Structure of the Earth (Why?)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Structure of the Earth (Why?)"

Transcription

1 Structure of the Earth (Why?)

2 Recall Hypsometric Curve? Continental lithosphere is very different from oceanic lithosphere. To understand this, we need to know more about the structure & composition of Earth.

3 Earthquake (seismic) waves are the key to understanding earth s structure. Seismic wave paths traveling through Earth provide important information about Earths structure They allow us to image and locate the boundaries between Earths many layers (e.g., the core-mantle boundary) Changes in wave paths allow indicate the changes in composition and rheology of the Earth (e.g., liquid outer Fe-core) See Chapter 5 and 6 of your textbook. A detailed reading guide is given for you on Compass.

4 From your reading, you will see That the science leading to our understanding of Earth s structure is interesting and complicated. It involves Snell s Law and the physics of wave propagation, wave theory and spherical geometry combined with experimental highpressure mineral physics. We will not cover the geophysics of seismic waves and how we know Earth s internal structure. I ve included it in your assigned readings to satisfy your curiosity. If you have any questions over this material, don t hesitate to see me

5 What you need to know in order to understand the oceans Earth can be divided on the basis of its composition or its rheology Rheology = behavior in response to stress (e.g. rigid, plastic, fluid) Earth s composition layers Crust, Mantle and Core Earth s rheologic layers Lithosphere, Asthenosphere, Mesosphere, Liquid Outer Core, Solid Inner Core The details of these two ways of seeing Earth s structure follow

6 Earth s composition layers Composition layers on left side of figure: Oceanic Crust: 0-10 km thick Si - Mg - Fe-rich (dense) Continental Crust: km thick Si - Al - Ca - Mg - Fe (not dense) Mantle: ~2900 km thick Si - Mg - Fe Very rich in Mg-Fe (very dense) Extends from base of crust (Moho) to the top of the core (CMB) Core: ~3500 km thick Fe (Ni-S) - rich (supper dense)

7 Earth s Rheologic layers (on the right side of the figure) Lithosphere: km thick Includes crust and rigid upper mantle This is the rigid plate of plate tectonics Base is defined by 1280ºC boundary Asthenosphere: 100/150 to 700 km depth This is a plastic region that the lithospheric plates ride/float on Begins at ~100 km depth in oceans, 150 km depth under the continents Mesosphere extends from 700 to ~2900 km depth Often called the Lower Mantle At 700 km depth the pressure is so great that the minerals are forced to compress their structure (thus change to denser minerals) This is a plastic layer denser than the asthenosphere Liquid Outer Core: 2900 to 5155 km Made of dense, convecting liquid iron Generates Earth s magnetic field Solid Inner Core 5155 to 6370 km Solid, crystalline Fe

8 The lithosphere includes crust and part of the mantle. A. True B. False

9 The Asthenosphere is composed entirely of mantle. A. True B. False

10 Now we can begin to understand the hypsometric curve Why is the ocean floor deep compared to the continental surfaces? In other words, why do continents (e.g., Antarctica), rise above the ocean floor? To answer this question, we need to understand a few things: If the asthenosphere is a plastic, then the rigid lithosphere floats on it. A perfect analogy to this concept is a block floating on putty, or Another analogy: blocks floating in water Archimedes - a Greek philosopher played around with this

11 Buoyancy Model What will happen if the thickness of the block is increased? A. The base of the block will sink deeper. B. The top of the block will rise higher C. Both A and B D. Nothing will happen, the position of the block will not change. Z U Z A Z B model

12

13

14 concept of isostacy Continental lithosphere sinks deeper and rides higher than oceanic lithosphere due to it s thickness and lower density. In this picture the thick board represents the continental lithosphere. The thinner boards represent the oceanic lithosphere. Note, if you remove the top of a continent, it bobs up in such a way that the root is shallower, and the surface is still above the oceanic lithosphere. Isostacy:

