What was before the Big Bang?

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1 1 / 68 Std. What was before the Big Bang? of the Very Robert Brandenberger McGill University February 21, 2013

2 2 / 68 Outline Std. 1 What is? 2 Standard Big Bang 3 ary 4 String 5

3 3 / 68 Plan Std. 1 What is? 2 Standard Big Bang 3 ary 4 String 5

4 4 / 68 Goals of Std. 1. Understand origin and early evolution of the universe. What is the Big Bang"? Was there a Big Bang"? What was before the Big Bang"? 2. Explain observed large-scale structure.

5 4 / 68 Goals of Std. 1. Understand origin and early evolution of the universe. What is the Big Bang"? Was there a Big Bang"? What was before the Big Bang"? 2. Explain observed large-scale structure.

6 4 / 68 Goals of Std. 1. Understand origin and early evolution of the universe. What is the Big Bang"? Was there a Big Bang"? What was before the Big Bang"? 2. Explain observed large-scale structure.

7 4 / 68 Goals of Std. 1. Understand origin and early evolution of the universe. What is the Big Bang"? Was there a Big Bang"? What was before the Big Bang"? 2. Explain observed large-scale structure.

8 4 / 68 Goals of Std. 1. Understand origin and early evolution of the universe. What is the Big Bang"? Was there a Big Bang"? What was before the Big Bang"? 2. Explain observed large-scale structure.

9 5 / 68 Optical Telescopes: Gemini Telescope Std.

10 6 / 68 Galaxies: Building Blocks of the Std.

11 7 / 68 Large-Scale Structure Std. From: talk by O. Lahav

12 Microwave Telescopes on the Earth: ACT Telescope Std. 8 / 68

13 Microwave Telescopes on the Earth: SPT Telescope 9 / 68 Std.

14 Microwave Telescopes in Space: WMAP Telescope 10 / 68 Std.

15 11 / 68 Isotropic CMB Background Std.

16 Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Std. Credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team 12 / 68

17 13 / 68 Quantification of the CMB data Std. Credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team

18 14 / 68 Goals of Std. 1. Understand origin and early evolution of the universe. What is the Big Bang"? Was there a Big Bang"? What was before the Big Bang"? 2. Explain observed large-scale structure. Patterns in the distribution of galaxies on large scales. Anisotropies in CMB maps. 3. Make predictions for future observations.

19 14 / 68 Goals of Std. 1. Understand origin and early evolution of the universe. What is the Big Bang"? Was there a Big Bang"? What was before the Big Bang"? 2. Explain observed large-scale structure. Patterns in the distribution of galaxies on large scales. Anisotropies in CMB maps. 3. Make predictions for future observations.

20 15 / 68 Plan Std. 1 What is? 2 Standard Big Bang 3 ary 4 String 5

21 16 / 68 Std. The Universe is: Space-time Matter which lives in space-time. To describe the Universe: Space-time described by Einstein s theory of General Relativity. Matter as described by Physics. More specifically: matter described on large scale by classical physics, on small scales by quantum mechanics and on even smaller scales by superstring theory?

22 16 / 68 Std. The Universe is: Space-time Matter which lives in space-time. To describe the Universe: Space-time described by Einstein s theory of General Relativity. Matter as described by Physics. More specifically: matter described on large scale by classical physics, on small scales by quantum mechanics and on even smaller scales by superstring theory?

23 16 / 68 Std. The Universe is: Space-time Matter which lives in space-time. To describe the Universe: Space-time described by Einstein s theory of General Relativity. Matter as described by Physics. More specifically: matter described on large scale by classical physics, on small scales by quantum mechanics and on even smaller scales by superstring theory?

24 16 / 68 Std. The Universe is: Space-time Matter which lives in space-time. To describe the Universe: Space-time described by Einstein s theory of General Relativity. Matter as described by Physics. More specifically: matter described on large scale by classical physics, on small scales by quantum mechanics and on even smaller scales by superstring theory?

25 16 / 68 Std. The Universe is: Space-time Matter which lives in space-time. To describe the Universe: Space-time described by Einstein s theory of General Relativity. Matter as described by Physics. More specifically: matter described on large scale by classical physics, on small scales by quantum mechanics and on even smaller scales by superstring theory?

26 16 / 68 Std. The Universe is: Space-time Matter which lives in space-time. To describe the Universe: Space-time described by Einstein s theory of General Relativity. Matter as described by Physics. More specifically: matter described on large scale by classical physics, on small scales by quantum mechanics and on even smaller scales by superstring theory?

27 16 / 68 Std. The Universe is: Space-time Matter which lives in space-time. To describe the Universe: Space-time described by Einstein s theory of General Relativity. Matter as described by Physics. More specifically: matter described on large scale by classical physics, on small scales by quantum mechanics and on even smaller scales by superstring theory?

28 16 / 68 Std. The Universe is: Space-time Matter which lives in space-time. To describe the Universe: Space-time described by Einstein s theory of General Relativity. Matter as described by Physics. More specifically: matter described on large scale by classical physics, on small scales by quantum mechanics and on even smaller scales by superstring theory?

29 17 / 68 as Described by General Relativity Std. Space-time dynamical (no longer absolute like in Newtonian theory) Matter curves space-time.

