substitute for food? Forward Delayed Strong Conditioning Forward Trace Weak if any Conditioning U U Believed conditioning process responsible for complex behavior as well as simple. Excitation and Inhibition. Pavlov's schizophrenic and masochistic dogs Simultaneous Weak if any Conditioning U Backward Inhibitory U Problems with Associationism Behaviorists believed that associations between events were unrestrained. Any stimulus event could be associated with any other stimulus event, and that associations took numerous trials for the connection to be established. In the 60s it became obvious that his was not the case. Learned taste aversions The association of particular stimuli with rewards and punishers. Conditioned Taste Aversion If a flavor is followed by an illness experience, animals will avoid the flavor in the future. Conditioned taste aversion gave the behaviorist fits. Occurred in one trial over a very long interval. à U à UCR Taste Toxic event Nausea à CR Flavor Nausea

4 Preparedness or Belongingness. Not all stimuli equally likely to be associated with U. Explains basis for many phobias Light Sound Saccharin Taste Group with Shock U Shock (Pain) Avoidance Avoidance No Avoidance Group with X-Ray U X-Ray (Nausea) No Avoidance No Avoidance Avoidance Thorndike s Puzzle box Operant Conditioning Edward Thorndike and his puzzle box for cats. Cats showed no insight but engaged in trial and error learning controlled by reinforcement. Stimulus -> Response -> Reinforcement box paddle release Stimulus Response Reinforcement Effect Dinner Tell a joke Friends laugh Tell another Law of Effect: The consequences of a response determine the tendency to repeat the response. Positive consequences increase the tendency to repeat the response. Negative consequences decrease tendency to repeat the response. No need to assume intellectual processes.

5 Classical and Operant Conditioning Classical conditioning Involves ELICITED behavior. The reinforcement is not determined by the subject. U automatically causes behavior to occur. Operant conditioning Involves EMITTED behavior. Reinforcement depends on the behavior of the subject. Specific voluntary behaviors leads to rewards. Operant Conditioning BF Skinner and Skinner Box Greater control over reinforcement and the environment Automatic recording Operant Conditioning obeyed same principles of acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, and discrimination and generalization. OC Focus on Reinforcement Skinner s definition of reinforcement: Any stimulus or event that increases the likelihood of the behavior that led to it Problem with the law of effect. Some stimuli can be both punishers and reinforcers, eg., parental attention. Reinforcement Principles Large reinforcements work better than small, but many reinforcements produce better learning. Timing of reinforcement very important (New York Blackout). S-R-S-R-S-R-S-R

6 When Reinforcement Becomes Non-Contingent Kinds of Reinforcers Primary Reinforcer Stimulus satisfies basic biological need e.g., food, water, escape from shock. Secondary Reinforcer Stimulus has no reward value of its own but acquires it from being associated with a primary reinforcer e.g., money, grades and awards, social (good boy) Secondary Reinforcer is basically a in a Classical Conditioning paradigm. Common method of training is to use magazine click to train rats. (click) à U(food) à UCR(Pleasure) (click) à CR(Pleasure) Shaping with Secondary Reinforcers Shaping. Gradually shifting reinforcement toward response you desire. R(Acceptable response) à Reinforcement( click) How would you shape your professor? The Overjustification Effect Skinner s Recording of Responses Intrinsic rewards-those things you do because they re personally satisfying, reading the sports section in the morning Extrinsic rewards-those things you do because you receive external rewards for completing them, work-study in the marketplace What would happen to those things you enjoy doing if you received an external reward?

7 The Partial Reinforcement Effect Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval Reinforcement after Reinforcement X number after of Reinforcement random number after Reinforcement fixed time after random time responses of responses, with interval, mean of X X interval, with mean time equal to X Continuous Reinforcement Subject reinforced every time it makes the correct response Partial or Intermittent Reinforcement Subject not reinforced every time it makes the correct response PRE Very high response rates Very resistant to extinction (pre) Response rate less dependent on subject s motivation Categorize the following: Finding Winning Working Hitting Getting Exams. money a mail home a commission slot on run the machine sidewalk Reinforcers and Punishers Reinforcers All Reinforcers increase likelihood of the response All Punishers decrease likelihood of the response Two types of reinforcement Positive Reinforcement - Something positive added to encourage a response. Child is playing nicely with friend and his dad tells him I like that. Negative Reinforcement (Escape or Avoidance learning) Something aversive removed to encourage a response. Child is yelled at by his parents until he plays nicely Which technique would be more effective for the parent? Punishers Negative Reinforcement vs. Punishment Types of Punishers Punishment (Passive Avoidance Learning)- Something aversive added to suppress a response. Child is mean to his sibling and mother spanks him Negative Punishment Time-Out (Omission training)- Something positive removed to suppress response Child is mean to his sibling and his mother takes him out of the playroom and requires to sit in a corner for 5 minutes. Negative reinforcement vs. Punishment

