Learning Objectives. Decreasing size. ~10 3 m. ~10 6 m. ~10 10 m 1/22/2013. Describe ionic, covalent, and metallic, hydrogen, and van der Waals bonds.


 Alexander Rogers
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Lectue #0 Chapte Atomic Bonding Leaning Objectives Descibe ionic, covalent, and metallic, hydogen, and van de Waals bonds. Which mateials exhibit each of these bonding types? What is coulombic foce of epulsion and coulombic foce of attaction and how to calculate both. 1 It all stats with atoms Deceasing size..powes of ten ~10 3 m ~10 6 m ~10 10 m 1
2 Atoms Bond Atoms ae the smallest unit of matte that etains the identity of the substance Atoms self assemble in diffeent ways to build up the stuctue of a mateial. What do we lean in this image? 3 Boh Model of the atom Kind of like the sola system The 3 d ing can hold up to 18 e  The 4 th ing and any afte can hold up to 3 e  Nucleus consists of potons and neutons The 1 st ing can hold up to e  The nd ing can hold up to 8 e  Electons have ( ) chage little mass (~10 9 g) 4 IN the NUCLEUS Potons have (+) chage Neutons have 0 chage Same mass depends on atom type (~10 7 g) 1
3 Boh Model of the atom Obitals/Shells The 3 d ing can hold up to 18 e  The 4 th ing and any afte can hold up to 3 e  K L M N Nucleus consists of potons and neutons The 1 st ing can hold up to e  The nd ing can hold up to 8 e  Electons have ( ) chage little mass (~10 9 g) 5 IN the NUCLEUS Potons have (+) chage Neutons have 0 chage Same mass depends on atom type (~10 7 g) Boh Atom vs. Obital Desciption z x Vesus y s Obital Obitals adopt cetain configuations Enegy p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p Futhe fom the nucleus (highe enegy state) 6 1s s Filling of shells is based on obital type 3
4 # potons = # electons (+1) (1) If 0 potons ae pesent in an atom then 0 electons ae thee to balance the oveall chage of the atom atoms ae neutal. The neutons have no chage; theefoe they do not have to equal the # potons o # electons. 4 7 How do we know the numbe of subatomic paticles in an atom? Atomic numbe: this numbe indicates the numbe of potons in an atom. Ex: Hydogen s atomic numbe is 1. # potons? So hydogen has 1 poton Ex: Cabon s atomic numbe is 6. # potons? So cabon has 6 potons **The numbe of potons identifies the atom. 6 4
5 9 Check out It s vey cool! Oute Shells have 1 electon How to ead and use a Peiodic Table Inceasing # of electons (potons) Oute Shells missing electons Oute Shells missing 1 electon All Shells filled (noble) 10 Atomic # = # of potons (o electons) Atomic Mass Unit (amu): 1 amu = 1.66 x 10 7 kg (based on the unit of mass of 1/1 of 1 C) g Cu Atomic mass of Cu = amu o Avogado s numbe (6.0 x 3 mol 1 ) 5
6 Atoms want to fill (complete) thei shells esults in electonic (electon) tansfe o bonding with each othe, ex. H BONDING K L M N 4p Enegy 3p 3d 4s 3s p s 1s 11 1 Pimay Atomic Bonds Covalent: Shaed oute shell electons. Diectional Ionic: Donation of valence electon (e ) to balance chage. Metallic: Sea of electons. Nondiectional. Hydogen: Attaction between H + to adjacent molecule () van de Waals: Attaction between (+) and () chaged egions. 5 6
7 Bond Bond Stength (GPa) Example of Bond Covalent 1,000 Diamond Ionic Salt and Ceamics Metallic Metals Hydogen 8 Ice Van de Waals Polymes Stongest Weakest Bond type influences stuctue and popeties! 13 The Ionic Bond Ionic bonding between sodium (Na) and chloine (Cl) atoms. Electon Tansfe (donation) Electon tansfe fom Na to Cl ceates a cation (Na + ) and an anion (Cl ). The ionic bond is due to the coulombic attaction between ions of opposite chage. Ionic Bonds ae nondiectional Na Ionic Bond Cl Na + Cl  Cation (Na + ) becomes smalle than the neutal Na atom. 14 Anion (Cl ) becomes lage than the Cl neutal atom. 7
8 Oute shell has only one electon Oute shell missing one electon Electon donation makes both ions happy 15 Fomation of an ionic bond between sodium and chloine in which the effect of ionization on atomic adius is illustated. The cation (Na + ) becomes smalle than the neutal atom (Na), while the anion (Cl ) becomes lage than the neutal atom (Cl). 16 Li + Yet anothe example of the ionic bond Fl 3+ Lithium atom Li 3+ Electon Tansfe (donation) Fluoine atom F Figue Schematic illustation of ionic bonding between lithium and fluoine. As befoe, the effect of ionization on atomic adius is illustated. The cation (Li + ) becomes smalle than the neutal atom (Li), while the anion (F ) becomes lage than the neutal atom (F). Lithium ion Li + Fluoine atom F  8
