Institute for International Crop Improvement Annual Achievement Highlights

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1 Institute for International Crop Improvement Annual Achievement Highlights 2012

2 DONALD DANFORTH PLANT SCIENCE CENTER DISCOVERY Scientists at the Institute seek to translate key discoveries in plant disease and pest management, genomics, advanced breeding, and nutrition to staple crops that contribute to food security, and that are underserved by commercial agriculture. Recent work has focused on cassava, sweet potato, groundnuts, cowpea, sorghum, banana and millets. COMMUNITY The Institute works in partnership with international research institutions, NGOs, funding agencies and regulatory agencies. Members of the Institute are involved in 16 international collaborations, connecting leading scientists and cutting-edge technologies, training international scientists, and providing regulatory, biosafety and project management services. IMPACT The Institute is committed to delivering products to communities where improved crops are needed most, and where they will have disproportionate impact. Enhanced staple crops will provide improved food security, nutrition and economic stability to smallholder farmers and their families. Existing and Developing Collaborations UNITED STATES BURKINA FASO GERMANY NIGERIA VIETNAM BANGLADESH PHILIPPINES INDONESIA PERU GHANA MALAWI SOUTH AFRICA TANZANIA UGANDA KENYA AUSTRALIA

3 2012 HIGHLIGHTS CROP DISEASE and PEST MANAGEMENT Demonstrated cassava brown streak virus disease resistance in greenhouse and African field trials in multiple cassava varieties under development. Initiated formal product development efforts, including multi-site field testing, for new resistant varieties. Worked with the African Agricultural Technology and academic professionals in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Nigeria to develop a food and environmental-related biosafety strategy for new insect-resistant cowpea varieties. Demonstrated resistance to Sweet Potato Virus Disease complex (SPVD) in sweet potato greenhouse trials. IMPROVEMENT OF NUTRITIONAL QUALITY Worked with partners in Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda and the Philippines to improve beta-carotene content in cassava, banana, sorghum, and rice to reduce vitamin A deficiency and its severe health ramifications that affect children and adults. Developed candidate improved varieties of cassava with elevated levels of pro-vitamin A and iron, and initiated preparations for multi-country field trials. FIELD TRIAL AND BIOSAFETY COORDINATION Conducted or assisted with 12 field trials in Africa and Asia, bringing the total to 47 field trials completed with crops under development. The Biosafety Resource Network (BRN), which is coordinated by IICI, assisted the International Rice Research Institute to conduct two multi-location confined field trials of Golden Rice, an improved variety of rice grain with increased levels of beta carotene (pro-vitamin A). Collaborated with partners in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Mali, and Uganda to establish protocols to do contained and confined experiments to reduce the incidence of malaria in Africa by reducing populations of disease transmitting mosquitoes. Provided support to the Banana 21 Project for early biosafety assessments in Uganda, and for development of analytical tools to evaluate varieties under development to increase levels of pro-vitamin A. Overall, the BRN assisted eight institutions in crop development efforts. Publications Ogwok, E., et al. (2012). Transgenic RNA interference (RNAi)-derived field resistance to cassava brown streak disease. Mol Plant Pathol 13, Taylor, N.J., et al. (2012). A Highthroughput Platform for the Production and Analysis of Transgenic Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Plants. Trop Plant Biol 5, Taylor, N.J., Fauquet, C.M., and Tohme, J. (2012). Overview of Cassava Special Issue. Trop Plant Biol 5, 1-3. Taylor, N.J., et al. (2012). The VIRCA Project: virus resistant cassava for Africa. GM Crops & Food 3, Akinbo, O., Labuschagne, M., and Fregene, M. (2012). Increased storage protein from interspecific F1 hybrids between cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild progenitor (M. esculenta ssp. flabellifolia). Euphytica 185,

4 2012 GRANTS AND CONTRACTs PROJECT DESCRIPTION SPONSOR START/END Program for Biosafety Systems Regulatory development for HEGmodified mosquitoes Drought Tolerant Cereals Virus Resistant Sweet Potato An assessment of the social and economic impacts of deploying virus resistant cassava cultivars in East Africa Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa II Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa II BioCassava Plus II Bt Cowpea Bio-Fortified Sorghum for Africa Production of data for the regulatory assessment of golden rice Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa Production and Validation of a Universal Plant Virus MicroArray A Cassava Breeding Community of Practice Biosafety Resource Network Biocassava Plus US Agency for International Development (USAID) For The National Institutes of Health US Department of Energy Howard G. Buffett John Templeton Monsanto Fund African Agricultural Technology Howard G. Buffett International Rice Research Institute USAID US Department of Agriculture African Agricultural Technology Oct Oct Oct July 2016 Sept Sept March March 2013 March March 2014 June June 2016 April April 2016 Nov Nov Aug Aug Jan Dec TOTAL GRANT AWARD 2012 AWARD $173,501 $40,984 $994,971 $2,614 $586,674 $536 $65,988 $40,141 $249,999 $21,897 $5,299,944 $341,379 $5,548,750 $1,217,645 $8,257,560 $1,183,333 $125,729 $38,456 $4,241,365 $64,340 Nov $120,000 $36,947 Sept Oct June Dec April April 2013 Nov Oct Sept Sept $1,594,416 $165,650 $220,039 $72,702 $358,294 $90,123 $5,345,895 $770,222 $6,486,208 $79,320 Total $39,669,333 $4,166,289 Akinbo, O., Labuschagne, M., and Fregene, M. (2012). Introgression of whitefly (Aleurotrachelus socialis) resistance gene from F1 inter-specific hybrids into commercial cassava. Euphytica 183, Akinbo, O., et al. (2012). QTL Analysis for Root Protein in a Backcross Family of Cassava Derived from Manihot esculenta ssp flabellifolia. Trop Plant Biol 5, Failla, M.L., et al. (2012). Retention during processing and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in high beta-carotene transgenic cassava root. J Agric Food Chem 60, Fauquet, C.M., Taylor, N.J., and Tohme, J. (2012). The Global Cassava Partnership for the 21st Century (GCP21). Trop Plant Biol 5, 4-8. Kulembeka, H., et al. (2012). Diallel analysis of field resistance to brown streak disease in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) landraces from Tanzania. Euphytica 186, 1-12.

5 DISCOVERY COMMUNITY IMPACT The Institute for International Crop Improvement at the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center was established in 2012 with a generous gif t from the JS McDonnell to improve the productivity and nutritional value of food security crops, and to advance delivery of improved crops to underserved regions. Improve the Human Condition through Plant Science 975 North Warson Road, St. Louis, Missouri P: Printed with solvent-free inks & emission-free coatings on recycled stock that utilized 30% post-consumer recovered fiber paper Donald Danforth Plant Science Center

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