Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 9: Classical Conditioning. Module 9. Classical Conditioning

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1 Module 9 Classical Conditioning

2 THREE KINDS OF LEARNING 1. Classical conditioning a kind of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response that was originally produced by different stimulus Ivan Pavlov conducted experiments with dogs Pavlov rang a bell before putting food in a dogs mouth. after numerous trials of pairing the food and bell, the dog salivated to the sound of the bell This becomes a conditioned reflex

3 THREE KINDS OF LEARNING (CONT.) 2. Operant conditioning refers to a kind of learning in which the consequences that follow some behavior increase or decrease the likelihood of that behavior s occurrence in the future E. L. Thorndike experimented with cats in the puzzle box Law of Effect says that if some random actions are followed by pleasurable consequences or reward, such actions are strengthened and will likely occur in the future

4 THREE KINDS OF LEARNING (CONT.) 3. Cognitive learning a kind of learning that involves mental processes, such as attention and memory; may be learned through observation or imitation; and may not involve any persons to perform any observable behaviors Albert Bandura found that children who had watched the film of an adult modeling aggressive behavior played for aggressively than children who had not seen the film Bandura s study demonstrated: that we can learn through observation or imitation (referred to as observational or vicarious learning)

5 PROCEDURE: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Step 1: Choosing stimulus and response Neutral stimulus some stimulus that causes a sensory response, such as being seen, heard, or smelled, but does not produce the reflex being tested Unconditioned stimulus UCS some stimulus that triggers or elicits a physiological reflex, such as salivation or eye blink Unconditioned response UCR unlearned, innate, involuntary physiological reflex that is elicited by the unconditioned stimulus

6 PROCEDURE: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (CONT.) Step 2: Establishing classical conditioning Neutral stimulus trial, pair neutral stimulus (bell) with the unconditioned stimulus (food) neutral stimulus presented first then short time later the unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) seconds after the tone begins, you present the UCS Unconditioned response (UCR) UCS (food) elicits the UCR (salivation)

7 PROCEDURE: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (CONT.) Step 3: Testing for conditioning Conditioned stimulus CS is a formerly neutral stimulus that has acquired the ability to elicit a response that was previously elicited by the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned response CR elicited by the conditioned stimulus, is similar to.\, but not identical in size or amount to, the UCS CR, lesser response than the UCR

8 PROCEDURE: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (CONT.)

9 OTHER CONDITIONING CONCEPTS Generalization tendency for a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response Discrimination occurs during classical conditioning when an organism learns to make a particular response to some stimuli but not to others

10 OTHER CONDITIONING CONCEPTS (CONT.) Extinction refers to a procedure in which a conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus and, as a result, the conditioned stimulus tends to no longer elicit the conditioned response Spontaneous recovery tendency for the conditioned response to reappear after being extinguished even though there have been no further conditioning trials

11 OTHER CONDITIONING CONCEPTS (CONT.) Conditioned emotional responses Fear, rage, and love could be conditioned as CRs to CSs Happiness, sadness, and sexual responses can also be conditioned Example: fear (CR) of white rabbits (CS) Generalization Emotional response to similar stimuli Example: fear (CR) to Santa Claus mask (CS) Extinction Lack of CS and UCS pairings reduces strength of CR

12 OTHER CONDITIONING CONCEPTS (CONT.)

13 ADAPTIVE VALUES & USES Adaptive value refers to usefulness of certain abilities or traits that have evolved in animals and humans and tend to increase their chances of survival, such as finding food, acquiring mates, and avoiding pain and injury Taste aversion learning refers to associating a particular sensory cue (smell, tastes, sound, or sight) with getting sick and thereafter avoiding that particular sensory cue in the future

14 ADAPTIVE VALUES & USES (CONT.) Adaptive value explanation preparedness refers to the phenomenon that animals and humans are biologically prepared to associate some combinations of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli more easily than others animals are genetically prepared to use different senses to detect stimuli that are important to their survival and adaptation

15 THREE EXPLANATIONS Theories of classical conditioning Stimulus substitution & contiguity theory stimulus substitution means that a neural bond or association forms in the brain between the neutral stimulus (bell) and unconditioned stimulus (food) Contiguity theory Classical conditioning occurs because two stimuli (neutral stimulus and unconditional stimulus) are paired close together in time (contiguous)

16 THREE EXPLANATIONS (CONT.) Theories of classical conditioning Cognitive perspective says that an organism learns a predictable relationship between two stimuli such that the occurrence of one stimulus (neutral stimulus) predicts the occurrence of another (unconditioned stimulus)

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