9 IONIC BONDING & STRUCTURE Chage Neutality: Net chage in the stuctue should CaF: Ca + + cation be zeo. Geneal fom: F  anions F  AmXp m, p detemined by chage neutality Stable stuctues: maximize the # of neaest oppositely chaged neighbos. 17 Na + Cl  Net bonding foce cuve fo a Na + Cl pai showing an equilibium bond length of o = 0.8 nm. o Same as cuve as befoe F A (coulombic foce of attaction) F N (net bonding foce) Foce 0 This cuve is the diffeence between the attactive and epulsive cuves (F N = F A + F R ) F R (coulombic foce of epulsion) Repulsive b/c of ovelapping electic fields 18 Simila to Figue.8(a) fom text 9
10 Bonding distance is a balanced distance The bonding enegy, E, is elated to the bonding foce, F, though: Na + Cl  P. 7 de E Fd F d Equilibium bond length (a o ) occus whee F = 0 and E is a minimum Foce bonding foce = 0 Extenally applied compessive foce is equied to push ions close + togethe than o. 0 Extenally applied tensile foce is equied to pull ions futhe apat E 0 than o. Mechanical behavio depends on minimum bonding enegy bonding! See Chap. 7! Figue.8 fom text 19 Note these geneal cuve shapes applied to othe bonding types too gy Ene Coulombic foce fo a Na + Cl pai. F A de A d Na + Cl  Attactive foce between two opposite chages P. 9 e = single electon chage (1.60x10 19 C) Popotionality constant (9x10 9 V/C) A A ( Z e)( Z e) 0 1 Z= valence of the chaged ion, i.e. +1 fo Na + and 1 fo Cl (attactive foce) F A Close the chaged species, the geate the attaction, up to a point! Inteatomic sepaation 0 These equations apply to ionic bonds but NOT covalent A o 1 Fom P
11 Regula stacking of Na + and Cl ions in solid NaCl, which is indicative of the nondiectional natue of ionic bonding 1 Cl Na + CLASS ROOM EXAMPLE: So fa, we have concentated on the coulombic foce of attaction between ions. But like ions epel each othe. A neaestneighbo pai of Na + ions (shown below)ae sepaated by a distance of o, whee o is defined as the distance between Cl and Na + ions. Calculate the coulombic foce of epulsion between such a pai of like ions. 11
12 3 CLASS ROOM EXAMPLE So fa, we have concentated on the coulombic foce of attaction between ions. But like ions epel each othe. A neaestneighbo pai of Na + ions (shown below)ae sepaated by a distance of o, whee o is defined as the distance between Cl and Na + ions. Calculate the coulombic foce of epulsion between such a pai of like ions. Given: 9 o 0.8 nm m o (See the next page) At equilibium: Ao 1 Fo like atoms, ( Z e )( Z e F ) A FR 9 whee Ao 9 10 V m/ C ; Z1, Z valence ; 18 e C (9 10 V m/ C)( 1)( C)( 1)( C) 9 (1 V C / m 1 N) FR ( m) 9 N To solve this poblem you need to teat o as the distance between adjacent Na 1+ and Cl 1 ions. Just some simple geomety Use geomety to detemine the distance between adjacent Na 1+ ions o adjacent Cl 1 ions. This is shown below. This new inteatomic t i distance () will be the one that you substitute into the equation fo coulombic foce. In this poblem o Na 1 Cl 1 o o 4 Fom geomety, you can see that: o o o 0.8 nm fo this poblem. 1 1 Na Cl 1
13 CLASS ROOM EXAMPLE Calculate the coulombic foce of attaction between Ca + and O  in CaO, which has the NaCltype stuctue. 5 CLASS ROOM EXAMPLE SOLUTION Calculate the coulombic foce of attaction between Ca + and O  in CaO, which has the NaCltype stuctue. Fom font cove of text: Ionic Radii fo Ca and O nm m Ca nm m O Inteatomic Sepaation: ao ( m) ( m) m Ca O F R (9 10 V m/ C)( )(0.16 )( C )( )(016 )( C) 9 ( m) N 6 13
14 Summay Thee ae five types of atomic bonds: Covalent, Ionic, Metallic, Hydogen, and Van de Waals. The bond type influences the stuctue and popeties of a mateial. Coulombic foce of epulsion and coulombic foce of attaction can be calculated using A The equation elating coulombic foce of epulsion and coulombic foce of attaction is: F A =F R F A 7 14
+  IONIC BONDING Outline: IONIC BONDING: Summary EXAMPLES: IONIC BONDING. Na (metal) unstable. Cl (nonmetal) unstable
IONIC BONDING Outline: Types of bonds:  Ionic  Covalent  Metallic  Seconday bonding Examples:  elation between bond enegy and popeties Summay Example: NaCl Na (metal) unstable Na (cation) stable electon
More information1240 ev nm 2.5 ev. (4) r 2 or mv 2 = ke2