8 Punishment Is Punishment Effective? Most people who speed are not put off by the threat of a speeding ticket and fine. Why? Punishment depends on fear elicitation. However, each time you transgress without getting caught is like an extinction trial. Becomes weaker and weaker. You have a friend who smokes? Should you try to scare her into stopping? Will it last? Reinforcement or Punishment? Punishment, Neg. Reinforcement, Pos. Reinforcement, or Time-out? Your brother locks you in your room and plays the Barney theme song until you tell him what Mom and Dad are giving him for his birthday. You win a $1, scholarship for your high GPA. You don t go into your friend s apartment because her smoking gives you a headache. Your SO gives you a hug when you tell them they look great. You don t tell sexist jokes in mixed company because your friends quit talking to you when you do. You put on your sunglasses because the bright sun is making your eyes hurt. You get an A on the psych exam? An F?

CHAPTER TEN. SKINNER AND STAATS: The Challenge of Behaviorism 10/14/08. Personality Psychology. Chapter Overview. Chapter Overview

CHAPTER TEN. SKINNER AND STAATS: The Challenge of Behaviorism 10/14/08. Personality Psychology. Chapter Overview. Chapter Overview Personality Psychology Psychology 370 Sheila K. Grant, Ph.D. Professor California State University, Northridge CHAPTER TEN SKINNER AND STAATS: The Challenge of Behaviorism Chapter Overview RADICAL BEHAVIORISM:

More information

Chapter 6 Learning Objectives with SubQuestions

Chapter 6 Learning Objectives with SubQuestions Chapter 6 Learning Objectives with SubQuestions #1) Describe Pavlov's demonstration of classical conditioning and the key elements in this form of learning (pp 170 171) What is classical conditioning?

More information

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 9: Classical Conditioning. Module 9. Classical Conditioning

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 9: Classical Conditioning. Module 9. Classical Conditioning Module 9 Classical Conditioning THREE KINDS OF LEARNING 1. Classical conditioning a kind of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response that was originally produced

More information

Chapter Outline. Learning. Ch. 6 Learning and Behavior General Psychology Jeffrey D. Leitzel, Ph.D.

Chapter Outline. Learning. Ch. 6 Learning and Behavior General Psychology Jeffrey D. Leitzel, Ph.D. Ch. 6 Learning and Behavior General Psychology Jeffrey D. Leitzel, Ph.D. Chapter Outline Types of Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning 2 Learning Learning: Relatively

More information

Learning: Classical Conditioning

Learning: Classical Conditioning How Do We Learn? Learning Learning: Classical Conditioning Chapter 7 One way is through Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Extending Pavlov s Understanding Pavlov s Legacy Psy 12000.003 1 2 Definition

More information

Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning

Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning Chapter Summary Definitions Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. A stimulus is anything that comes in through your senses.

More information

Learning Notes. I think this is a fun lesson! Anyone with pets or children has seen how these principles are applied to behavior.

Learning Notes. I think this is a fun lesson! Anyone with pets or children has seen how these principles are applied to behavior. Learning Notes I think this is a fun lesson! Anyone with pets or children has seen how these principles are applied to behavior. Learning is more than taking classes! It changes your behavior and how you

More information

Psychology Dr. Saman Lecture 2 - Learning

Psychology Dr. Saman Lecture 2 - Learning Psychology Dr. Saman Lecture 2 - Learning Learning refers to relatively permanent changes in behavior resulting from practice or experience Observation can lead to learning Learning requires an operational

More information

John Watson: Little Albert Study

John Watson: Little Albert Study Three Types of Learning Learning Chapter 6 Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Observational learning John Watson: Little Albert Study Pavlov Classical Conditioning Neutral Stimulus (NS) Unconditioned