30 17 / 68 as Described by General Relativity Std. Space-time dynamical (no longer absolute like in Newtonian theory) Matter curves space-time.

31 18 / 68 Mass curves Std.

32 19 / 68 as Described by General Relativity Std. Space-time dynamical (no longer absolute like in Newtonian theory) Matter curves space-time: Space-time is dynamical. Note: Newton s gravitational force is a consequence of the curvature of space. Einstein Equivalence Principle determines the motion of matter in curved space-time. Space with a homogeneous distribution of matter cannot be static - it must expand (or contract).

33 19 / 68 as Described by General Relativity Std. Space-time dynamical (no longer absolute like in Newtonian theory) Matter curves space-time: Space-time is dynamical. Note: Newton s gravitational force is a consequence of the curvature of space. Einstein Equivalence Principle determines the motion of matter in curved space-time. Space with a homogeneous distribution of matter cannot be static - it must expand (or contract).

34 19 / 68 as Described by General Relativity Std. Space-time dynamical (no longer absolute like in Newtonian theory) Matter curves space-time: Space-time is dynamical. Note: Newton s gravitational force is a consequence of the curvature of space. Einstein Equivalence Principle determines the motion of matter in curved space-time. Space with a homogeneous distribution of matter cannot be static - it must expand (or contract).

35 19 / 68 as Described by General Relativity Std. Space-time dynamical (no longer absolute like in Newtonian theory) Matter curves space-time: Space-time is dynamical. Note: Newton s gravitational force is a consequence of the curvature of space. Einstein Equivalence Principle determines the motion of matter in curved space-time. Space with a homogeneous distribution of matter cannot be static - it must expand (or contract).

36 20 / 68 The Expanding Universe Std.

37 Evidence for the Expansion of Space The Hubble diagram for type Ia supernovae. Std. Kirshner R P PNAS 2004;101: by National Academy of Sciences 21 / 68

38 22 / 68 Standard Big Bang Std. Standard Big Bang (SBB): the old paradigm of cosmology (ca. 1960). The SBB is based on: Cosmological principle: universe homogeneous and isotropic on large scales. General Relativity governing dynamics of space-time. Classical matter as source in the Einstein equations. Classical matter: cold (pressure-less) matter (describing the galaxies) + radiation(describing the CMB).

39 22 / 68 Standard Big Bang Std. Standard Big Bang (SBB): the old paradigm of cosmology (ca. 1960). The SBB is based on: Cosmological principle: universe homogeneous and isotropic on large scales. General Relativity governing dynamics of space-time. Classical matter as source in the Einstein equations. Classical matter: cold (pressure-less) matter (describing the galaxies) + radiation(describing the CMB).

40 22 / 68 Standard Big Bang Std. Standard Big Bang (SBB): the old paradigm of cosmology (ca. 1960). The SBB is based on: Cosmological principle: universe homogeneous and isotropic on large scales. General Relativity governing dynamics of space-time. Classical matter as source in the Einstein equations. Classical matter: cold (pressure-less) matter (describing the galaxies) + radiation(describing the CMB).

41 22 / 68 Standard Big Bang Std. Standard Big Bang (SBB): the old paradigm of cosmology (ca. 1960). The SBB is based on: Cosmological principle: universe homogeneous and isotropic on large scales. General Relativity governing dynamics of space-time. Classical matter as source in the Einstein equations. Classical matter: cold (pressure-less) matter (describing the galaxies) + radiation(describing the CMB).

42 22 / 68 Standard Big Bang Std. Standard Big Bang (SBB): the old paradigm of cosmology (ca. 1960). The SBB is based on: Cosmological principle: universe homogeneous and isotropic on large scales. General Relativity governing dynamics of space-time. Classical matter as source in the Einstein equations. Classical matter: cold (pressure-less) matter (describing the galaxies) + radiation(describing the CMB).

43 23 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. The universe is expanding now. In the past it was hotter and more dense. Thus, it was expanding faster in the past. At a finite time in the past the temperature was infinite. A finite box of space had zero size at that time. This is the Big Bang! What is the Big Bang? What was before the Big Bang? To be taken seriously a theory must have made successful observational predictions.

44 23 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. The universe is expanding now. In the past it was hotter and more dense. Thus, it was expanding faster in the past. At a finite time in the past the temperature was infinite. A finite box of space had zero size at that time. This is the Big Bang! What is the Big Bang? What was before the Big Bang? To be taken seriously a theory must have made successful observational predictions.

45 23 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. The universe is expanding now. In the past it was hotter and more dense. Thus, it was expanding faster in the past. At a finite time in the past the temperature was infinite. A finite box of space had zero size at that time. This is the Big Bang! What is the Big Bang? What was before the Big Bang? To be taken seriously a theory must have made successful observational predictions.

46 23 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. The universe is expanding now. In the past it was hotter and more dense. Thus, it was expanding faster in the past. At a finite time in the past the temperature was infinite. A finite box of space had zero size at that time. This is the Big Bang! What is the Big Bang? What was before the Big Bang? To be taken seriously a theory must have made successful observational predictions.