Chapte 5 Example The helium atom has 2 electonic enegy levels: E 3p = 23.1 ev and E 2s = 20.6 ev whee the gound state is E = 0. If an electon makes a tansition fom 3p to 2s, what is the wavelength of the
More informationEpisode 401: Newton s law of universal gravitation
Episode 401: Newton s law of univesal gavitation This episode intoduces Newton s law of univesal gavitation fo point masses, and fo spheical masses, and gets students pactising calculations of the foce
More informationChapter 26  Electric Field. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University
Chapte 6 lectic Field A PowePoint Pesentation by Paul. Tippens, Pofesso of Physics Southen Polytechnic State Univesity 7 Objectives: Afte finishing this unit you should be able to: Define the electic field
More informationThe force between electric charges. Comparing gravity and the interaction between charges. Coulomb s Law. Forces between two charges
The foce between electic chages Coulomb s Law Two chaged objects, of chage q and Q, sepaated by a distance, exet a foce on one anothe. The magnitude of this foce is given by: kqq Coulomb s Law: F whee
More informationCHEMICAL BONDS IN SOLIDS
BANDS AND BONDS Lionel C. Kimeling CHEMICAL BONDS IN SOLIDS The chemical bond aises fom a edistibution of electonic chage when atoms ae bought in close poximity. The bond in a solid esults fom the supeposition
More informationCharges, Coulomb s Law, and Electric Fields
Q&E 1 Chages, Coulomb s Law, and Electic ields Some expeimental facts: Expeimental fact 1: Electic chage comes in two types, which we call (+) and ( ). An atom consists of a heavy (+) chaged nucleus suounded
More informationChapter 13 Gravitation. Problems: 1, 4, 5, 7, 18, 19, 25, 29, 31, 33, 43
Chapte 13 Gavitation Poblems: 1, 4, 5, 7, 18, 19, 5, 9, 31, 33, 43 Evey object in the univese attacts evey othe object. This is called gavitation. We e use to dealing with falling bodies nea the Eath.
More informationIntroduction to Electric Potential
Univesiti Teknologi MARA Fakulti Sains Gunaan Intoduction to Electic Potential : A Physical Science Activity Name: HP: Lab # 3: The goal of today s activity is fo you to exploe and descibe the electic
More informationVoltage ( = Electric Potential )
V1 Voltage ( = Electic Potential ) An electic chage altes the space aound it. Thoughout the space aound evey chage is a vecto thing called the electic field. Also filling the space aound evey chage is
More informationPHY002 Lecture Notes for PreDegree Science
PHY00 Lectue Notes fo PeDegee Science Couse Contents: Magnets, Magnetic fields and Electostatic By Odusote Y. A Depatment of Physics Fedeal Univesity of Technology P. M.B. 704, Akue, Ondo State. 1 MAGNETS
More informationThe Electric Potential, Electric Potential Energy and Energy Conservation. V = U/q 0. V = U/q 0 = W/q 0 1V [Volt] =1 Nm/C
Geneal Physics  PH Winte 6 Bjoen Seipel The Electic Potential, Electic Potential Enegy and Enegy Consevation Electic Potential Enegy U is the enegy of a chaged object in an extenal electic field (Unit
More informationSamples of conceptual and analytical/numerical questions from chap 21, C&J, 7E
CHAPTER 1 Magnetism CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS Cutnell & Johnson 7E 3. ssm A chaged paticle, passing though a cetain egion of space, has a velocity whose magnitude and diection emain constant, (a) If it is known
More informationChapter 23: Gauss s Law
Chapte 3: Gauss s Law Homewok: Read Chapte 3 Questions, 5, 1 Poblems 1, 5, 3 Gauss s Law Gauss s Law is the fist of the fou Maxwell Equations which summaize all of electomagnetic theoy. Gauss s Law gives
More informationFXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Describe how a mass creates a gravitational field in the space around it.
Candidates should be able to : Descibe how a mass ceates a gavitational field in the space aound it. Define gavitational field stength as foce pe unit mass. Define and use the peiod of an object descibing
More informationPhysics 235 Chapter 5. Chapter 5 Gravitation
Chapte 5 Gavitation In this Chapte we will eview the popeties of the gavitational foce. The gavitational foce has been discussed in geat detail in you intoductoy physics couses, and we will pimaily focus
More informationmv2. Equating the two gives 4! 2. The angular velocity is the angle swept per GM (2! )2 4! 2 " 2 = GM . Combining the results we get !
