Financial Inclusion in Poland. December 2014

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1 Financial Inclusion in Poland December 2014

2 Research project on financial inclusion First research project in Poland comprehensively assessing the level of financial inclusion Conducted using secondary data from local and international souces

3 MFC approach to measuring financial inclusion INPUT Access conditions Demand Supply Policy OUTPUT Usage of: Accounts and payments Deposits Credit Insurance Usage

4 MFC approach to measuring financial inclusion INPUT Access to Finance Scorecard (AFS) captures diverse aspects of access and usage issues from three key perspectives: - supply - demand - policy OUTPUT Total Financial Inclusion (TFI) Index generates a simple measure of national financial service use. It captures overall scale of exclusion as well as by products type.

5 FINDINGS

6 OUTPUT Total Financial Inclusion Index Total Financial Inclusion Index (TFI)

7 Total Financial Inclusion Index (TFI-1) Percentage of adults not using any financial services 60% 50% 50% 43% 40% 30% 20% 22% 23% 19% 15% 10% 0% 8% 9% 9% 10% 11% 12% 12% 13% 6% 1% 1% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 3% 4% Denmark Finland Sweden Netherlands Slovenia Austria Belgium France Germany Luxemburg Estonia UK Spain Slovakia Cyprus Czech Rep. Ireland Lithuania Latvia Portugal Malta Greece Italy Poland Hungary Romania Bulgaria Source: Eurostat Special Eurobarometer 373, 2011 Every fifth adult in Poland does not use any financial services Poland is the fourth country in the European Union by th enumber of non-user

8 8 Total Financial Inclusion Index 2 (TFI-2) TFI-2 measure of financial inclusion in each product group: Accounts and payments: over 70% of adults have a current account Deposits: 9% of adults have a deposit account Credit: 48% of adults have a loan/credit Insurance: 64% of adults have a voluntary insurance policy

9 TFI-2 accounts and payments Ownership of current account (% adults) Percentage of adults with bank account per region, in comparison to the national average 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 73% 68% 82% 91% Poland (2014) Poland (2011) EU 27 (2011) Eurozone (2011) Source: ZBP 2014, Eurostat Special Eurobarometer 373,2011 Source: Diagnoza Społeczna 2013 Internet banking: over 40% of adults check the account balance or transfers money via internet Mobile banking: 6% of adults uses mobile phones to transact

10 TFI-2 deposits Owndership of deposit account Percentage of adults with a deposit account per region, (% adults) in comparison to the national average 10% 9% 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0% 9% 6% 4% 4% 1% 1% savings account term deposit pension account investment fund stocks bonds Source: ZBP 2014, KNF 2013 Source: Diagnoza Społeczna 2013 Fewer than 20% of Poles keep savings on a savings ora term account in a financial institution

11 TFI-2 credit Credit account (% adults) Percentage of adults with a credit per region, in comparison to the national average 60% 50% 40% Eurozone EU 27 30% 20% 10% 25% 10% 10% 12% 6% 19% 0% Consumer Mortgage Credit card Consumer Mortgage Credit card BIK stats 2014 Eurobarometer survey 2011 Source: Biuro Informacji Kredytowej 2014, Eurobarometer 373, 2011 Source: Diagnoza Społeczna 2013 About 45% of households and 50% of adults repay a credit Lower credit use in Poland than in other EU countries Low geographic differences in credit use

12 TFI-2 - insurance Usage of voluntary insurance (% adults) 70% 60% 60% 64% 50% 40% 30% 20% 25% 19% 10% 3% 0% life life+capital fund accident property Source: KNF 2013 TPL (excl. Car) Well over half of the Poles are insured against accidents (64%) Over half (60%) have life insurance, usually bought as a group insurance Only a quarter of adults insure their property flat, apartment, house

13 INPUTS Access to Finance Scorecard (AFS)

14 Access to Finance Scorecard (AFS) Supply side

15 Financial infrastructure 250 ATMs per 100,000 adults bubble size: branches per 100,000 adults 200 Portugal 150 Spain Germany Austria 100 Poland Bulgaria Belgiun EU28 Eurozone 50 Romania Slovakia Latvia Netherlands Hungary Lithuania Czech Rep. Cyprus Finland Ireland - POS per 100,000 adults ,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 Weaker bank infrastructure in Poland than in the majoriy of EU countries

