Hydraulics in High Rise Buildings

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Hydraulics in High Rise Buildings"

Transcription

1 1. Introduction The cities are moving towards High Rise Buildings. This has imposed challenges for designers. Hydraulics in High Rise buildings deals with Water. Unlike Air, water is heavy and a vertical column of water contained in various pipelines of the buildings imposes pressures at the lower levels. This pressure becomes such a culprit that designers need to find ways to deal with it. In the subsequent sections we will discuss some key challenges faced in Hydraulics of a high rise building that need attention and how can they be addressed. 2. Chilled Water Circuit The equipment employed in Chilled Water circuits has limitation in handling pressures beyond a certain limit. Higher pressure rating of Chilled water System would also mean increase in the cost of components. Therefore a thorough attention by owner on the various options to limit the pressures in the circuit is essential. Lower operating pressures also allow increased operating life of the component Point of No Pressure change A Chilled Water Circuit is a closed loop Circuit and the location of Expansion tank defines the point of no pressure change. Pressures elsewhere in circuit can be calculated from this reference point by adjusting for the pressure variations due to elevation difference, Friction losses and Pump Gain. It is well known that locating expansion tank at the highest level in the Circuit helps to reduce the expansion tank sizing but in a high rise building it is noteworthy that locating Expansion Tank at the highest level could reduce the pressure experienced at the lowest level by an amount equivalent to the pressure drop in the Return piping starting from the topmost level. Even though the pressure saving could only be small but this can become the first step to counter pressure.

2 2.2. Location of Pumps It is a convention that Pumps are placed upstream of the Chillers. This means Chillers (when placed in bottom of the circuit) experience highest pressure in chilled water circuit. Variable Primary flow system where the Primary pump heads are substantial the pressure exerted on the chillers also increase substantially. Since Chillers are most critical and costly equipment in circuit therefore limiting pressures on it should make a lot of sense. It is absolutely possible to place the primary pumps downstream of Chillers. This allows the pressure on the chiller to further reduced by an amount equivalent to primary pump head. In Variable Primary where the Primary pump head could be as high as 5 bar this would mean a substantial reduction in pressure on chillers. Similarly Condenser Water Pumps and Heat Exchanger Pumps can be employed on downstream of Condensers and Heat Exchangers respectively to limit pressures on them. Having the complete plant room placed on upper floors can help reducing the pressures experienced by the critical plant equipment but this is not always possible Zoning Excess pressures because of very high heights need to be handled by breaking pressures using Heat Exchangers. Heat Exchangers allow transfer of heat from one zone to other but pressure of higher zones is isolated from the lower zones. Heat Exchangers also bring in the challenge of temperature drop from low temperature zone to high temperature zone, additional pressure drop on Heat Exchanger and controls for optimized and efficient heat transfer from one zone to other. In the two figures below for option1 & 2 the Valve controller senses temperature in Zone 1 and modulates 2 way control Valve across Heat Exchanger to allow only as much water from pump P2 as is required. As in any conventional secondary pumping system, P2 and P1 pumps can a be made to operate on variable speed based on feedback Differential pressure sensors in Zone 2

3 and Zone 1 respectively. Either of Option 1 and 2 can be employed based on the total size of the chilled water circuit, difference in hydraulic and load characteristics of AHUs in Zone 2 and the Heat Exchanger. In relatively larger capacity circuits a separate dedicated pumping system P3 to feed to the Heat Exchanger could become viable (Option 3). In this case Pump P3 could operate on variable speed directly based on the Temperature feedback from the Zone 1 and pressure drop in 2 way valve across Heat Exchangers could be avoided. These pressure drops across 2 way Control Valves could otherwise become substantially high to maintain the required valve authority.

4 2.4. Kind of Pump Double Suction Pumps are considered much more robust to end suction Pumps. In high-rise buildings that impose pressure challenges and flow rates are also expected to be higher because of higher loads double suction pump should become a favored choice. 3. Fire Fighting After 9/11 fire in Timesquare buildings, the codes have become extra vigilant on the Firefighting requirements of High Rise Buildings. NFPA has included some specific minimum requirements on the High Rise buildings. Given below are some of the requirements that have surfaced specifically for high rise buildings Water Tank For all the floors that are beyond the reach of fire departments the building should have water tank of the fire protection capacity. Water tank should be divided in two chambers with each having 50% of more capacity so that when one chamber is being serviced then building could draw water from other chamber in the event of fire. Each Tank chamber should have an auto fill of capacity equal to the fire protection demand rate. This ensures full redundancy in case one of the tank chambers is under service.