Chapte. he net foce on the satellite is F = G Mm and this plays the ole of the centipetal foce on the satellite i.e. mv mv. Equating the two gives = G Mm i.e. v = G M. Fo cicula motion we have that v =!
More informationChapter 6. GraduallyVaried Flow in Open Channels
Chapte 6 GaduallyVaied Flow in Open Channels 6.. Intoduction A stea nonunifom flow in a pismatic channel with gadual changes in its watesuface elevation is named as gaduallyvaied flow (GVF). The backwate
More informationVoltage ( = Electric Potential )
V1 of 9 Voltage ( = lectic Potential ) An electic chage altes the space aound it. Thoughout the space aound evey chage is a vecto thing called the electic field. Also filling the space aound evey chage
More information(a) The centripetal acceleration of a point on the equator of the Earth is given by v2. The velocity of the earth can be found by taking the ratio of
Homewok VI Ch. 7  Poblems 15, 19, 22, 25, 35, 43, 51. Poblem 15 (a) The centipetal acceleation of a point on the equato of the Eath is given by v2. The velocity of the eath can be found by taking the
More informationChapter 19: Electric Charges, Forces, and Fields ( ) ( 6 )( 6
Chapte 9 lectic Chages, Foces, an Fiels 6 9. One in a million (0 ) ogen molecules in a containe has lost an electon. We assume that the lost electons have been emove fom the gas altogethe. Fin the numbe
More informationPhysics: Electromagnetism Spring PROBLEM SET 6 Solutions
Physics: Electomagnetism Sping 7 Physics: Electomagnetism Sping 7 PROBEM SET 6 Solutions Electostatic Enegy Basics: Wolfson and Pasachoff h 6 Poblem 7 p 679 Thee ae si diffeent pais of equal chages and
More informationPhysics 111 Fall 2007 Electrostatic Forces and the Electric Field  Solutions
Physics 111 Fall 007 Electostatic Foces an the Electic Fiel  Solutions 1. Two point chages, 5 µc an 8 µc ae 1. m apat. Whee shoul a thi chage, equal to 5 µc, be place to make the electic fiel at the
More informationPhysics 202, Lecture 4. Gauss s Law: Review
Physics 202, Lectue 4 Today s Topics Review: Gauss s Law Electic Potential (Ch. 25Pat I) Electic Potential Enegy and Electic Potential Electic Potential and Electic Field Next Tuesday: Electic Potential
More informationMagnetism: a new force!
1 Magnetism: a new foce! o fa, we'e leaned about two foces: gaity and the electic field foce. F E = E, FE = E Definition of Efield kq Efields ae ceated by chages: E = 2 Efield exets a foce on othe
More informationGauss Law. Physics 231 Lecture 21
Gauss Law Physics 31 Lectue 1 lectic Field Lines The numbe of field lines, also known as lines of foce, ae elated to stength of the electic field Moe appopiately it is the numbe of field lines cossing
More information14. Gravitation Universal Law of Gravitation (Newton):
14. Gavitation 1 Univesal Law of Gavitation (ewton): The attactive foce between two paticles: F = G m 1m 2 2 whee G = 6.67 10 11 m 2 / kg 2 is the univesal gavitational constant. F m 2 m 1 F Paticle #1
More informationRevision Guide for Chapter 11
Revision Guide fo Chapte 11 Contents Student s Checklist Revision Notes Momentum... 4 Newton's laws of motion... 4 Gavitational field... 5 Gavitational potential... 6 Motion in a cicle... 7 Summay Diagams
More informationThe Grating Spectrometer and Atomic Spectra
PHY 19 Gating Spectomete 1 The Gating Spectomete and Atomic Specta Intoduction In the pevious expeiment diffaction and intefeence wee discussed and at the end a diffaction gating was intoduced. In this
More informationNUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE
19 Jul 04 NMR.1 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE In this expeiment the phenomenon of nuclea magnetic esonance will be used as the basis fo a method to accuately measue magnetic field stength, and to study magnetic
More informationChapter 13 Gravitation
Chapte 13 Gavitation Newton, who extended the concept of inetia to all bodies, ealized that the moon is acceleating and is theefoe subject to a centipetal foce. He guessed that the foce that keeps the
More informationMagnetism. The Magnetic Force. B x x x x x x x x x x x x v x x x x x x. F = q