47 23 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. The universe is expanding now. In the past it was hotter and more dense. Thus, it was expanding faster in the past. At a finite time in the past the temperature was infinite. A finite box of space had zero size at that time. This is the Big Bang! What is the Big Bang? What was before the Big Bang? To be taken seriously a theory must have made successful observational predictions.

48 23 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. The universe is expanding now. In the past it was hotter and more dense. Thus, it was expanding faster in the past. At a finite time in the past the temperature was infinite. A finite box of space had zero size at that time. This is the Big Bang! What is the Big Bang? What was before the Big Bang? To be taken seriously a theory must have made successful observational predictions.

49 23 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. The universe is expanding now. In the past it was hotter and more dense. Thus, it was expanding faster in the past. At a finite time in the past the temperature was infinite. A finite box of space had zero size at that time. This is the Big Bang! What is the Big Bang? What was before the Big Bang? To be taken seriously a theory must have made successful observational predictions.

50 23 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. The universe is expanding now. In the past it was hotter and more dense. Thus, it was expanding faster in the past. At a finite time in the past the temperature was infinite. A finite box of space had zero size at that time. This is the Big Bang! What is the Big Bang? What was before the Big Bang? To be taken seriously a theory must have made successful observational predictions.

51 23 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. The universe is expanding now. In the past it was hotter and more dense. Thus, it was expanding faster in the past. At a finite time in the past the temperature was infinite. A finite box of space had zero size at that time. This is the Big Bang! What is the Big Bang? What was before the Big Bang? To be taken seriously a theory must have made successful observational predictions.

52 24 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. Universe begins as a homogeneous and very hot fireball. Initially radiation dominates: hot plasma. Space expands and matter cools. After about 30,000 years cold matter starts to dominate. After about 300,000 years atoms (hydrogen) forms and universe becomes transparent to light Now the age of the universe is about 13 billion years. Prediction: Existence and black body nature of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

53 24 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. Universe begins as a homogeneous and very hot fireball. Initially radiation dominates: hot plasma. Space expands and matter cools. After about 30,000 years cold matter starts to dominate. After about 300,000 years atoms (hydrogen) forms and universe becomes transparent to light Now the age of the universe is about 13 billion years. Prediction: Existence and black body nature of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

54 24 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. Universe begins as a homogeneous and very hot fireball. Initially radiation dominates: hot plasma. Space expands and matter cools. After about 30,000 years cold matter starts to dominate. After about 300,000 years atoms (hydrogen) forms and universe becomes transparent to light Now the age of the universe is about 13 billion years. Prediction: Existence and black body nature of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

55 24 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. Universe begins as a homogeneous and very hot fireball. Initially radiation dominates: hot plasma. Space expands and matter cools. After about 30,000 years cold matter starts to dominate. After about 300,000 years atoms (hydrogen) forms and universe becomes transparent to light Now the age of the universe is about 13 billion years. Prediction: Existence and black body nature of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

56 24 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. Universe begins as a homogeneous and very hot fireball. Initially radiation dominates: hot plasma. Space expands and matter cools. After about 30,000 years cold matter starts to dominate. After about 300,000 years atoms (hydrogen) forms and universe becomes transparent to light Now the age of the universe is about 13 billion years. Prediction: Existence and black body nature of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

57 24 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. Universe begins as a homogeneous and very hot fireball. Initially radiation dominates: hot plasma. Space expands and matter cools. After about 30,000 years cold matter starts to dominate. After about 300,000 years atoms (hydrogen) forms and universe becomes transparent to light Now the age of the universe is about 13 billion years. Prediction: Existence and black body nature of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

58 24 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. Universe begins as a homogeneous and very hot fireball. Initially radiation dominates: hot plasma. Space expands and matter cools. After about 30,000 years cold matter starts to dominate. After about 300,000 years atoms (hydrogen) forms and universe becomes transparent to light Now the age of the universe is about 13 billion years. Prediction: Existence and black body nature of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

59 24 / 68 Standard Big Bang (ctd.) Std. Universe begins as a homogeneous and very hot fireball. Initially radiation dominates: hot plasma. Space expands and matter cools. After about 30,000 years cold matter starts to dominate. After about 300,000 years atoms (hydrogen) forms and universe becomes transparent to light Now the age of the universe is about 13 billion years. Prediction: Existence and black body nature of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

60 Std. Credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team 25 / 68

61 26 / 68 Spectrometer Std.

62 27 / 68 Successes of the SBB Model Key success: Existence and black body nature of the CMB. Std.

63 28 / 68 Unanswered Questions Std. What is the Big Bang? What was before the Big Bang?

64 29 / 68 Conceptual Problems of the SBB Model No explanation for the homogeneity, spatial flatness and large size and entropy of the universe. Horizon problem of the SBB: Std. t t 0 l (t) p t rec 0 l f (t) x

65 30 / 68 Conceptual Problems of the SBB Model II Std. No explanation of the observed inhomogeneities in the distribution of matter and anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background possible!

66 31 / 68 What to do? Std. With a little help from a friend, the particle physicist: At very high temperatures close to the Big Bang classical physics breaks down - and quantum mechanics and particle physics give the right description of matter. Standard Big Bang theory breaks down. In the very early universe matter is a plasma of elementary particles. All described in terms of quantum fields. Quantum field (scalar fields) can lead to a different expansion rate of space namely inflationary expansion.