15 Thick ice sinks deeper and rides higher than thin ice Examples of Isostacy:

16 More Isostacy: animation

17 Now we can understand the hypsometric curve Ocean floor is deeper than continents because Ocean lithosphere is thinner than continental lithosphere Oceanic lithosphere is denser than continental lithosphere Thus, due to relative buoyancy the oceanic lithosphere does not ride as high on the asthenosphere compared to the continental lithosphere. This is the concept of isostacy Continental lithosphere sinks deeper into the asthenosphere and rides higher than oceanic lithosphere due to it s thickness and lower density

18 Now we understand this graph and image!

19 Review Questions What does the hypsometric curve show you? What are the composition layers of the Earth? What is the radius of the Earth? How is the asthenosphere different from the lithosphere? How is the mesosphere different from (a) the asthenosphere and (b) the lithosphere? Why are oceans deep compared to continents?

Section 1 Earth: A Unique Planet. Section 2 Energy in the Earth System

Section 1 Earth: A Unique Planet. Section 2 Energy in the Earth System Earth as a System Section 2 Energy in the Earth System Section 3 Ecology Describe the size and shape of Earth. Describe the compositional and structural layers of Earth s interior. Identify the possible

More information

Accretion and Layering of Terrestrial Planets. Accretion and Layering of Terrestrial Planets

Accretion and Layering of Terrestrial Planets. Accretion and Layering of Terrestrial Planets Accretion and Layering of Terrestrial Planets Following condensation of planetary embryos in solar system disk: Embryo-embryo collisions, giant impacts for 100 m.y. Redistributed and segregated elements

More information

Earth Layers Foldable

Earth Layers Foldable Earth Layers Foldable The Layers of the Earth Copyright 2006. M. J. Krech. All rights reserved. The Four Layers The Earth is composed of four different layers. The crust is the layer that you live on,

More information

Inside Earth: Layers of the Earth

Inside Earth: Layers of the Earth Inside Earth: Layers of the Earth Earth is a restless planet. Heat in the Earth s interior causes giant plates of crust to move around on the surface. The crashing and smashing of these plates leads to

More information

Layers of the Earth s Interior

Layers of the Earth s Interior Layers of the Earth s Interior 1 Focus Question How is the Earth like an ogre? 2 Objectives Explain how geologists have learned about the interior of the Earth. Describe the layers of the Earth s interior.

More information

Earth s Interior. Use Target Reading Skills. Exploring Inside Earth

Earth s Interior. Use Target Reading Skills. Exploring Inside Earth Plate Tectonics Name Date Class Plate Tectonics Guided Reading and Study Earth s Interior This section explains how scientists learn about Earth s interior. The section also describes the layers that make

More information

Forces Within. Earth s Layers Continental Drift Seafloor Spreading Plate Tectonics

Forces Within. Earth s Layers Continental Drift Seafloor Spreading Plate Tectonics Forces Within Earth s Layers Continental Drift Seafloor Spreading Plate Tectonics I have a QUESTION for YOU! How does an apple compare to Earth? Earth s Internal Structure Objectives At the end of this

More information

Earth s Interior: Structure, Composition, and Temperature

Earth s Interior: Structure, Composition, and Temperature Course Outline Introduction: Course Objectives, Outline, Geology Basics Earth s Interior: Composition and Plate Tectonic Impact Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift: Theory, Data, Mechanisms Tectonic

More information

LAYERS OF EARTH. reflect

LAYERS OF EARTH. reflect reflect Have you ever cut an apple in half and looked at the layers inside? When you cut something in half, the resulting view is called a cross section. When you look at the cross section of an apple,

More information

Investigating Earth s Interior While at each station, complete the prompts below. Be sure to follow all directions and to read carefully.