Magnetism The Magnetic Foce F = qe + qv x x x x x x x x x x x x v x x x x x x F q v q F v F = q 0 IM intoduced the fist had disk in 1957, when data usually was stoed on tapes. It consisted of 50 plattes,
More informationLesson 9 Dipoles and Magnets
Lesson 9 Dipoles and Magnets Lawence B. Rees 007. You may make a single copy of this document fo pesonal use without witten pemission. 9.0 Intoduction In this chapte we will lean about an assotment of
More informationThe Role of Gravity in Orbital Motion
! The Role of Gavity in Obital Motion Pat of: Inquiy Science with Datmouth Developed by: Chistophe Caoll, Depatment of Physics & Astonomy, Datmouth College Adapted fom: How Gavity Affects Obits (Ohio State
More informationSolution Derivations for Capa #8
Solution Deivations fo Capa #8 1) A ass spectoete applies a voltage of 2.00 kv to acceleate a singly chaged ion (+e). A 0.400 T field then bends the ion into a cicula path of adius 0.305. What is the ass
More informationProblem Set 6: Solutions
UNIVESITY OF ALABAMA Depatment of Physics and Astonomy PH 164 / LeClai Fall 28 Poblem Set 6: Solutions 1. Seway 29.55 Potons having a kinetic enegy of 5. MeV ae moving in the positive x diection and ente
More informationClassical Lifetime of a Bohr Atom
1 Poblem Classical Lifetime of a Boh Atom James D. Olsen and Kik T. McDonald Joseph Heny Laboatoies, Pinceton Univesity, Pinceton, NJ 85 (Mach 7, 5) In the Boh model of the hydogen atom s gound state,
More informationNuclear models: FermiGas Model Shell Model
Lectue Nuclea mode: FemiGas Model Shell Model WS/: Intoduction to Nuclea and Paticle Physics The basic concept of the Femigas model The theoetical concept of a Femigas may be applied fo systems of weakly
More informationGauss Law in dielectrics
Gauss Law in dielectics We fist deive the diffeential fom of Gauss s law in the pesence of a dielectic. Recall, the diffeential fom of Gauss Law is This law is always tue. E In the pesence of dielectics,
More informationChapter 17 The Kepler Problem: Planetary Mechanics and the Bohr Atom
Chapte 7 The Keple Poblem: Planetay Mechanics and the Boh Atom Keple s Laws: Each planet moves in an ellipse with the sun at one focus. The adius vecto fom the sun to a planet sweeps out equal aeas in
More informationExcitation energies for molecules by TimeDependent. based on Effective Exact Exchange KohnSham potential
Excitation enegies fo molecules by TimeDependent DensityFunctional Theoy based on Effective Exact Exchange KohnSham potential Fabio Della Sala National Nanotechnology Laboatoies Lecce Italy A. Göling
More information2 r2 θ = r2 t. (3.59) The equal area law is the statement that the term in parentheses,
3.4. KEPLER S LAWS 145 3.4 Keple s laws You ae familia with the idea that one can solve some mechanics poblems using only consevation of enegy and (linea) momentum. Thus, some of what we see as objects
More informationAP Physics Electromagnetic Wrap Up
AP Physics Electomagnetic Wap Up Hee ae the gloious equations fo this wondeful section. F qsin This is the equation fo the magnetic foce acting on a moing chaged paticle in a magnetic field. The angle
More informationMon., 3/9 Tues., 3/10 Wed., 3/11 Thurs., 3/12 Fri., 3/ 13. RE19 HW19:RQ.42, 49, 52; P.61, 66, 69 RE20, Exp new RE ,34 Magnetic Force
Mon., 3/9 Tues., 3/10 Wed., 3/11 Thus., 3/12 Fi., 3/ 13 Mon., 3/16 Tues., 3/17 Wed., 3/18 Thus., 3/19 Fi., 3/20 20.1,34 Magnetic Foce 20.2,5 Cuent and Motional Emf Quiz Ch 19, Lab 8 Cycloton & Electon
More informationChapter 4. Gauss s Law
Chapte 4 Gauss s Law 4.1 lectic Flux...44. Gauss s Law...43 xample 4.1: Infinitely Long Rod of Unifom Chage Density...48 xample 4.: Infinite Plane of Chage...49 xample 4.3: Spheical Shell...41 xample
More informationSTUDENT RESPONSE TO ANNUITY FORMULA DERIVATION
Page 1 STUDENT RESPONSE TO ANNUITY FORMULA DERIVATION C. Alan Blaylock, Hendeson State Univesity ABSTRACT This pape pesents an intuitive appoach to deiving annuity fomulas fo classoom use and attempts
More informationChapter 2. Electrostatics
Chapte. Electostatics.. The Electostatic Field To calculate the foce exeted by some electic chages,,, 3,... (the souce chages) on anothe chage Q (the test chage) we can use the pinciple of supeposition.