67 31 / 68 What to do? Std. With a little help from a friend, the particle physicist: At very high temperatures close to the Big Bang classical physics breaks down - and quantum mechanics and particle physics give the right description of matter. Standard Big Bang theory breaks down. In the very early universe matter is a plasma of elementary particles. All described in terms of quantum fields. Quantum field (scalar fields) can lead to a different expansion rate of space namely inflationary expansion.

68 31 / 68 What to do? Std. With a little help from a friend, the particle physicist: At very high temperatures close to the Big Bang classical physics breaks down - and quantum mechanics and particle physics give the right description of matter. Standard Big Bang theory breaks down. In the very early universe matter is a plasma of elementary particles. All described in terms of quantum fields. Quantum field (scalar fields) can lead to a different expansion rate of space namely inflationary expansion.

69 31 / 68 What to do? Std. With a little help from a friend, the particle physicist: At very high temperatures close to the Big Bang classical physics breaks down - and quantum mechanics and particle physics give the right description of matter. Standard Big Bang theory breaks down. In the very early universe matter is a plasma of elementary particles. All described in terms of quantum fields. Quantum field (scalar fields) can lead to a different expansion rate of space namely inflationary expansion.

70 31 / 68 What to do? Std. With a little help from a friend, the particle physicist: At very high temperatures close to the Big Bang classical physics breaks down - and quantum mechanics and particle physics give the right description of matter. Standard Big Bang theory breaks down. In the very early universe matter is a plasma of elementary particles. All described in terms of quantum fields. Quantum field (scalar fields) can lead to a different expansion rate of space namely inflationary expansion.

71 31 / 68 What to do? Std. With a little help from a friend, the particle physicist: At very high temperatures close to the Big Bang classical physics breaks down - and quantum mechanics and particle physics give the right description of matter. Standard Big Bang theory breaks down. In the very early universe matter is a plasma of elementary particles. All described in terms of quantum fields. Quantum field (scalar fields) can lead to a different expansion rate of space namely inflationary expansion.

72 31 / 68 What to do? Std. With a little help from a friend, the particle physicist: At very high temperatures close to the Big Bang classical physics breaks down - and quantum mechanics and particle physics give the right description of matter. Standard Big Bang theory breaks down. In the very early universe matter is a plasma of elementary particles. All described in terms of quantum fields. Quantum field (scalar fields) can lead to a different expansion rate of space namely inflationary expansion.

73 31 / 68 What to do? Std. With a little help from a friend, the particle physicist: At very high temperatures close to the Big Bang classical physics breaks down - and quantum mechanics and particle physics give the right description of matter. Standard Big Bang theory breaks down. In the very early universe matter is a plasma of elementary particles. All described in terms of quantum fields. Quantum field (scalar fields) can lead to a different expansion rate of space namely inflationary expansion.

74 31 / 68 What to do? Std. With a little help from a friend, the particle physicist: At very high temperatures close to the Big Bang classical physics breaks down - and quantum mechanics and particle physics give the right description of matter. Standard Big Bang theory breaks down. In the very early universe matter is a plasma of elementary particles. All described in terms of quantum fields. Quantum field (scalar fields) can lead to a different expansion rate of space namely inflationary expansion.

75 32 / 68 Plan Std. 1 What is? 2 Standard Big Bang 3 ary 4 String 5

76 33 / 68 Time line of inflationary cosmology Std. t i : inflation begins t R : inflation ends, reheating

77 34 / 68 Successes of ary Std. The ary Universe Scenario is the current paradigm of early universe cosmology (1980). Successes: Solves horizon problem Solves flatness problem Solves size/entropy problem Provides a causal mechanism of generating primordial cosmological perturbations (Chibisov & Mukhanov, 1981).

78 34 / 68 Successes of ary Std. The ary Universe Scenario is the current paradigm of early universe cosmology (1980). Successes: Solves horizon problem Solves flatness problem Solves size/entropy problem Provides a causal mechanism of generating primordial cosmological perturbations (Chibisov & Mukhanov, 1981).

79 34 / 68 Successes of ary Std. The ary Universe Scenario is the current paradigm of early universe cosmology (1980). Successes: Solves horizon problem Solves flatness problem Solves size/entropy problem Provides a causal mechanism of generating primordial cosmological perturbations (Chibisov & Mukhanov, 1981).

80 35 / 68 Std. Credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team

81 36 / 68 Std. Credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team

82 37 / 68 Review of ary Std. Context: General Relativity Scalar Field Matter : phase with exponential expansion of space requires matter with negative pressure requires a slowly rolling scalar field ϕ

83 37 / 68 Review of ary Std. Context: General Relativity Scalar Field Matter : phase with exponential expansion of space requires matter with negative pressure requires a slowly rolling scalar field ϕ

84 37 / 68 Review of ary Std. Context: General Relativity Scalar Field Matter : phase with exponential expansion of space requires matter with negative pressure requires a slowly rolling scalar field ϕ

85 37 / 68 Review of ary Std. Context: General Relativity Scalar Field Matter : phase with exponential expansion of space requires matter with negative pressure requires a slowly rolling scalar field ϕ

86 Review of ary II Space-time sketch of inflationary cosmology: Std. Note: H = ȧ a curve labelled by k: wavelength of a fluctuation 38 / 68

87 39 / 68 Successes of Std. inflation renders the universe large, homogeneous and spatially flat classical matter redshifts matter vacuum remains quantum vacuum fluctuations: seeds for the observed structure [Chibisov & Mukhanov, 1981]

88 Status of the Big Bang in ary 40 / 68 Std. The inflationary phase had a beginning. There was a Big Bang before the period of inflation. Unanswered questions: What is the Big Bang? What was before the Big Bang? Note: quantum field theory is not applicable very close to the singularity.