More information

Visualizing Psychology

Visualizing Psychology Visualizing Psychology by Siri Carpenter & Karen Huffman PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 6: Learning Siri Carpenter, Yale University Karen Huffman, Palomar College Lecture Overview Classical

More information

Classical Conditioning Notes by Dr. Ilija Gallego. The Simplest Type of Learning: Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Notes by Dr. Ilija Gallego. The Simplest Type of Learning: Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning Classical Conditioning Notes by Dr. Ilija Gallego The Simplest Type of Learning: Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning Classical conditioning is based on Stimulus > Response A stimulus in anything you can

More information

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 10: Operant & Cognitive Approaches. Module 10. Operant & Cognitive Approaches

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 10: Operant & Cognitive Approaches. Module 10. Operant & Cognitive Approaches Module 10 Operant & Cognitive Approaches OPERANT CONDITIONING Thorndike s law of effect states that behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened, while behaviors followed by negative consequences

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning CHAPTER 8 Classical Conditioning 131. A group of ranchers attempts to discourage coyotes from attacking their sheep by placing a substance on the wool of the sheep that makes coyotes violently ill if they

More information

Learning Goals Behaviorism: Classical Conditioning

Learning Goals Behaviorism: Classical Conditioning Learning Goals Behaviorism: Dr. K. A. Korb Components of classical conditioning Identify the,, Conditioned Stimulus, and in a learning situation Phases of classical conditioning Important factors in classical

More information

During this unit, we will be looking at the following topics:

During this unit, we will be looking at the following topics: Unit 5: Learning and Conditioning For many species, including of course human beings, the ability to survive depends upon our ability to modify our behavior based upon experience. In other words, our survival

More information

Learning. Learning. relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience

Learning. Learning. relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Association *We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence Aristotle 2000 years

More information

Test Review Chapter 7

Test Review Chapter 7 Name: Test Review Chapter 7 Period: 1. An unconditioned stimulus: A) becomes a response to the conditioned stimulus. B) causes the conditioning to happen. C) is a previously neutral response that becomes

More information

Learning. Classical Conditioning. Neutral stimulus (NS)- a stimulus that does not cause a response. Before Conditioning

Learning. Classical Conditioning. Neutral stimulus (NS)- a stimulus that does not cause a response. Before Conditioning Term Explanation Application/Example/Extension Classical conditioning is a type of learning where a previously neutral stimulus that is continuously paired with an unconditioned stimulus (a natural stimulus

More information

Chapter 7: Learning. Learning. Learning. PSY 110: General Psychology

Chapter 7: Learning. Learning. Learning. PSY 110: General Psychology Chapter 7: Learning PSY 110: General Psychology Learning Monkeys beginning to wash their food before they eat it The rituals that athletes perform before/during contests Birds learning to flutter their

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience Classical Conditioning Type of learning where a stimulus gains the power to cause a response The stimulus

More information

Psychology Teach Yourself Series Topic 10: Learning Theories

Psychology Teach Yourself Series Topic 10: Learning Theories Psychology Teach Yourself Series Topic 10: Learning Theories A: Level 14, 474 Flinders Street Melbourne VIC 3000 T: 1300 134 518 W: tssm.com.au E: info@tssm.com.au TSSM 2013 Page 1 of 6 Contents Learning

More information

Definition Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience.

Definition Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience. EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition) David Myers Chapter 7 How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Operant Conditioning Skinner s Experiments Contrasting Classical & Operant Conditioning

More information

Learning. Relatively permanent behavior change that is acquired through experience

Learning. Relatively permanent behavior change that is acquired through experience Learning Relatively permanent behavior change that is acquired through experience Learning vs Maturation Not all behavior change is best described as learning Maturation (neuromuscular development) usually

More information

Programmed Learning Review

Programmed Learning Review Programmed Learning Review L-HO1-121907 Take another sheet of paper and cover the answers located in the right hand column. Then read through the unit filling in the blanks as you go. After filling in

More information

Chapter 5 CC (Classical Conditioning) Practice "Quiz" Name Period Date

Chapter 5 CC (Classical Conditioning) Practice Quiz Name Period Date Chapter 5 CC (Classical Conditioning) Practice "Quiz" Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Conditioned taste aversions

More information

Why do people like extra credit?