More informationChapter 3 Savings, Present Value and Ricardian Equivalence
Chapte 3 Savings, Pesent Value and Ricadian Equivalence Chapte Oveview In the pevious chapte we studied the decision of households to supply hous to the labo maket. This decision was a static decision,
More informationVISCOSITY OF BIODIESEL FUELS
VISCOSITY OF BIODIESEL FUELS One of the key assumptions fo ideal gases is that the motion of a given paticle is independent of any othe paticles in the system. With this assumption in place, one can use
More informationValuation of Floating Rate Bonds 1
Valuation of Floating Rate onds 1 Joge uz Lopez us 316: Deivative Secuities his note explains how to value plain vanilla floating ate bonds. he pupose of this note is to link the concepts that you leaned
More informationCarterPenrose diagrams and black holes
CatePenose diagams and black holes Ewa Felinska The basic intoduction to the method of building Penose diagams has been pesented, stating with obtaining a Penose diagam fom Minkowski space. An example
More informationMAGNETIC FIELDS AND FORCES 24
MAGNETIC FIELDS AND FORCES 24 Q24.1. Reason: When a ba magnet is bought nea the cente of anothe ba magnet as shown in Figue Q24.1, the foce between the ba magnets is zeo. The attactive foce between the
More informationMagnetic Field and Magnetic Forces. Young and Freedman Chapter 27
Magnetic Field and Magnetic Foces Young and Feedman Chapte 27 Intoduction Reiew  electic fields 1) A chage (o collection of chages) poduces an electic field in the space aound it. 2) The electic field
More informationSo we ll start with Angular Measure. Consider a particle moving in a circular path. (p. 220, Figure 7.1)
Lectue 17 Cicula Motion (Chapte 7) Angula Measue Angula Speed and Velocity Angula Acceleation We ve aleady dealt with cicula motion somewhat. Recall we leaned about centipetal acceleation: when you swing
More informationDetermining solar characteristics using planetary data
Detemining sola chaacteistics using planetay data Intoduction The Sun is a G type main sequence sta at the cente of the Sola System aound which the planets, including ou Eath, obit. In this inestigation
More information2008 QuarterFinal Exam Solutions
2008 Quatefinal Exam  Solutions 1 2008 QuateFinal Exam Solutions 1 A chaged paticle with chage q and mass m stats with an initial kinetic enegy K at the middle of a unifomly chaged spheical egion of
More information2  ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITANCE Page 1
 ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITANCE Page. Line Integal of Electic Field If a unit positive chage is displaced by `given by dw E. dl dl in an electic field of intensity E, wok done is Line integation
More informationMechanics 1: Motion in a Central Force Field
Mechanics : Motion in a Cental Foce Field We now stud the popeties of a paticle of (constant) ass oving in a paticula tpe of foce field, a cental foce field. Cental foces ae ve ipotant in phsics and engineeing.
More informationChapter 22. Outside a uniformly charged sphere, the field looks like that of a point charge at the center of the sphere.
Chapte.3 What is the magnitude of a point chage whose electic field 5 cm away has the magnitude of.n/c. E E 5.56 1 11 C.5 An atom of plutonium39 has a nuclea adius of 6.64 fm and atomic numbe Z94. Assuming
More informationUNIT 21: ELECTRICAL AND GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL Approximate time two 100minute sessions
Name St.No.  Date(YY/MM/DD) / / Section Goup# UNIT 21: ELECTRICAL AND GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL Appoximate time two 100minute sessions OBJECTIVES I began to think of gavity extending to the ob of the moon,
More informationGravitation. AP Physics C
Gavitation AP Physics C Newton s Law of Gavitation What causes YOU to be pulled down? THE EARTH.o moe specifically the EARTH S MASS. Anything that has MASS has a gavitational pull towads it. F α Mm g What
More informationChapter 22 The Electric Field II: Continuous Charge Distributions
Chapte The lectic Field II: Continuous Chage Distibutions 1 [M] A unifom line chage that has a linea chage density l equal to.5 nc/m is on the x axis between x and x 5. m. (a) What is its total chage?
More informationThe Critical Angle and Percent Efficiency of Parabolic Solar Cookers
The Citical Angle and Pecent Eiciency o Paabolic Sola Cookes Aiel Chen Abstact: The paabola is commonly used as the cuve o sola cookes because o its ability to elect incoming light with an incoming angle
More informationSimple Harmonic Motion
Simple Hamonic Motion Intoduction Simple hamonic motion occus when the net foce acting on an object is popotional to the object s displacement fom an equilibium position. When the object is at an equilibium
More informationGRAVITATIONAL FIELD: CHAPTER 11. The groundwork for Newton s great contribution to understanding gravity was laid by three majors players:
CHAPT 11 TH GAVITATIONAL FILD (GAVITY) GAVITATIONAL FILD: The goundwok fo Newton s geat contibution to undestanding gavity was laid by thee majos playes: Newton s Law of Gavitation o gavitational and inetial
More informationWhat is an Atom? smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element
Date: Science 10 4.1 Atomic Theory & Bonding What is an Atom? smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element An atom = proton(s) + electron(s) + neutron(s) (PEN) Fun Fact:
More information12. Rolling, Torque, and Angular Momentum
12. olling, Toque, and Angula Momentum 1 olling Motion: A motion that is a combination of otational and tanslational motion, e.g. a wheel olling down the oad. Will only conside olling with out slipping.