Investigating Earth s Interior While at each station, complete the prompts below. Be sure to follow all directions and to read carefully. Name Date Hour Investigating Earth s Interior While at each station, complete the prompts below. Be sure to follow all directions and to read carefully. STATION 1 Pie Slice Using your pie slice of the

More information

Composition. Physical Properties

Composition. Physical Properties Composition Physical Properties Summary The Earth is a layered planet The layers represent changes in composition and physical properties The compositional layers are the Crust, Mantle and Core The physical

More information

Earthquakes and the Earth s Interior

Earthquakes and the Earth s Interior Earthquakes and the Earth s Interior San Francisco 1906 Magnitude 7.8 Charleston 1886 California s Notorious San Andreas Fault fault trace Earthquakes are the release of energy stored in rocks. Most earthquakes

More information

Name: Period: # Plate Tectonics. Journey to the center of the Earth

Name: Period: # Plate Tectonics. Journey to the center of the Earth Plate Tectonics Journey to the center of the Earth Use pages 124 129 to answer the following questions. Exploring Inside Earth (p. 125-126) 1. What are the two main types of evidence that Geologist use

More information

Seismic Waves and Earth s Structure

Seismic Waves and Earth s Structure Earth s Interior EARTHQUAKES Seismic Waves and Earth s Structure Abrupt changes in seismic-wave velocities that occur at particular depths helped seismologists conclude that Earth must be composed of distinct

More information

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 15

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 15 ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Class 15 The Earth Monday, February 12 The Earth: Physical characteristics Mass = 5.97 10 24 kg Mean radius = 6,373 km Polar radius = 6,357 km Density

More information

Exploring the Earth s Interior Chapter 21. Probing Earth s interior. Probing Earth s interior. Does not include complete lecture notes.

Exploring the Earth s Interior Chapter 21. Probing Earth s interior. Probing Earth s interior. Does not include complete lecture notes. Exploring the Earth s Interior Chapter 21 Does not include complete lecture notes. Probing Earth s interior Most of our knowledge of Earth s interior comes from the study of earthquake waves Travel times

More information

7 th Grade Study Guide for Semester Test

7 th Grade Study Guide for Semester Test Name: KEY Date: Class: 7 th Grade Study Guide for Semester Test Scientific Method - Chapter 1 1. What are steps for scientific inquiry (scientific method)? 2. What are inferences based on? 1. Pose a QUESTION

More information

Plate tectonics II: Earth s structure and plate boundaries

Plate tectonics II: Earth s structure and plate boundaries Plate tectonics II: Earth s structure and plate boundaries Important: This chapter follows mainly: Chap. 1 in Turcotte and Schubert Chap. 2 in Fowler. Earth structure: The main units Compositional: Crust

More information

Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth

Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth Plate Tectonics Structure of the Earth The Earth can be considered as being made up of a series of concentric spheres, each made up of materials that differ in terms of composition and mechanical properties.

More information

Contents. Ohio Revised Standards and Model Curriculum Correlation Chart... 5

Contents. Ohio Revised Standards and Model Curriculum Correlation Chart... 5 Contents Ohio Revised Standards and Model Curriculum Correlation Chart....................................... 5 Chapter 1 Earth Science........................................ 13 Lesson 1 Earth s Internal

More information

Features of Plate Tectonics

Features of Plate Tectonics Features of Plate Tectonics Section 12.2 Summary Textbook pages 518 537 Before You Read Earthquakes frequently occur in British Columbia. State what you already know about earthquakes in the lines below.

More information

PHSC 1011 Fall 2016 L04 1. Metamorphic Rocks. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks. Sedimentary Rocks. Chapter 20 Lecture

PHSC 1011 Fall 2016 L04 1. Metamorphic Rocks. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks. Sedimentary Rocks. Chapter 20 Lecture Chapter 20 Lecture Metamorphic Rocks Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Coal: Different from other rocks, because it is composed of organic material. Stages in coal formation (in order): Plant material Peat Lignite

More information

A R C T I C LER Grades K+ Explore the Earth inside and out!