Why do people like extra credit? Why do people like extra credit? CLASS OBJECTIVES: What is Operant Conditioning? Ch.6-Learning 1 Classical Conditioning was a good start but B. F. Skinner believed that more behaviors can be explained

More information

Introduction to Learning. Chapter 1

Introduction to Learning. Chapter 1 Introduction to Learning Chapter 1 A Definition of Learning Learning is: An experiential process Resulting in a relatively permanent change Not explained by temporary states, maturation, or innate response

More information

Slide 1: What is Learning? Learning- a relatively durable change in behavior that is due to experience.

Slide 1: What is Learning? Learning- a relatively durable change in behavior that is due to experience. Slide 1: What is? - a relatively durable change in behavior that is due to experience. Common examples- Language Sports Mastery Social Behavior Reading etc Types of to be studied Observational (Bandura)-

More information

Phobias: Irrational fears of specific objects or situations, often the result of a type of learning called classical conditioning

Phobias: Irrational fears of specific objects or situations, often the result of a type of learning called classical conditioning PSYC 1001 Page 1 Chapter 6 Phobias: Irrational fears of specific objects or situations, often the result of a type of learning called classical conditioning Learning: A relatively durable change in behaviour

More information

Practice. PSYCHOLOGY Practice

Practice. PSYCHOLOGY Practice PSYCHOLOGY Practice Practice Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill

More information

LEARNING MEYERS AND DEWALL CHAPTER 6

LEARNING MEYERS AND DEWALL CHAPTER 6 LEARNING MEYERS AND DEWALL CHAPTER 6 LEARNING OVERVIEW HOW DO WE LEARN? CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OPERANT CONDITIONING BIOLOGY, COGNITION, AND LEARNING LEARNING BY OBSERVATION LEARNING Learning the process

More information

Operant Conditioning. Skinner and Thorndike

Operant Conditioning. Skinner and Thorndike Operant Conditioning Skinner and Thorndike Operant Conditioning Organisms learn to do things, or not to do things, because of the consequences of their behavior Example: Avoid M&M s because they made you

More information

CALICUT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION CORE COURSE OF BSc. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

CALICUT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION CORE COURSE OF BSc. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS CALICUT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION CORE COURSE OF BSc. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Learning may be defined as a change in behavior that occurs

More information

Theories for Child Development: What are they and why should you care? Lifespan Developmental Theory

Theories for Child Development: What are they and why should you care? Lifespan Developmental Theory Theories for Child Development: What are they and why should you care? Wednesday, August 24 th, 2005 Covering: Lifespan Developmental Theory, Psychoanalytic Theory, Erikson, Behavioral and Social Learning,

More information

UNIT 6: LEARNING A. SIMPLE FORMS OF LEARNING

UNIT 6: LEARNING A. SIMPLE FORMS OF LEARNING UNIT 6: LEARNING Learning: Stressing the lasting change/permanent Behaviorist Psychologists vs. Cognitive Psychologists Behavioral: Learning only occurs with behavior since they can observe behavior. Cognitive:

More information

GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 LEARNING REVISION

GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 LEARNING REVISION GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 LEARNING REVISION GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING LEARNING LEARNING= Is a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience Some behaviours are learnt, but

More information

The Behavioral Approach

The Behavioral Approach The Behavioral Approach It s all about observable behavior! In order to understand another person, you must simply understand the consequences he/she experienced during a lifetime. Ivan Pavlov B.F. Skinner

More information

Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience

Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience 1 Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience What are some ways that you learn? Seeing Doing Associating Other ways? 3 Unlike some animals we are not necessarily born with a

More information

Outline. General Psychology PSYC 200. Definition. Habituation. Habituation. Classical Conditioning 3/17/2015. Learning

Outline. General Psychology PSYC 200. Definition. Habituation. Habituation. Classical Conditioning 3/17/2015. Learning /17/015 General Psychology PSYC 00 Outline 0) Definition of Learning 1) Habituation ) Classical Conditioning ) Operant Conditioning Learning Definition Learning = change in behavior or thought as a result

More information

Psychology Unit 5 Test

Psychology Unit 5 Test Psychology Unit 5 Test 1 Choose the best answer. (2 pts each). Psychology Unit 5 Test 1. Twenty years after graduating, a subject is able to correctly identify photographs of students she attended high

More information

How do we Learn? How do you know you ve learned something? ClASS OBJECTIVES: What is learning? What is Classical Conditioning? Chapter 6 Learning

How do we Learn? How do you know you ve learned something? ClASS OBJECTIVES: What is learning? What is Classical Conditioning? Chapter 6 Learning How do we Learn? Chapter 6 Learning ClASS OBJECTIVES: What is learning? What is Classical Conditioning? How do you know you ve learned something? 1 Can our beliefs and attitudes be a result of learning??