89 Status of the Big Bang in ary 40 / 68 Std. The inflationary phase had a beginning. There was a Big Bang before the period of inflation. Unanswered questions: What is the Big Bang? What was before the Big Bang? Note: quantum field theory is not applicable very close to the singularity.

90 Status of the Big Bang in ary 40 / 68 Std. The inflationary phase had a beginning. There was a Big Bang before the period of inflation. Unanswered questions: What is the Big Bang? What was before the Big Bang? Note: quantum field theory is not applicable very close to the singularity.

91 41 / 68 Challenges for the Current Paradigm Std. In spite of the phenomenological successes, the inflationary scenario suffers from several conceptual problems. In light of these problems we need to look for input from new fundamental physics to construct a new theory which will overcome these problems. Question: Can Superstring theory lead to a new and improved paradigm? Question: Can this new paradigm be tested in cosmological observations? Question: Was there a Big Bang?

92 41 / 68 Challenges for the Current Paradigm Std. In spite of the phenomenological successes, the inflationary scenario suffers from several conceptual problems. In light of these problems we need to look for input from new fundamental physics to construct a new theory which will overcome these problems. Question: Can Superstring theory lead to a new and improved paradigm? Question: Can this new paradigm be tested in cosmological observations? Question: Was there a Big Bang?

93 41 / 68 Challenges for the Current Paradigm Std. In spite of the phenomenological successes, the inflationary scenario suffers from several conceptual problems. In light of these problems we need to look for input from new fundamental physics to construct a new theory which will overcome these problems. Question: Can Superstring theory lead to a new and improved paradigm? Question: Can this new paradigm be tested in cosmological observations? Question: Was there a Big Bang?

94 41 / 68 Challenges for the Current Paradigm Std. In spite of the phenomenological successes, the inflationary scenario suffers from several conceptual problems. In light of these problems we need to look for input from new fundamental physics to construct a new theory which will overcome these problems. Question: Can Superstring theory lead to a new and improved paradigm? Question: Can this new paradigm be tested in cosmological observations? Question: Was there a Big Bang?

95 41 / 68 Challenges for the Current Paradigm Std. In spite of the phenomenological successes, the inflationary scenario suffers from several conceptual problems. In light of these problems we need to look for input from new fundamental physics to construct a new theory which will overcome these problems. Question: Can Superstring theory lead to a new and improved paradigm? Question: Can this new paradigm be tested in cosmological observations? Question: Was there a Big Bang?

96 Conceptual Problems of ary 42 / 68 Std. What is the scalar field? Why does it have the special conditions to obtain inflation? Trans-Planckian problem Singularity problem Applicability of General Relativity

97 Success of inflation: At early times scales are inside the Hubble radius causal generation mechanism is possible. Problem: If time period of inflation is slightly more than the minimal length it must have, then the wavelength is smaller than the Planck length at the beginning of inflation 43 / 68 Trans-Planckian Problem Std.

98 44 / 68 Singularity Problem Std. Standard cosmology: Penrose-Hawking theorems initial singularity incompleteness of the theory. ary cosmology: In scalar field-driven inflationary models the initial singularity persists [Borde and Vilenkin] incompleteness of the theory.

99 44 / 68 Singularity Problem Std. Standard cosmology: Penrose-Hawking theorems initial singularity incompleteness of the theory. ary cosmology: In scalar field-driven inflationary models the initial singularity persists [Borde and Vilenkin] incompleteness of the theory.

100 44 / 68 Singularity Problem Std. Standard cosmology: Penrose-Hawking theorems initial singularity incompleteness of the theory. ary cosmology: In scalar field-driven inflationary models the initial singularity persists [Borde and Vilenkin] incompleteness of the theory.

101 45 / 68 Applicability of GR Std. Einstein s theory breaks down at extremely high densities. In models of inflation, the energy scale of at which inflation takes place is close to the limiting scale for the validity of Einstein s theory. We cannot trust the predictions made using GR.

102 45 / 68 Applicability of GR Std. Einstein s theory breaks down at extremely high densities. In models of inflation, the energy scale of at which inflation takes place is close to the limiting scale for the validity of Einstein s theory. We cannot trust the predictions made using GR.

103 45 / 68 Applicability of GR Std. Einstein s theory breaks down at extremely high densities. In models of inflation, the energy scale of at which inflation takes place is close to the limiting scale for the validity of Einstein s theory. We cannot trust the predictions made using GR.

104 46 / 68 Zones of Ignorance Std.

105 47 / 68 Message I Std. The current cosmological paradigm has serious conceptual problems. We need a new paradigm of very early universe cosmology. With a little help from a friend - the string theorist! New cosmological model motivated by superstring theory: String Gas (SGC) [R.B. and C. Vafa, 1989]. New structure formation scenario emerges from SGC [A. Nayeri, R.B. and C. Vafa, 2006].