A R C T I C LER Grades K+ Explore the Earth inside and out! Foam Soft Soft Foam A R C T I C CROSS SECTION LER 2437 Grades K+ NORTH AMERICA PACIFIC OCEAN ATLANT OCEAN Explore the Earth inside and out! Introduction Discover what lies beneath Earth s surface. This

More information

Chapter 9: Plates and Plate Boundaries. Fig. 9.11

Chapter 9: Plates and Plate Boundaries. Fig. 9.11 Chapter 9: Plates and Plate Boundaries Fig. 9.11 OBJECTIVES Identify the physical and chemical divisions in Earth s outer layers. Understand that the lithospheric plates are buoyant and that this buoyancy

More information

12.2 Features of Plate Tectonics

12.2 Features of Plate Tectonics 12.2 Features of Plate Tectonics Earth is over 1200 km thick and has four distinct layers. These layers are the crust, mantle (upper and lower), outer core, and inner core. Crust outer solid rock layer

More information

The Layers of the Earth

The Layers of the Earth The Layers of the Earth HINT: Identify the layers you can in your picture. Record the thickness in km of the layers on your picture. Copyright 2006. M. J. Krech. All rights reserved. PowerPoint adapted

More information

Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Review. Name that Layer...

Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Review. Name that Layer... Name that Layer... 1 Which layers make up the lithosphere? Multiple answer A B C D crust mantle inner core outer core Why wouldn t the fossil of an ocean fish found on two different continents be good

More information

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different structures of volcanoes. LAB: Modeling three types

More information

lithosphere granite basalt

lithosphere granite basalt The Earth s s Crust The Earth s s Crust The earth s crust is the outside layer of the earth. It is thickest at the continents at about 40 Km (up to 70 Km) deep. It is thinnest under the oceans at about

More information

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The Continental Drift Hypothesis Lesson 2 Development of a Theory Lesson 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The Continental Drift Hypothesis Lesson 2 Development of a Theory Lesson 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The Continental Drift Hypothesis Lesson 2 Development of a Theory Lesson 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter Wrap-Up Arctic_Images/Getty Images What is the theory of plate

More information

Earth s Interior Structure

Earth s Interior Structure Earth s Interior Structure Page 1 of 22 Earth s Interior Structure Larry Braile Professor, Purdue University (braile@purdue.edu) August, 2000 http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile Educational Objective: Develop

More information

Introduction and Origin of the Earth

Introduction and Origin of the Earth Page 1 of 5 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Introduction and Origin of the Earth This page last updated on 30-Jul-2015 Geology, What is it? Geology is the study of

More information

[Geology Layers of the Earth] [Basic: Grade 2-3] [Advanced: Grade 5: Introduction to Plate Tectonics}

[Geology Layers of the Earth] [Basic: Grade 2-3] [Advanced: Grade 5: Introduction to Plate Tectonics} [Geology Layers of the Earth] [Basic: Grade 2-3] [Advanced: Grade 5: Introduction to Plate Tectonics} BACKGROUND Scientists and geologists have been able to do some drilling on Earth. They are also able

More information

COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH S MANTLE

COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH S MANTLE COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH S MANTLE The Earth s mantle is a layer with a thickness of 2,900 km or 1800 miles (46% of the Earth s average radius of 6371 km or 3,960 miles) and extends from the outer core

More information

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Lesson 1: Layers of the Earth 1. Atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the planet 2. Clouds are in this layer 3. Atmosphere contains gases

More information

The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics

The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics Structure of the Earth The Earth is made up of 3 main layers: Core Mantle Crust Mantle Outer core Inner core Crust The Crust This is where we live! The Earth

More information

Section 1 The Earth System

Section 1 The Earth System Section 1 The Earth System Key Concept Earth is a complex system made up of many smaller systems through which matter and energy are continuously cycled. What You Will Learn Energy and matter flow through

More information

Unsaved Test, Version: 1 1

Unsaved Test, Version: 1 1 Name: Choose the letter of the best answer. 1. Earth's inner core and outer core are both A. parts of the asthenosphere B. parts of Earth's lithosphere C. completely solid spheres D. made up of hot metals

More information

Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics

Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics What evidence did Alfred Wegener present in 1912 to support the idea of continental drift? Why did most geologists at the time dismiss Wegener

More information

Why is the oldest ocean crust only ~180 Ma? Plate Tectonics, and the Wilson Cycle

Why is the oldest ocean crust only ~180 Ma? Plate Tectonics, and the Wilson Cycle Plate Tectonics, and the Wilson Cycle 1 So, new ocean lithosphere is created at MOR. What happens to old ocean lithosphere? A. Is is conserved, thus the surface area of the Earth is increasing. B. It forms

More information

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows the boundary between two tectonic plates. Which

More information

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle.