More informationELECTRIC CHARGES AND FIELDS
Chapte One ELECTRIC CHARGES AND FIELDS 1.1 INTRODUCTION All of us have the expeience of seeing a spak o heaing a cackle when we take off ou synthetic clothes o sweate, paticulaly in dy weathe. This is
More informationExam I. Spring 2004 Serway & Jewett, Chapters 15. Fill in the bubble for the correct answer on the answer sheet. next to the number.
Agin/Meye PART I: QUALITATIVE Exam I Sping 2004 Seway & Jewett, Chaptes 15 Assigned Seat Numbe Fill in the bubble fo the coect answe on the answe sheet. next to the numbe. NO PARTIAL CREDIT: SUBMIT ONE
More informationAtom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons)
Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons) Atomic Number equal to the number of protons Mass Number protons + neutrons Charge when # of electrons # of protons Negatively Charged Ion
More information81 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation
81 Newton s Law of Univesal Gavitation One of the most famous stoies of all time is the stoy of Isaac Newton sitting unde an apple tee and being hit on the head by a falling apple. It was this event,
More informationXray diffraction: Electron density map of NaCl
4. Bonding Ionic Bonding Evidence for the existence of ions Xray diffraction: Electron density map of NaCl These maps show the likelihood of finding electrons in a region The contours are lines of equal
More informationClasses of materials
Classes of materials POLYMERS CERAMICS METALS DUCTILITY Varies Poor Good CONDUCTIVITY (ELECTRICAL & THERMAL) Low Low High HARDNESS/STRENGTH Low medium Very high Medium high CORROSION RESISTANCE Fair good
More informationChapter 30: Magnetic Fields Due to Currents
d Chapte 3: Magnetic Field Due to Cuent A moving electic chage ceate a magnetic field. One of the moe pactical way of geneating a lage magnetic field (.11 T) i to ue a lage cuent flowing though a wie.
More informationList the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each.
Basic Chemistry Why do we study chemistry in a biology course? All living organisms are composed of chemicals. To understand life, we must understand the structure, function, and properties of the chemicals
More informationElectron Configurations continued:
Electron Configurations continued: Electrons in the outermost shell are called valence electrons. It is the valence electrons determine an atom s chemical properties. Electrons in the inner shells are
More informationPHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK SOLUTION #13. May 1, 2013
PHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK SOLUTION #13 May 1, 2013 0.1 In intoductoy physics laboatoies, a typical Cavendish balance fo measuing the gavitational constant G uses lead sphees with masses of 2.10 kg and 21.0
More informationCh. 8 Universal Gravitation. Part 1: Kepler s Laws. Johannes Kepler. Tycho Brahe. Brahe. Objectives: Section 8.1 Motion in the Heavens and on Earth
Ch. 8 Univesal Gavitation Pat 1: Keple s Laws Objectives: Section 8.1 Motion in the Heavens and on Eath Objectives Relate Keple s laws of planetay motion to Newton s law of univesal gavitation. Calculate
More information1.4 Phase Line and Bifurcation Diag
Dynamical Systems: Pat 2 2 Bifucation Theoy In pactical applications that involve diffeential equations it vey often happens that the diffeential equation contains paametes and the value of these paametes
More informationTALLINN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS 14. NEWTON'S RINGS
4. NEWTON'S RINGS. Obective Detemining adius of cuvatue of a long focal length planoconvex lens (lage adius of cuvatue).. Equipment needed Measuing micoscope, planoconvex long focal length lens, monochomatic
More informationH 2O gas: molecules are very far apart
NonCovalent Molecular Forces 2/27/06 3/1/06 How does this reaction occur: H 2 O (liquid) H 2 O (gas)? Add energy H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart H 2O liquid: bonding between molecules Use heat
More informationCHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW
Answer the following questions. CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW 1. What are the three kinds of bonds which can form between atoms? The three types of Bonds are Covalent, Ionic and Metallic. Name Date Block 2.
More informationLecture 25 The Solid State: types of crystals, lattice energies and solubility s of ionic compounds.
2P32 Principles of Inorganic Chemistry Dr.M.Pilkington Lecture 25 The Solid State: types of crystals, lattice energies and solubility s of ionic compounds. 1. Types of crystals: metalic, covalent, molecular
More informationCHAPTER3 CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS
CHAPTER3 CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS Mandeleev s Periodic Law: The properties of the elements are the periodic function of their atomic masses. Moseley, the English
More informationest using the formula I = Prt, where I is the interest earned, P is the principal, r is the interest rate, and t is the time in years.