106 47 / 68 Message I Std. The current cosmological paradigm has serious conceptual problems. We need a new paradigm of very early universe cosmology. With a little help from a friend - the string theorist! New cosmological model motivated by superstring theory: String Gas (SGC) [R.B. and C. Vafa, 1989]. New structure formation scenario emerges from SGC [A. Nayeri, R.B. and C. Vafa, 2006].

107 47 / 68 Message I Std. The current cosmological paradigm has serious conceptual problems. We need a new paradigm of very early universe cosmology. With a little help from a friend - the string theorist! New cosmological model motivated by superstring theory: String Gas (SGC) [R.B. and C. Vafa, 1989]. New structure formation scenario emerges from SGC [A. Nayeri, R.B. and C. Vafa, 2006].

108 47 / 68 Message I Std. The current cosmological paradigm has serious conceptual problems. We need a new paradigm of very early universe cosmology. With a little help from a friend - the string theorist! New cosmological model motivated by superstring theory: String Gas (SGC) [R.B. and C. Vafa, 1989]. New structure formation scenario emerges from SGC [A. Nayeri, R.B. and C. Vafa, 2006].

109 47 / 68 Message I Std. The current cosmological paradigm has serious conceptual problems. We need a new paradigm of very early universe cosmology. With a little help from a friend - the string theorist! New cosmological model motivated by superstring theory: String Gas (SGC) [R.B. and C. Vafa, 1989]. New structure formation scenario emerges from SGC [A. Nayeri, R.B. and C. Vafa, 2006].

110 48 / 68 Message II Std. String Gas makes testable predictions for cosmological observations Blue tilt in the spectrum of gravitational waves [R.B., A. Nayeri, S. Patil and C. Vafa, 2006] Line discontinuities in CMB anisotropy maps [N. Kaiser and A. Stebbins, 1984] Line discontinuities can be detected using the CANNY edge detection algorithm [S. Amsel, J. Berger and R.B., 2007, R. Danos and R.B., 2008, 2009]

111 48 / 68 Message II Std. String Gas makes testable predictions for cosmological observations Blue tilt in the spectrum of gravitational waves [R.B., A. Nayeri, S. Patil and C. Vafa, 2006] Line discontinuities in CMB anisotropy maps [N. Kaiser and A. Stebbins, 1984] Line discontinuities can be detected using the CANNY edge detection algorithm [S. Amsel, J. Berger and R.B., 2007, R. Danos and R.B., 2008, 2009]

112 48 / 68 Message II Std. String Gas makes testable predictions for cosmological observations Blue tilt in the spectrum of gravitational waves [R.B., A. Nayeri, S. Patil and C. Vafa, 2006] Line discontinuities in CMB anisotropy maps [N. Kaiser and A. Stebbins, 1984] Line discontinuities can be detected using the CANNY edge detection algorithm [S. Amsel, J. Berger and R.B., 2007, R. Danos and R.B., 2008, 2009]

113 49 / 68 Plan Std. 1 What is? 2 Standard Big Bang 3 ary 4 String 5

114 50 / 68 What is String Theory? Std. String theory is a quantum theory of all forces of nature including gravity. String theory unifies all forces of nature. Basic objects: elementary strings. Compared to elementary point particles. String theory is mathematically consistent only in 10 space-time dimensions. Thus, string theory predicts extra spatial dimensions. Note: string theory is in development".

115 50 / 68 What is String Theory? Std. String theory is a quantum theory of all forces of nature including gravity. String theory unifies all forces of nature. Basic objects: elementary strings. Compared to elementary point particles. String theory is mathematically consistent only in 10 space-time dimensions. Thus, string theory predicts extra spatial dimensions. Note: string theory is in development".

116 50 / 68 What is String Theory? Std. String theory is a quantum theory of all forces of nature including gravity. String theory unifies all forces of nature. Basic objects: elementary strings. Compared to elementary point particles. String theory is mathematically consistent only in 10 space-time dimensions. Thus, string theory predicts extra spatial dimensions. Note: string theory is in development".

117 50 / 68 What is String Theory? Std. String theory is a quantum theory of all forces of nature including gravity. String theory unifies all forces of nature. Basic objects: elementary strings. Compared to elementary point particles. String theory is mathematically consistent only in 10 space-time dimensions. Thus, string theory predicts extra spatial dimensions. Note: string theory is in development".

118 50 / 68 What is String Theory? Std. String theory is a quantum theory of all forces of nature including gravity. String theory unifies all forces of nature. Basic objects: elementary strings. Compared to elementary point particles. String theory is mathematically consistent only in 10 space-time dimensions. Thus, string theory predicts extra spatial dimensions. Note: string theory is in development".

119 50 / 68 What is String Theory? Std. String theory is a quantum theory of all forces of nature including gravity. String theory unifies all forces of nature. Basic objects: elementary strings. Compared to elementary point particles. String theory is mathematically consistent only in 10 space-time dimensions. Thus, string theory predicts extra spatial dimensions. Note: string theory is in development".