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. Earth and Space Science Semester 2 Exam Review Part 1 Convection -A form of heat transfer. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. - Source of heat is from the

More information

What is this section called? Credits

What is this section called? Credits Station 1: Age of ocean floor Seafloor spreading is a process of plate tectonics. New oceanic crust is created as large slabs of the Earth's crust split apart from each other and magma moves up to fill

More information

Joy of Science Experience the evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life

Joy of Science Experience the evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life Joy of Science Experience the evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life Review Introduction Main contents Quiz Unless otherwise noted, all pictures are taken from wikipedia.org Review 1 Which is not included

More information

Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. Continental Drift

Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. Continental Drift Plate Tectonics The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. The outer portion of the Earth is made up of about 20 distinct plates (~ 100 km thick), which move relative to each other This motion is what

More information

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review Use the following diagram to answer questions 1 and 2. 1. Which location has the youngest crust? A. A B. B C. C D. D 2. Which location is associated with subduction?

More information

Chapter 2: Earth s Structure. The BIG Idea: Heat escaping from Earth s internal layers constantly changes the planet s surface.

Chapter 2: Earth s Structure. The BIG Idea: Heat escaping from Earth s internal layers constantly changes the planet s surface. Chapter 2: Earth s Structure The BIG Idea: Heat escaping from Earth s internal layers constantly changes the planet s surface. Lesson 1: Landforms Main Idea Forces inside and outside Earth produce Earth

More information

FIFTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIFTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FIFTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIFTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Exploring the rocks produced by volcanoes. LAB: Comparing igneous rocks.

More information

Chapter 3 Earth Structure

Chapter 3 Earth Structure Chapter 3 Earth Structure Geologic Structure of Earth - The interior of the Earth is layered. Concentric layers: crust, mantle, liquid outer core and solid inner core. Evidence (indirect) for this structure

More information

The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT

The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT The Dynamic Crust 1) Virtually everything you need to know about the interior of the earth can be found on page 10 of your reference tables. Take the time to become familiar with page 10 and everything

More information

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation.

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation. Heat Flow Heat from Earth s Interior Earth s interior heat comes from a combination of the following factors: Original heat from the formation and gravitational compression of the Earth from the solar

More information

Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007

Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007 Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007 1. Please fill in the missing labels. 2. Please fill in the missing labels. 3. How many large plates form the outer shell of the earth?

More information

Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas. Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. The unifying concept of the Earth sciences.

Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas. Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas Our understanding of Earth is continuously refined. Earth s systems are dynamic; they continually react to changing influences from geological, hydrological, physical, chemical,

More information

Earth s Interior CHAPTER 12

Earth s Interior CHAPTER 12 Earth s Interior CHAPTER 12 Studying Rocks from Earth s Interior Geologists can t sample rocks very far below Earth s surface. Deep mines may be 3 km deep. Some oil wells reach depths of 8 km. No well

More information

Oceanic Crust vs Continental Crust Continental crust made of sial rocks containing silicon and aluminum e.g., granite Oceanic crust made of sima rocks

Oceanic Crust vs Continental Crust Continental crust made of sial rocks containing silicon and aluminum e.g., granite Oceanic crust made of sima rocks Plate Tectonics and the Earth s Interior Chapter 5 Earth s Internal Structure Crust Mantle Core Thin ocean basins ~ 3 miles Crust mountain ranges ~ 30 miles Deepest hole drilled About 7 miles Russia Crust

More information

The Earth s Structure from Travel Times

The Earth s Structure from Travel Times from Travel Times Spherically symmetric structure: PREM - Crustal Structure - Upper Mantle structure Phase transitions Anisotropy - Lower Mantle Structure D D - Structure of of the Outer and Inner Core

More information

GY 111: Physical Geology

GY 111: Physical Geology UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA GY 111: Physical Geology Lecture 2: Introduction to Plate Tectonics Instructor: Dr. Douglas W. Haywick Last Time 1. Introductions and class policy 2. What do geologists do 3.