More information

CHAPTER 6: Learning Prentice Hall Publishing LEARNING. Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning

CHAPTER 6: Learning Prentice Hall Publishing LEARNING. Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning CHAPTER 6: Learning 2004 Prentice Hall Publishing LEARNING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning LEARNING DEFINING LEARNING The modification through experience of pre-existing

More information

Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs through experience. It is a continuous process. It is a gradual process.

Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs through experience. It is a continuous process. It is a gradual process. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs through experience. It is a continuous process. It is a gradual process. Process of Learning A stimulus could be an event, situation,

More information

Chapter 6. Chapter 6 Preview. What is Learning? Learning defined

Chapter 6. Chapter 6 Preview. What is Learning? Learning defined Learning defined Chapter 6 Learning and Behavior Analysis Chapter 6 Preview The Study of Learning Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals Operant Conditioning: Learning About Consequences

More information

Module 26: How We Learn and Classical Conditioning (pg ) Learning: What does it mean that we learn by association? Habituation: o Example:

Module 26: How We Learn and Classical Conditioning (pg ) Learning: What does it mean that we learn by association? Habituation: o Example: Koch AP Psych Unit VI Reading Guide Learning Module 26: How We Learn and Classical Conditioning (pg. 262-274) Learning: What does it mean that we learn by association? Habituation: Associative Learning:

More information

Operant Conditioning

Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning! Definition! Classical vs. Operant Conditioning! Four Basic Operant Procedures! Factors that make Operant procedures more effective! Primary and Secondary Reinforcers! Shaping Conditioning!

More information

Welcome to Psychology, The First Assessment

Welcome to Psychology, The First Assessment Your first assessment task begins here!! Below you will find some reading about an approach in psychology called behaviourism. This is not the only type of psychology that we will consider but it was one

More information

REVISION NOTES. Intermediate 1 & 2 Psychology LEARNING THEORIES. Understanding the Individual

REVISION NOTES. Intermediate 1 & 2 Psychology LEARNING THEORIES. Understanding the Individual Intermediate 1 & 2 Psychology Understanding the Individual LEARNING THEORIES REVISION NOTES 1 www.curriculumpress.co.uk Number 55 Psychology Factsheets s 2 3 4 OPERANT CONDITIONING Trial and Error Learning

More information

Chapter 5 OC (operant conditioning) quiz practice Name Period Date

Chapter 5 OC (operant conditioning) quiz practice Name Period Date Chapter 5 OC (operant conditioning) quiz practice Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Thorndike was known for his

More information

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7 1 Chapter in Review 1. Learning is difficult to define, but most psychologists would agree that: In learning the organism acquires some new knowledge or behavior as a result of experience; learning can

More information

Review of Classical and Instrumental Conditioning

Review of Classical and Instrumental Conditioning Review of Classical and Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning Watson s Little Albert Little Albert was afraid of loud noises (but not white rats) UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) A loud noise was made while Albert

More information

Written Assignment 2. Chapters Covering Learning and Memory. Corresponds with Exam 2

Written Assignment 2. Chapters Covering Learning and Memory. Corresponds with Exam 2 Written Assignment 2 Chapters Covering Learning and Memory Corresponds with Exam 2 In partial fulfillment of the requirements for PSYC 2301 Introduction to Psychology Houston Community College Professor:

More information

Psychology with Mr. Duez UNIT 3 "Learning" LEARNING TARGETS

Psychology with Mr. Duez UNIT 3 Learning LEARNING TARGETS Psychology with Mr. Duez UNIT 3 "Learning" LEARNING TARGETS If you learn only 6 things from this chapter... 1. Learning refers to a relatively permanent change in behavior based on experience. 2. Classical

More information

Learning. Learning. relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience

Learning. Learning. relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Chapter 7 Learning Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Association We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence

More information

Learning. Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice. Permanent Experience Practice

Learning. Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice. Permanent Experience Practice Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice Permanent Experience Practice Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Russian Physiologist Father= Village Priest Father-in-law=

More information

5) A reinforcer that removes something unpleasant from a situation is a(n) reinforcer. A) negative B) secondary C) positive D) primary

5) A reinforcer that removes something unpleasant from a situation is a(n) reinforcer. A) negative B) secondary C) positive D) primary CH 5 review Name If you haven't outlined the chapter in its entirety, please do so by Jan 1. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A

More information

Learning. There are three types of learning that we cover in this chapter.