120 50 / 68 What is String Theory? Std. String theory is a quantum theory of all forces of nature including gravity. String theory unifies all forces of nature. Basic objects: elementary strings. Compared to elementary point particles. String theory is mathematically consistent only in 10 space-time dimensions. Thus, string theory predicts extra spatial dimensions. Note: string theory is in development".

121 51 / 68 Principles R.B. and C. Vafa, Nucl. Phys. B316:391 (1989) Std. Idea: make use of the new symmetries and new degrees of freedom which string theory provides to construct a new theory of the very early universe. Assumption: Matter is a gas of fundamental strings Assumption: Space is compact, e.g. a torus. Key points: New degrees of freedom: string oscillatory modes. Leads to a maximal temperature for a gas of strings, the Hagedorn temperature. New degrees of freedom: string winding modes. Leads to a new symmetry: physics at large R is equivalent to physics at small R.

122 51 / 68 Principles R.B. and C. Vafa, Nucl. Phys. B316:391 (1989) Std. Idea: make use of the new symmetries and new degrees of freedom which string theory provides to construct a new theory of the very early universe. Assumption: Matter is a gas of fundamental strings Assumption: Space is compact, e.g. a torus. Key points: New degrees of freedom: string oscillatory modes. Leads to a maximal temperature for a gas of strings, the Hagedorn temperature. New degrees of freedom: string winding modes. Leads to a new symmetry: physics at large R is equivalent to physics at small R.

123 51 / 68 Principles R.B. and C. Vafa, Nucl. Phys. B316:391 (1989) Std. Idea: make use of the new symmetries and new degrees of freedom which string theory provides to construct a new theory of the very early universe. Assumption: Matter is a gas of fundamental strings Assumption: Space is compact, e.g. a torus. Key points: New degrees of freedom: string oscillatory modes. Leads to a maximal temperature for a gas of strings, the Hagedorn temperature. New degrees of freedom: string winding modes. Leads to a new symmetry: physics at large R is equivalent to physics at small R.

124 52 / 68 Large" is Equivalent to Small" in String Theory Std. T-Duality Momentum modes: E n = n/r Winding modes: E m = mr Duality: R 1/R (n, m) (m, n) Mass spectrum of string states unchanged

125 53 / 68 Temperature in String R.B. and C. Vafa, Nucl. Phys. B316:391 (1989) Temperature of a box of strings in thermal equilibrium. Std.

126 Temperature in Standard and ary 54 / 68 Std. Temperature of a box of particles in thermal equilibrium.

127 55 / 68 Dynamics Assume some dynamical principle gives us R(t) Std.

128 56 / 68 String Gas R.B. and C. Vafa, Nucl. Phys. B316:391 (1989) Std. We will thus consider the following background dynamics for the scale factor a(t):

129 57 / 68 Dimensionality of Space in SGC Std. Begin with all 9 spatial dimensions small, initial temperature close to T H winding modes about all spatial sections are excited. Expansion of any one spatial dimension requires the annihilation of the winding modes in that dimension. Decay only possible in three large spatial dimensions. dynamical explanation of why there are exactly three large spatial dimensions.

130 57 / 68 Dimensionality of Space in SGC Std. Begin with all 9 spatial dimensions small, initial temperature close to T H winding modes about all spatial sections are excited. Expansion of any one spatial dimension requires the annihilation of the winding modes in that dimension. Decay only possible in three large spatial dimensions. dynamical explanation of why there are exactly three large spatial dimensions.

131 57 / 68 Dimensionality of Space in SGC Std. Begin with all 9 spatial dimensions small, initial temperature close to T H winding modes about all spatial sections are excited. Expansion of any one spatial dimension requires the annihilation of the winding modes in that dimension. Decay only possible in three large spatial dimensions. dynamical explanation of why there are exactly three large spatial dimensions.

132 58 / 68 Structure formation in inflationary cosmology Std. N.B. Perturbations originate as quantum vacuum fluctuations.

133 59 / 68 Background for string gas cosmology Std.

134 Structure formation in string gas cosmology A. Nayeri, R.B. and C. Vafa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97: (2006) Std. N.B. Perturbations originate as thermal string gas fluctuations. 60 / 68

135 61 / 68 Power spectrum of cosmological fluctuations Std. Key features: scale-invariant like for inflation slight red tilt like for inflation

136 Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Std. Credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team 62 / 68

137 63 / 68 Quantification of the CMB data Std. Credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team

138 64 / 68 Spectrum of Gravitational Waves Std. Key features: scale-invariant (like for inflation) slight blue tilt (unlike for inflation)

139 Status of the Big Bang" in String Gas 65 / 68 Std. The universe was very, very hot and dense 13 billion years ago. In this sense there was a hot primordial" fireball. But: there was no Big Bang Singularity. There was no beginning of time.

140 Status of the Big Bang" in String Gas 65 / 68 Std. The universe was very, very hot and dense 13 billion years ago. In this sense there was a hot primordial" fireball. But: there was no Big Bang Singularity. There was no beginning of time.

141 Status of the Big Bang" in String Gas 65 / 68 Std. The universe was very, very hot and dense 13 billion years ago. In this sense there was a hot primordial" fireball. But: there was no Big Bang Singularity. There was no beginning of time.