More information

The Earth s Layers. Copyright 2009 LessonSnips

The Earth s Layers. Copyright 2009 LessonSnips The Earth s Layers Human beings have always imagined what it would be like to journey to the center of the Earth. There are many books and movies about characters who have adventures that take them to

More information

Earth's Interior. Convection and the Mantle Section 2 Summary. Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics

Earth's Interior. Convection and the Mantle Section 2 Summary. Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics Earth's Interior Earth's surface is constantly changing. Earth looks different today from the way it did millions of years ago. People wonder, "What's inside Earth?" The extreme

More information

Post Assessment. Concept(s)

Post Assessment. Concept(s) Post Assessment Concept(s) Addressed Time Materials Advance preparation The Earth has different layers with different densities, composition and temperatures. Direct and indirect evidence are used to explain

More information

Continental Drift-Plate Tectonics continents had once been together. Chapter 2: The Earth s Mobile Crust. Alfred Wegener 1920 s

Continental Drift-Plate Tectonics continents had once been together. Chapter 2: The Earth s Mobile Crust. Alfred Wegener 1920 s Chapter 2: The Earth s Mobile Crust Plate Tectonics The Earth s interior Plate Boundaries Continental Margins Tectonic Classification of Coasts Tectonic effects on coastal sediment supply Continental Drift-Plate

More information

Grade 7 Earth/Space Pretest

Grade 7 Earth/Space Pretest Grade 7 Earth/Space Pretest Select the best answer to each question. 1. Earth can be divided into layers based on chemical composition. The three compositional layers of Earth are the core, the mantle,

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Shaky Ground 6 th Grade

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Shaky Ground 6 th Grade The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates.

Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates. Notes on Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates. These plates move around the mantle. Plates are composed of the crust and

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology: Inside the Earth (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks)

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology: Inside the Earth (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks) The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Lesson 13: Plate Tectonics I

Lesson 13: Plate Tectonics I Standards Addressed Lesson 13: Plate Tectonics I Overview Lesson 13 introduces students to geological oceanography by presenting the basic structure of the Earth and the properties of Earth s primary layers.

More information

Plate Tectonics & Volcanoes

Plate Tectonics & Volcanoes Plate Tectonics & Volcanoes Beyond the typical story. David Lescinsky Univ. of Western Ontario The talk is available at www.uwo.ca/earth/outreach/volcano.pdf Plate tectonics are cool Press & Siever, 1999

More information

Planetary Interiors. Clues to the innerds. Density 3/20/2013. Density. Structure. Mantle intermediate density, fluid layer

Planetary Interiors. Clues to the innerds. Density 3/20/2013. Density. Structure. Mantle intermediate density, fluid layer Planetary Interiors Structure Terrestrial (icy satellites) Core, Mantle, Crust Giants Core, Mantle, gas layer Mantle intermediate density, fluid layer Clues to the innerds Mass Radius Density Rotation

More information

Earth s Layered Structure, Earth s Internal Structure, Plate Tectonics

Earth s Layered Structure, Earth s Internal Structure, Plate Tectonics Earth s Layered Structure, Earth s Internal Structure, Plate Tectonics Chs.1&2 Earth s Layered Structure High-velocity impact of debris + radioactive decay => increase in T => Fe & Ni melt & sink => Inner

More information

Answers. Plate Tectonics. Year 9 Science Chapter 7

Answers. Plate Tectonics. Year 9 Science Chapter 7 Answers Plate Tectonics Year 9 Science Chapter 7 p167 1 Plate tectonics is a scientific theory that is used to explain the movement of the Earth s lithosphere. The lithosphere is the solid outermost shell

More information

Section 1: Continental Drift

Section 1: Continental Drift Section 1: Continental Drift Preview Objectives Wegener s s Hypothesis Mid-Ocean Ridges Sea-Floor Spreading Paleomagnetism Wegener Redeemed Continental Drift (Pangaea) Objectives Summarize Wegener s hypothesis

More information

Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds

Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds Mercury craters smooth plains, cliffs Venus volcanoes few craters Radar view of a twinpeaked volcano Mars some craters volcanoes riverbeds? Moon craters smooth

More information

8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition.