Learning. There are three types of learning that we cover in this chapter. Chapter 3: Pavlovian Conditioning 1 Learning There are three types of learning that we cover in this chapter. Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning Chapter 3: Pavlovian Conditioning

More information

Skinner and Operant Conditioning. Slide One:

Skinner and Operant Conditioning. Slide One: Skinner and Operant Conditioning Slide One: Two characteristics help us distinguish between the two forms of associative learning. As you learned in classical conditioning, the organism learns associations

More information

How do we Learn? How do you know you ve learned something? CLASS OBJECTIVES: What is learning? What is Classical Conditioning? Chapter 6 Learning

How do we Learn? How do you know you ve learned something? CLASS OBJECTIVES: What is learning? What is Classical Conditioning? Chapter 6 Learning How do we Learn? Chapter 6 Learning CLASS OBJECTIVES: What is learning? What is Classical Conditioning? How do you know you ve learned something? 1 Can our beliefs and attitudes be a result of learning??

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, 2007 1 Classical Conditioning Module 21 2 Classical Conditioning How Do We Learn?

More information

Learning: Classical Conditioning

Learning: Classical Conditioning Learning: Classical Conditioning Outline Learning Overview Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov & his dogs Watson Terminology Applications Transitioning from classical conditioning to operant conditioning

More information

Quiz: Operant Conditioning 1 1. The food given to a mouse in the Skinner Box would be classified as a. a) positive reinforcer b) negative reinforcer

Quiz: Operant Conditioning 1 1. The food given to a mouse in the Skinner Box would be classified as a. a) positive reinforcer b) negative reinforcer Quiz: Operant Conditioning 1 1. The food given to a mouse in the Skinner Box would be classified as a. a) positive reinforcer b) negative reinforcer c) punishment d) neutral stimulus 2. Ellen is training

More information

Unit VI: Learning. Ms. Justice AP Psychology

Unit VI: Learning. Ms. Justice AP Psychology Unit VI: Learning Ms. Justice AP Psychology 2014-2015 Unit VI - Overview 26 How We Learn & Classical Conditioning 27 Operant Conditioning 28 Operant Conditioning s Applications, and Comparison to Classical

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning What is Classical Conditioning and how does it work... Conditioning involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism's environment. Classical Conditioning

More information

Overview of Ch. 6: Behavioral Views of Learning

Overview of Ch. 6: Behavioral Views of Learning Overview of Ch. 6: Behavioral Views of Learning Understanding Learning The ABC s of Behavior Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Classroom Behavioral Interventions Problems & Issues Applied Behavior

More information

UNIT 6: LEARNING. 6. When the US is presented prior to a neutral stimulus, conditioning DOES NOT (does/does not) occur.

UNIT 6: LEARNING. 6. When the US is presented prior to a neutral stimulus, conditioning DOES NOT (does/does not) occur. UNIT 6: LEARNING HOW DO WE LEARN? OBJECTIVE 1: Define learning, and identify two forms of learning. 1. A relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience is called LEARNING. 2. More

More information

Chapter 5: Learning I. Introduction: What Is Learning? learning Conditioning II. Classical Conditioning: Associating Stimuli Ivan Pavlov

Chapter 5: Learning I. Introduction: What Is Learning? learning Conditioning II. Classical Conditioning: Associating Stimuli Ivan Pavlov Chapter 5: Learning I. Introduction: What Is Learning? A. Psychologists define learning as a process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of an individual s experience.

More information

LEARNING. Chapter 6 (Bernstein), pages 194-229

LEARNING. Chapter 6 (Bernstein), pages 194-229 LEARNING Chapter 6 (Bernstein), pages 194-229 What is LEARNING? LEARNING is the adaptive process through which experience modifies preexisting behavior and understanding; relatively permanent change in

More information

Why do people like extra credit?

