The Cognitive Dog. ABC S OF LEARNING THEORY How Dogs Learn The Basics

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1 The Cognitive Dog ABC S OF LEARNING THEORY How Dogs Learn The Basics

2 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Also known as Pavlovian, Associative and Respondent OPERANT CONDITIONING What we know as training

3 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Pavlov s Dogs Relates to reflexes not to voluntary behaviors Happening all the time Clicker and food is a classical association Teaching a cue is a classical association

4 OPERANT CONDITIONING Definition (from How Dog s Learn Burch & Bailey, 1999): The part of science of behavior that explains the functional relationship between environmental events and behavior. It is a key component in explaining how all organisms (including dogs) learn. In simple terms what happens in the environment will affect what a dog will do in the future. If a dog receives a cookie for sitting he will be more likely to sit again. If a bee stings a dog when he sits he is less likely to sit.

5 OPERANT CONDITIONING CHANGING BEHAVIOR REINFORCEMENT PUNISHMENT POSITIVE Strengthens Weakens NEGATIVE Strengthens Weakens

6 OPERANT CONDITIONING. REINFORCEMENT: Strengthens behaviors PUNISHMENT: Weakens behaviors Do you want to stop or increase the behavior?

7 OPERANT CONDITIONING REINFORCEMENT: Strengthens behaviors Is anything that will increase the likelihood of a behavior to happen in the future To be effective it should closely follow the behavior so an association is made

8 OPERANT CONDITIONING PUNISHMENT: Weakens behaviors Punishment decreases the likelihood of a behavior to be repeated in the future To be effective it should closely follow the behavior Has potential fallout; fear, anxiety

9 REINFORCEMENT in dog training Strengthens behaviors Positive Reinforcement Add good As perceived by the dog Negative Reinforcement Remove bad As perceived by the dog

10 REINFORCEMENT in dog training Positive Reinforcement Add good - As perceived by the dog Examples: Food, toys, exercise, play & petting (not all dogs)

11 REINFORCEMENT in dog training Negative Reinforcement Remove aversive, As perceived by the dog Examples: Stop pulling on a leash, stop electronic collar; spray or shock, stop ear pinch

12 REINFORCEMENT in dog training Positive Reinforcement Primary Reinforcer Secondary Reinforcer Negative Reinforcement Primary Reinforcer Secondary Reinforcer

13 REINFORCEMENT in dog training Positive & Negative Reinforcement Primary An Unconditioned Reinforcer. A primary reinforcer will increase the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated in the future when presented immediately following a behavior. Related to basic needs, food, drink, some touch. Secondary A Conditioned Reinforcer. It is something that by itself does not mean anything to the dog. But when paired with a primary reinforcer the secondary will then strengthen behaviors. For dogs these can include, praise, clicker, petting, verbal reprimand or sound. This pairing is classical conditioning. REINFORCEMENT INCREASES BEHAVIOR

14 Punishment in dog training: Punishment decreases behavior Positive Punishment add something bad Negative Punishment take away something good The good or bad must be the dogs perception

15 Punishment in dog training: Positive Punishment Add something thing bad Examples: electric shock, quick leash correction, spray bottle or collar, throwing objects, hitting

16 Punishment in dog training: Negative Punishment Remove something good Examples: Time out in crate = removes you or the fun, Take dog away from fun event such as agility run for broken stay

17 Punishment in dog training: Positive Punishment Primary Punisher Secondary Punisher Negative Punishment Primary Punisher Secondary Punisher

18 Punishment in dog training: Positive & Negative Punishment Primary An Unconditioned Punisher. The dog does not need prior experience for it to be perceived as a punisher. Extreme heat or cold, shock, pinch, citronella spray, hitting are all examples of primary Secondary A Conditioned Punisher. It is something that by itself does not mean anything to the dog. But when paired with a primary punisher the secondary will then weaken behaviors. Verbal or sound. This pairing is classical conditioning. PUNISHMENT DECREASES BEHAVIOR But there is possible increased anxiety and fallout

19 OPERANT CONDITIONING Reinforcement Punishment Positive Primary: Food Shock Secondary: Click Warning Sound Negative Primary: Remove Shock Remove Food Secondary: Remove Verbal Remove Verbal

20 The ABC's of learning A= Antecedent (cue) B= Behavior (action) C= Consequence (payoff) Good Consequence = Reinforcement Bad Consequence = Punishment

21 The ABC's of learning A= Antecedent Cues Verbal: words, sounds Visual: hand, body, motion Environmental: doors, leash Think about the dog you have when making choices for cues; visual or sound stimulation stronger?

22 The ABC's of learning B= Behavior Action or duration of non action Voluntary action: sit, down, lift paw Non action: stay in position

23 The ABC's of learning C= Consequence Payoff Good Consequence = Reinforcement, R+ Increases likelihood of behavior Bad Consequence = Punishment Decreases likelihood of behavior

24 Once learned, Good Consequences = Behaviors Happen: Human Example: A = Antecedent (cue): Alarm goes off, ugh B = Behavior: Get up and go to work C = Consequence: Paycheck, yahoo! Canine Example: A = Antecedent (cue): Verbal Sit or Door B = Behavior: Dog puts butt on the floor C = Consequence: Dog gets to go out to play!

25 Natural Progression of A-B-C Begging: A - Owner eating at table B - Dog Begs C - Owner gives a piece of food Think the begging will be repeated?!

26 R + Training Steps: A new alphabet Maximizes learning & the quality of the final behavior performance B = Behavior: Get it C = Consequence: Give it A = Antecedent or A Signal: Add after behavior is strong, insert before behavior

27 Training Steps B = Behavior: How Dogs Learn Get the dog to perform the desired behavior Capture: R+ dog doing behavior Shape: R+ parts of the behavior working closer to the end behavior Lure: Use of food or toy as a guide to where you want the dog then R+

28 Training Steps C = Consequence: R+ How Dogs Learn When the dog does the behavior- Capturing When the dog does part of the behavior- Shaping As the dog follows the food into position or partial position - Luring

29 Training Steps How Dogs Learn A = Antecedent or Cue: Add after the dog becomes good at the behavior, cue will pair with the end behavior performance (usually better than beginning) Cue is presented just before the dog does the behavior = Classical Conditioning R+ as usual

30 EXAMPLE OF CAPTURING SHAPING LURING Down Capture: Sit in a small quiet room R+ as dog lies down on his own Shape: R+ as dog lowers head, then bends elbows, then lowers back end etc. Lure: Guide dog into position with food or toy desired by the dog, R+ in position

31 BUT KEEP IN MIND

32 Emotions & Motivation impact Learning Take all we have studied so far into consideration Emotions Hardwiring - Motivation Past Experiences Lack of Experiences Keep in mind all of this and the immediate environment have a big influence on a learners ability to learn

33 THE LEARNERS that have taught us.

34 Shaping and desensitizing

35 Chicken Training

36 Advanced chickens!

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