8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition. Earth s Structure and Processes 8-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of materials that determine the structure of Earth and the processes that have altered this structure. 8-3.1 Summarize

More information

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers.

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. 1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. Which statement about the deposition of the sediments best explains why these layers have the curved shape shown? 1) Sediments were

More information

PLATE TECTONICS. 1. "Tectonics" - is a term that refers to the deformation of the earth's crust.

PLATE TECTONICS. 1. Tectonics - is a term that refers to the deformation of the earth's crust. PLATE TECTONICS I. Introduction A. General 1. The theory of plate tectonics is a recent development in the geological sciences, really accepted by scientific community since the early 1960's. 2. Earlier

More information

Name Score /225. (Make sure you identify each key concept by identifying the section [1.1, 1.2, etc.].]

Name Score /225. (Make sure you identify each key concept by identifying the section [1.1, 1.2, etc.].] Name Score /225 Changing Earth Chapter 1 Worksheet Before reading Chapter 1 (pages 9 37). On a separate sheet of paper, make two columns. Title the first column Before I Read. Title the second column After

More information

Tectonic processes. 2.1 Where do earthquakes and volcanoes occur?

Tectonic processes. 2.1 Where do earthquakes and volcanoes occur? 2 Tectonic processes In this chapter you will study: how the Earth s crust is broken into different types of tectonic s what type of tectonic activity occurs at the boundaries what can happen during earthquakes

More information

Plate Tectonics. The Theory of Plate Tectonics. The Plate Tectonics Theory

Plate Tectonics. The Theory of Plate Tectonics. The Plate Tectonics Theory Tectonics The Theory of Tectonics The Tectonics Theory When you blow into a balloon, the balloon expands. Its surface area also increases. As more air is added to the balloon, the balloon gets larger.

More information

Crust: low density rocks. Mantle: high density rocks. Core: very high density metal. core

Crust: low density rocks. Mantle: high density rocks. Core: very high density metal. core Crust: low density rocks Mantle: high density rocks Core: very high density metal core mechanical) layering mechanical layers lithosphere: rigid & strong asthenosphere: plastic & weak mesosphere: plastic

More information

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013)

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) EAPS 100 Planet Earth Lecture Topics Brief Outlines II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) 1. Interior of the Earth Learning objectives: Understand the structure of the Earth s interior crust,

More information

Earth Egg Model Teacher Notes

Earth Egg Model Teacher Notes Ancient Greeks tried to explain earthquakes and volcanic activity by saying that a massive bull lay underground and the land shook when it became angry. Modern theories rely on an understanding of what

More information

3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics CHAPTER 4 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is the theory of plate tectonics? What

More information

4 The strength of the lithosphere

4 The strength of the lithosphere 4 The strength of the lithosphere Constitutive equations specify the relations between stress and strain or the time derivatives of strain and thus can be used in conjunction with the equations of motion

More information

Lab 6: Plate Tectonics: Introduction to Relative Plate Motions. Geology 202: Earth s Interior

Lab 6: Plate Tectonics: Introduction to Relative Plate Motions. Geology 202: Earth s Interior Introduction: Lab 6: Plate Tectonics: Introduction to Relative Plate Motions Geology 202: Earth s Interior In plate tectonics, the mantle and the crust of the earth are divided into layers, called the

More information

Leaving Cert Geography Revision Notes

Leaving Cert Geography Revision Notes Leaving Cert Geography Revision Notes Contents PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY CORE UNIT 1... 4 INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH... 4 CONTINENTAL DRIFT... 8 PLATE BOUNDARIES... 9 OCEANIC-CONTINENTAL CONVERGENCE... 12

More information

Figure 1 Waves carry energy across water just like seismic waves carry energy through Earth.