Why do people like extra credit? Why do people like extra credit? CLASS OBJECTIVES: What is Operant Conditioning? Ch.6-Learning 1 Classical Conditioning was a good start but B. F. Skinner believed that more behaviors can be explained

More information

Running Head: DIFFERENT PSYCHOLOGICAL VIEWPOINTS ON NATURE VS. NURTURE AND HOW THEY EXPLAIN HUMAN BEHAVIOR 1

Running Head: DIFFERENT PSYCHOLOGICAL VIEWPOINTS ON NATURE VS. NURTURE AND HOW THEY EXPLAIN HUMAN BEHAVIOR 1 Running Head: DIFFERENT PSYCHOLOGICAL VIEWPOINTS ON NATURE VS. NURTURE AND HOW 1 Different Psychological Viewpoints on Nature vs. Nurture and how They Explain Human Behavior Tyler D. Hall Mayland Community

More information

Classical Conditioning. Classical and Operant Conditioning. Basic effect. Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning. Classical and Operant Conditioning. Basic effect. Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Classical and Operant Conditioning January 16, 2001 Reminder of Basic Effect What makes for effective conditioning? How does classical conditioning work? Classical Conditioning Reflex-basic

More information

What is learning? - I

What is learning? - I What is learning? - I Learning is a continuous process of interaction between an organism and its environment. Learning involves the perception and processing of information at a number of levels. At a

More information

IMPORTANT BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES

IMPORTANT BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES IMPORTANT BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES PAVLOV THORNDIKE SKINNER PAVLOV S CLASSICAL CONDITIONING I. Introduction: Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a Russian Physiologist who won Nobel Prize

More information

Term paper. PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since Charles Darwin ( )

Term paper. PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since Charles Darwin ( ) PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since 1600 Dr. Peter Assmann Summer 2016 Term paper Due next Thursday (July 21) by midnight Upload your term paper to E-Learning:

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Worth Publishers, 2007 1 Classical Conditioning Module 21 2 Classical Conditioning How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments

More information

Chapter 15. Historical Perspective. How the world creates who you are: behaviorism and social learning theory

Chapter 15. Historical Perspective. How the world creates who you are: behaviorism and social learning theory Chapter 15 How the world creates who you are: behaviorism and social learning theory Learning 2 stimuli events, things, or people repeatedly experienced together will eventually come to elicit the same

More information

Psychology HW pg

Psychology HW pg Psychology HW pg. 313-325 Stimulus: something that produces a reaction, or response Pavlov's Dog Pavlov knew that dogs normally salivate (mouth watering) if meat powder is placed on their tongue. In other

More information

Learning. Learning. Associations 2/2/11. Classical Conditioning

Learning. Learning. Associations 2/2/11. Classical Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning Learning Any relatively permanent change in the behavior, thoughts, and feelings of an organism Learning differs from reflex Our minds naturally connect events appearing

More information

Operant Conditioning and Cognitive Learning

Operant Conditioning and Cognitive Learning CHAPTER 9 Operant Conditioning and Cognitive Learning 151. What is one major difference between operant conditioning and classical conditioning? (A) Operant conditioning takes place as a result of some

More information

9.00 Learning. Professor John Gabrieli

9.00 Learning. Professor John Gabrieli 9.00 Learning Professor John Gabrieli Recent Research on Effective Study Test First, Study Later Testing Yourself on Material More Useful Than Continued Study (ok to have wrong answers) LEARNING how behavior

More information

Section One: Classical Conditioning

Section One: Classical Conditioning Operational Definitions Learning Learning Page 1 of 8 o A relatively change in behavior (or behavior potential) due to Behaviorism experience o Research on learning has been influenced by this approach

More information

Types of Learning 1. learning is the type of learning that occurs when an organism makes a connection between two events.

Types of Learning 1. learning is the type of learning that occurs when an organism makes a connection between two events. Types of Learning 1. learning is the type of learning that occurs when an organism makes a connection between two events. 2. is the process of learning the associations between two events. 3. Millie feels

More information

Behaviorism & Education

Behaviorism & Education Behaviorism & Education Early Psychology (the use of nonobjective methods such as Introspection) Learning = behavior change movement toward objective methods Behaviorism Pavlov, Skinner (Focus on Sà R)

More information

Learning. Exam 2 Results. Learning. Learning. Definition. Learning. Chapter 8. How Do We Learn? Operant Conditioning. Classical Conditioning