142 Status of the Big Bang" in String Gas 65 / 68 Std. The universe was very, very hot and dense 13 billion years ago. In this sense there was a hot primordial" fireball. But: there was no Big Bang Singularity. There was no beginning of time.

143 66 / 68 Plan Std. 1 What is? 2 Standard Big Bang 3 ary 4 String 5

144 Std. is a vibrant field with lots of observational data. Paradigms of early universe cosmology have been developed. Paradigm 1: Standard Big Bang Model. Paradigm 2: ary Universe scenario - current paradigm. In both Paradigms 1 and 2 there was a Big Bang singularity. Paradigm 2 has conceptual problems motivates the search for an improved paradigm. Superstring theory may provide a new paradigm. Superstring cosmology may resolve the Big Bang singularity. It is possible to observationally probe string cosmology. 67 / 68

145 Std. is a vibrant field with lots of observational data. Paradigms of early universe cosmology have been developed. Paradigm 1: Standard Big Bang Model. Paradigm 2: ary Universe scenario - current paradigm. In both Paradigms 1 and 2 there was a Big Bang singularity. Paradigm 2 has conceptual problems motivates the search for an improved paradigm. Superstring theory may provide a new paradigm. Superstring cosmology may resolve the Big Bang singularity. It is possible to observationally probe string cosmology. 67 / 68

146 Std. is a vibrant field with lots of observational data. Paradigms of early universe cosmology have been developed. Paradigm 1: Standard Big Bang Model. Paradigm 2: ary Universe scenario - current paradigm. In both Paradigms 1 and 2 there was a Big Bang singularity. Paradigm 2 has conceptual problems motivates the search for an improved paradigm. Superstring theory may provide a new paradigm. Superstring cosmology may resolve the Big Bang singularity. It is possible to observationally probe string cosmology. 67 / 68

147 Std. is a vibrant field with lots of observational data. Paradigms of early universe cosmology have been developed. Paradigm 1: Standard Big Bang Model. Paradigm 2: ary Universe scenario - current paradigm. In both Paradigms 1 and 2 there was a Big Bang singularity. Paradigm 2 has conceptual problems motivates the search for an improved paradigm. Superstring theory may provide a new paradigm. Superstring cosmology may resolve the Big Bang singularity. It is possible to observationally probe string cosmology. 67 / 68

148 Std. is a vibrant field with lots of observational data. Paradigms of early universe cosmology have been developed. Paradigm 1: Standard Big Bang Model. Paradigm 2: ary Universe scenario - current paradigm. In both Paradigms 1 and 2 there was a Big Bang singularity. Paradigm 2 has conceptual problems motivates the search for an improved paradigm. Superstring theory may provide a new paradigm. Superstring cosmology may resolve the Big Bang singularity. It is possible to observationally probe string cosmology. 67 / 68

149 Std. is a vibrant field with lots of observational data. Paradigms of early universe cosmology have been developed. Paradigm 1: Standard Big Bang Model. Paradigm 2: ary Universe scenario - current paradigm. In both Paradigms 1 and 2 there was a Big Bang singularity. Paradigm 2 has conceptual problems motivates the search for an improved paradigm. Superstring theory may provide a new paradigm. Superstring cosmology may resolve the Big Bang singularity. It is possible to observationally probe string cosmology. 67 / 68

150 Std. is a vibrant field with lots of observational data. Paradigms of early universe cosmology have been developed. Paradigm 1: Standard Big Bang Model. Paradigm 2: ary Universe scenario - current paradigm. In both Paradigms 1 and 2 there was a Big Bang singularity. Paradigm 2 has conceptual problems motivates the search for an improved paradigm. Superstring theory may provide a new paradigm. Superstring cosmology may resolve the Big Bang singularity. It is possible to observationally probe string cosmology. 67 / 68

151 Std. is a vibrant field with lots of observational data. Paradigms of early universe cosmology have been developed. Paradigm 1: Standard Big Bang Model. Paradigm 2: ary Universe scenario - current paradigm. In both Paradigms 1 and 2 there was a Big Bang singularity. Paradigm 2 has conceptual problems motivates the search for an improved paradigm. Superstring theory may provide a new paradigm. Superstring cosmology may resolve the Big Bang singularity. It is possible to observationally probe string cosmology. 67 / 68

152 Std. is a vibrant field with lots of observational data. Paradigms of early universe cosmology have been developed. Paradigm 1: Standard Big Bang Model. Paradigm 2: ary Universe scenario - current paradigm. In both Paradigms 1 and 2 there was a Big Bang singularity. Paradigm 2 has conceptual problems motivates the search for an improved paradigm. Superstring theory may provide a new paradigm. Superstring cosmology may resolve the Big Bang singularity. It is possible to observationally probe string cosmology. 67 / 68

153 68 / 68 Status of the Big Bang" Std. We know that going back in time 13 billion years there was a very hot early phase, a primordial fireball. If this is what you mean by Big Bang": then there WAS a Big Bang". We do not know if there was a Big Bang singularity", a beginning of time. Our current paradigms of early universe cosmology predict a beginning of time. But only if we extrapolate the models beyond where they can be used. Superstring theory may lead to a cosmology without a beginning of time. If this is true then there may not have been a Big Bang" (singularity).

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