Figure 1 Waves carry energy across water just like seismic waves carry energy through Earth. Standard 7.3.4: Explain how heat flow and movement of material within Earth causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and creates mountains and ocean basins. Also covers: 7.1.1, 7.1.4, 7.3.7, 7.3.18 (Detailed

More information

Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time

Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time Alfred Wegener (1880 1930) Continental drift hypothesis: The world's continents are in motion and have been drifting apart into different configurations over

More information

Plate Tectonics Chapter 2

Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Does not include complete lecture notes. Continental drift: An idea before its time Alfred Wegener First proposed his continental drift hypothesis in 1915 Published The Origin

More information

Unit 4 Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 4 Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Puzzling Evidence What evidence suggests that continents move? In the late 1800s, Alfred Wegener proposed his hypothesis of continental drift. According to this hypothesis, the continents once formed a

More information

Key topics today: How do we know about the Earth s interior structure? Earth s layering: By composition

Key topics today: How do we know about the Earth s interior structure? Earth s layering: By composition Solid-earth geology: Plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanoes Explain shape and structure of the ocean basins Explain cycle of oceanic opening and closing Explain many aspects of basic marine geology

More information

Earth. What is a Lithospheric Plate? The Way the Earth Works: Plate Tectonics. Chapter 4 CEEES/SC Portrait of a Planet Fifth Edition

Earth. What is a Lithospheric Plate? The Way the Earth Works: Plate Tectonics. Chapter 4 CEEES/SC Portrait of a Planet Fifth Edition CEEES/SC 10110-20110 The Way the Earth Works: Plate Tectonics Earth Portrait of a Planet Fifth Edition Chapter 4 1 What is a Lithospheric Plate? Continental crust is thicker, less dense, and sits at a

More information

6.E.2.2 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes

6.E.2.2 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes Name: Date: 1. The road shown below was suddenly broken by a natural event. 3. The convergence of two continental plates would produce Which natural event most likely caused the crack in the road? island

More information

Put the sentences in the correct order. They describe the process of PLATE TECTONICS.

Put the sentences in the correct order. They describe the process of PLATE TECTONICS. Tectonics The changing position of the continents is called continental drift. Plates move a few centimetres a year. Plate movement causes continents to collide, and split apart. The Earth s crust is divided

More information

LESSON PLAN 1. Key Terms and Concepts. asthenosphere continental crust deep mantle earthquakes. Purposes. Objectives. Activities

LESSON PLAN 1. Key Terms and Concepts. asthenosphere continental crust deep mantle earthquakes. Purposes. Objectives. Activities LESSON PLAN 1 Inside the Earth Earthquakes 6 8 Learning about the composition of the earth gives us a better understanding of our changing planet. Key Terms and Concepts Earthquake Science asthenosphere

More information

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering by Dr. Deepankar Choudhury Professor Department of Civil Engineering IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India. Email: dc@civil.iitb.ac.in URL: http://www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~dc/

More information

SIXTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SIXTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SIXTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing the structure of different types of volcanoes. LAB: Plotting

More information

Investigation 3: Seismic Waves

Investigation 3: Seismic Waves Investigation 3: Seismic Waves Table of Contents: Folder 1: Seismic Waves... 25 Folder 2: Locating Earthquakes... 26 Folder 3: Exploring Earth s Interior... 29 Investigation Summary... 32 Folder 1: Seismic

More information

-4- Wa vereflected at core-mantle boundary (e.g. ScS) i

-4- Wa vereflected at core-mantle boundary (e.g. ScS) i 2.3 VELOCITY STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH In the following years, increasingly sophisticated models were developed. It became possible to compute travel time curves for media where velocity varies continously

More information

SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Investigating the parts of a volcano. LAB: Comparing the parts of a

More information

Reading Science! Name: Date: Tectonic Plates

Reading Science! Name: Date: Tectonic Plates Name: ate: Tectonic Plates 6.10: Tectonic Plates 1 2 On March 11, 2011, an earthquake measuring 8.9 on the Richter Scale shook the ocean floor. It made a giant wave which grew up to 30 feet (9.14 meters)

More information