16 Financial infrastructure Bank branches and financial intermediaries Credit union branches Source: za NBP Post office outlets Number per 100,00 adults, in comparison to the national average Source: ATMs Source: Source:

17 Access to Finance Scorecard (AFS) Demand side

18 Quality of access Customers are primarily dissatisfied with high cost of services and low interest gains, but the situation is improving Weaknesses of bank products and service (% adults) profit orientation unclear contract conditions queues too many banks unclear info poor product offer hidden costs low deposit interest rates high credit interest rates high costs 4% 3% 6% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 5% 6% 8% 9% 16% 19% 23% 23% % 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Source: Wizerunek polskiego sektora bankowego TNS dla ZBP, 2014

19 19 Trust NBFIs Govmt Credit unions Pension funds Stock exchage Insurance comp. Courts Banks Central Bank 9% 21% 23% 26% 29% 37% 39% Banks are the most trustful among financial institutions 50% 54% 0% 20% 40% 60% Source: ZBP 2014 Grecja Irlandia Hiszpania Włochy Wlk. Brytania Węgry Litwa Rumunia Łotwa Francja Belgia Bułgaria Słowenia Portugalia Cyprus Chorwacja Niemcy Holandia Słowacja Austria POLSKA Czechy Szwecja Estonia Dania Luksemburg Finlandia Malta avg. EU28 = 39% 50% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Source: Gallup Opinion Poll 2012 Trust towards banks in Poland is higher than in many other EU countries

20 Attitudes Attitudes towards money are in Poland far worse than in the other countries Poles like spending money and live day-to-day 100% 80% Poland avg. 14 countries 60% 62% 45% 40% 33% 20% 0% Money is there to be spent I find it more satisfying to spend than save it for the long term I tend to live for today and let tomorrow take care of itself Source: OECD/INFE 2012

21 21 Financial literacy 90% 100% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Poland avg. (14 countries) Division Interest paid on loans Definition of inf lation Time-value of money Calculation of interest plus principle Diversif ication Risk and return Compound interest Source: OECD/INFE 2011 Financial literacy in Poland is on the comparable level with other countries Only the concept of investment risk and return is poorly understood

22 Access to Finance Scorecard (AFS) Regulatory side

23 Pro-access policies Although there is no consistent policy aimed at improving financial inclusion, some regulations fully promote access to financial services. Financial inclusoin a policy issue 2.0 Active government role 3.0 Customer protection 4.1 Interest rate regulations 1.0 Credit bureau 5.0 Deposit insurance

24 Index of Financial Inclusion (IFI)

25 Index of Financial Inclusion (IFI) where: s = normalized supply score d = normalized emand score p = normalized policy score IFI Poland = Luxemburg UK Denmark France Cyprus Spain Slovenia Ireland Portugal Estonia Belgium Sweden Bulgaria Greece Malta Austria Finland Italy Netherlands Czech Rep. Lithuania Poland Slovakia Germany Croatia Hungary Latvia Romania IFI

26 26 Index of Financial Inclusion (IFI) Distance to the ideal IFI Poland = Supply Policy 0.78 Demand

27 Conclusions

28 Conclusions The data collected in the study provide a fairly good picture of the level of financial inclusion and access conditions in Poland. A total of 75% of Poles use of financial services, although still 1/5 of Poles are financially excluded. Saving and investment products are the least often used. The IFI index of indicates that conditions of access are ¾ of the ideal. Financial infrastructure is most advanced, although the are still relatively few access points outside the bank branches. On the demand side, the challenge is the perception of low quality of roducts and consumer low expectations as to improvement of the economic and living conditions. Regulatory conditions are the fartherst from the ideal.

29 Microfinance Centre ul. Noakowskiego 10/ Warsaw, Poland Tel/fax Thank you!

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