Learning. Exam 2 Results. Learning. Learning. Definition. Learning. Chapter 8. How Do We Learn? Operant Conditioning. Classical Conditioning Exam 2 Results Top Score: 49 Mean: 35.80 Bimodal: 34 and 37 Median: 36 Standard Deviation: 5.81 To calculate your approximate grade, divide 49 by your score. Example: 36/49 = 73.5% = C Chapter 8 1 2 How

More information

Learning from Experience. Definition of Learning. Psychological definition. Pavlov: Classical Conditioning

Learning from Experience. Definition of Learning. Psychological definition. Pavlov: Classical Conditioning Learning from Experience Overview Understanding Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning Definition of Learning Permanent change Change in behavior or knowledge Learning

More information

GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY II. Dr. Albina Colden

GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY II. Dr. Albina Colden GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY II Dr. Albina Colden albina.colden@sfu.ac.at GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY II 1. A (re-)introduction to Psychology 2. Quantifiable Responses: Behaviourist Learning. sensitization. habituation.

More information

Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning Classical conditioning Video clips http://www.psychexchange.co.uk/videos/view/ 20609/ 2 and a half men clip http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ja96fba- WHk Big Bang theory clip positive reinforcement http://www.psychexchange.co.uk/_hotpotatoes/

More information

Why do people like extra credit?

Why do people like extra credit? Why do people like extra credit? CLASS OBJECTIVES: What is Operant Conditioning? Ch.6-Learning 1 Classical Conditioning was a good start but B. F. Skinner believed that more behaviors Also referred to

More information

Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D., NCSP 1

Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D., NCSP 1 EDS 245: Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D., NCSP California State University, Sacramento Behavioral Interventions Behavioral Consultation and Intervention: A Credentialing Standard Standards for Graduate Preparation

More information

Today. Learning. Learning. What is Learning? The Biological Basis. Hebbian Learning in Neurons

Today. Learning. Learning. What is Learning? The Biological Basis. Hebbian Learning in Neurons Today Learning What is Learning? Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Intro Psychology Georgia Tech Instructor: Dr. Bruce Walker What is Learning? Depends on your purpose and perspective Could be

More information

Approaches to studying animal behavior

Approaches to studying animal behavior Approaches to studying animal behavior Foundations of modern study of behavior 1. Evolution by natural selection 2. Genetics and inheritance 3. Comparative method Evolution by natural selection Alfred

More information

Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning

Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning Psychology Behavior 01 Notes Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning Behaviorism is essentially the study of how we learn. Humans are different from many animals in that we possess very little instinct, or

More information

BEYOND PAVLOV, THORNDIKE, AND SKINNER: OTHER EARLY BEHAVIORIST THEORIES

BEYOND PAVLOV, THORNDIKE, AND SKINNER: OTHER EARLY BEHAVIORIST THEORIES Supplementary reading in the Companion Website accompanying HUMAN LEARNING 5/E by J. E. Ormrod, 2008, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights

More information

A BEHAVIORAL VIEW OF LEARNING

A BEHAVIORAL VIEW OF LEARNING Chapter 10 Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning: The Story of Dogs and Little Albert A BEHAVIORAL VIEW OF LEARNING As you read below you may come to think that behavioral learning theories seem

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Chapter 5 Learning Classical Conditioning Learning relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience Behaviorism emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as determinant

More information

Classical Conditioning I

Classical Conditioning I Classical Conditioning I Pavlov s Discovery Basic Procedure Acquisition, Extinction, And Spontaneous Recovery Ivan Pavlov Russian Physiologist Nobel Prize in 1904 for work on the role of the nervous system

More information

GCSE Psychology Learning

GCSE Psychology Learning GCSE Psychology Learning Student: Tutor: Unit 2: Understanding other people 1 Learning What is classical conditioning? What do we mean when we say we have learnt something? Read the statements below and

More information

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7 1 Chapter Test 1. Knowing how to do something, like drive a car or play a sport, is referred to as a. explicit knowledge b. behavioral knowledge c. procedural knowledge d. implicit knowledge 2. All of

More information

Encyclopedia of School Psychology Conditioning: Classical And Operant

Encyclopedia of School Psychology Conditioning: Classical And Operant Encyclopedia of School Psychology Conditioning: Classical And Operant Contributors: Merilee McCurdy & Michelle Swanger Edited by: Steven W. Lee Book Title: Encyclopedia of School Psychology Chapter Title:

More information