9.2 Inteest Objectives 1. Undestand the simple inteest fomula. 2. Use the compound inteest fomula to find futue value. 3. Solve the compound inteest fomula fo diffeent unknowns, such as the pesent value,
More informationSpirotechnics! September 7, 2011. Amanda Zeringue, Michael Spannuth and Amanda Zeringue Dierential Geometry Project
Spiotechnics! Septembe 7, 2011 Amanda Zeingue, Michael Spannuth and Amanda Zeingue Dieential Geomety Poject 1 The Beginning The geneal consensus of ou goup began with one thought: Spiogaphs ae awesome.
More informationGauss s Law. Figure 22.1 A great white shark can detect tiny electric fields generated by its prey.
lectic Fields and Gauss s Law What We Will Lean 711.1 Definition of an lectic Field 711. Field Lines 71 Point Chage 71 Two Point Chages of Opposite Sign 71 Two Point Chages with the Same Sign 71 Geneal
More information4.1 Cylindrical and Polar Coordinates
4.1 Cylindical and Pola Coodinates 4.1.1 Geometical Axisymmety A lage numbe of pactical engineeing poblems involve geometical featues which have a natual axis of symmety, such as the solid cylinde, shown
More informationMagnetic Bearing with Radial Magnetized Permanent Magnets
Wold Applied Sciences Jounal 23 (4): 495499, 2013 ISSN 18184952 IDOSI Publications, 2013 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.23.04.23080 Magnetic eaing with Radial Magnetized Pemanent Magnets Vyacheslav Evgenevich
More informationHour Exam No.1. p 1 v. p = e 0 + v^b. Note that the probe is moving in the direction of the unit vector ^b so the velocity vector is just ~v = v^b and
Hou Exam No. Please attempt all of the following poblems befoe the due date. All poblems count the same even though some ae moe complex than othes. Assume that c units ae used thoughout. Poblem A photon
More informationInternal Resistance of cell & Combinations of Cells By R. S. Saini. (M.Sc. Physics, M.Ed.) Kendriya Vidyalaya, Sector 47, Chandigarh
ntenal Resistance of cell & Combinations of Cells 01.06.09 By R. S. Saini (M.Sc. Physics, M.d.) Kendiya idyalaya, Secto 47, Chandigah 9417071540 Souces of emf: The electo motive foce is the maximum potential
More informationInstituto Superior Técnico Av. Rovisco Pais, 1 1049001 Lisboa Email: virginia.infante@ist.utl.pt
FATIGUE LIFE TIME PREDICTIO OF POAF EPSILO TB30 AIRCRAFT  PART I: IMPLEMETATIO OF DIFERET CYCLE COUTIG METHODS TO PREDICT THE ACCUMULATED DAMAGE B. A. S. Seano 1, V. I. M.. Infante 2, B. S. D. Maado
More informationUNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY Structural Engineering, Professor: S. Govindjee. ElasticPerfectly Plastic Thick Walled Sphere
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY Stuctual Engineeing, Depatment of Civil Engineeing Mechanics and Mateials Fall 00 Pofesso: S Govindjee ElasticPefectly Plastic Thick Walled Sphee Conside a thick walled
More informationIn this section we shall look at the motion of a projectile MOTION IN FIELDS 9.1 PROJECTILE MOTION PROJECTILE MOTION
MOTION IN FIELDS MOTION IN FIELDS 9 9. Pojectile motion 9. Gavitational field, potential and enegy 9.3 Electic field, potential and enegy 9. PROJECTILE MOTION 9.. State the independence of the vetical
More informationAlignment of Buckingham Parameters to Generalized LennardJones Potential Functions
Alignment of Buckingham Paametes to Genealized LennadJones Potential Functions TeikCheng Lim School of Science and Technology SIM Univesity 535A Clementi oad S 599490 epublic of Singapoe epint equests
More informationVector Calculus: Are you ready? Vectors in 2D and 3D Space: Review
Vecto Calculus: Ae you eady? Vectos in D and 3D Space: Review Pupose: Make cetain that you can define, and use in context, vecto tems, concepts and fomulas listed below: Section 7.7. find the vecto defined
More informationPearson Physics Level 30 Unit VI Forces and Fields: Chapter 10 Solutions
Peason Physics Level 30 Unit VI Foces and Fields: hapte 10 Solutions Student Book page 518 oncept heck 1. It is easie fo ebonite to eove electons fo fu than fo silk.. Ebonite acquies a negative chage when
More informationMatter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy
Science of Kriyayoga IST 11101, Spring 2005 Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy In our discussion so far, we have discussed human nervous system and cell biology, in addition to the
More informationIntroduction to Ionic Bonds
Introduction to Ionic Bonds The forces that hold matter together are called chemical bonds. There are four major types of bonds. We need to learn in detail about these bonds and how they influence the
More informationPHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK SOLUTION #5. March 3, 2013
PHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK SOLUTION #5 Mach 3, 2013 0.1 You 3.80kg physics book is placed next to you on the hoizontal seat of you ca. The coefficient of static fiction between the book and the seat is 0.650,
More information