5 3.2. Pumps An auxiliary power supply to the electric motor of each fire pump is required. High Rise Buildings may require pumps to generate excessive pressures and sometimes this may require pumps to operate in series. The question is whether the pumps operating in series shall be on the same level or should they be on different levels. Having pumps at different levels will ensure that the suction pressure of pump in upper zone will be lesser. There are also some critical disadvantages on placing the pumps at different levels. In case the pump at lower level fails to operate then the pump at upper level will cavitate. The communication between people controlling the two stations in emergency will be very difficult. It is recommended that three pumps can be put in series but all the pumps shall be in a single room and access is required through external door or 2 hr fire rated passage Pumps & Tanks It is also required to be ensured that sufficient redundancy is built into the system ie water supply, pumps and tanks, so that even if one of the component in the system is not in service the system is still capable to ensure that the fire water requirements is met.

6 4. Water Distribution 4.1. Water Distribution Water at fixtures should get a minimum pressure of 1.5 to 2 bar for the smooth flow. The higher limit of the pressure on these fixtures is 5 bar. A standing height of around 30 m (ie 6 to 8 floors) can add 3 bar static pressure to the lowest level. In a single zone 30m height wherein pumps maintain a pressure of 2 bar at the highest floor, the pressure at the lowest level in the zone will be 5 bar. Therefore in a high rise building the zone needs to be formed after every 30m (or so) height. Pressure reducing valves play an important role in High Rise Buildings. The flow to each 30m Zone from the main riser passes through a pressure reducing valve so that pressure at the highest level in the zone is limited to 2 bar. Different kinds of pipes, fittings in the main risers have varying pressure sustaining capability. Based on this capability a limit is imposed and the maximum height that can be covered by single riser. In such a scenario it becomes necessary to break the pressures by putting intermediate break pressure tanks. To allow the air purge to happen the horizontal piping in each zone can be done on floor below the topmost zone so that the air gets purged from the taps of the topmost floor Pressure Boosting One of the Multiple Pumps on VFD vs Dedicated VFD on each Pump It is very common to use Pressure Boosters to boost the water from lower level to higher levels in a high rise building. Conventionally constant speed pump boosters were used with large size of pressure vessels but recently the trend has changed to energy efficient Variable speed pumping. It has been a common practice to use Variable Speed Drive only on one of the multiple running pumps. This approach has certain limitations and it is recommended for the reasons below that all the pumps shall be on Variable Speed. 1. It is very common that engineers consider a 10 t0 15% safety factor while defining pump head for the boosters. This ultimately would mean that a pump selected for 100 m will actually end

7 up working against a system head of say 85m only. Other mistakes in sizing could make this difference even bigger. The pump on variable speed is able to adjust to the changes in the pressure requirement however the pumps at constant speed cannot readjust and may end up going beyond the pump curve. This could be detrimental for the pump. 2. Having a single VFD attached to one pump would mean that the pump will be required to run all the time and the other pumps come on/off at full flow depending on the water requirement. If the single pump is locked on to VFD then it can be under constant abuse therefore VFD needs to actually toggle to other parallel pumps after a predefined period. Therefore controller needs to build in it sophisticated controls to make this toggling happen. Moreover follower pumps starting on constant speed generally through a DOL or a Star Delta starter can create pressure jerks whenever they start. On the other hand the designer will be very convenient if all the multiple pumps will have dedicated VFD. 3. When the booster set only contains a single VFD then designer also needs to check as to how booster will run in case the VFD is under service. In such a scenario booster controller needs to ensure that pumps will keep operating on constant speed. To ensure smooth operation the designer needs to size the pressure vessel for constant speed application. This means that size of pressure vessel will be required to be much higher. With each pump having a dedicated VFD allows designer to consider minimal size of pressure vessel. 4. It is very common in chilled water application to use sensor at the farthest zone to ensure that pump operates to satisfy the minimum pressure requirement at changing flow rates thereby allowing energy saving. Reduced flow rates in the pipes mean that the pressure drop will reduce in a square relationship. Pressure boosting is considered as a constant pressure application but the fact is that at lower flows the friction losses are lesser and the pumps can actually operate at lesser pressures still satisfying the system requirements. Such friction loss compensation is possible if all the pumps are on VFD. 5. Hot Water Circulation 5.1. When users open hot water fixtures they instantaneously need hot water. In case hot water is not available then they get inconvenienced and are forced to keep the tap open and waste water till they start getting hot water. This is a typical problem when hot water is not recirculated properly. In high rise buildings recirculation of hot water imposes bigger challenge. Consider first figure without brazed plate heat exchanger and you will note that each zone has got recirculation pump and each recirculation pump has a pressure reducing valve in the loop.

8 What this means is that the recirculation pump head of the pumps in the lower zones is much higher (because of pressure drops imposed by pressure reducing valves). Pressure reducing valves in high rise building are inevitable for the reasons discussed in previous sections. These high head and very low flow pumps are often selected in inefficient zone and pose problems related to hot water recirculation When Heat Exchangers are used in the recirculation circuit then Pressure reducing valves can be avoided from the recirculation loop and single larger pump for bigger water recirculation can be employed. For individual zones recirculation pumps of fractional horsepower can be used. 6. Drainage Venting 6.1. Waste water drainage pipes are not only required to deal with water but also air that is entrapped in it. When the water flows down in the pipes then air needs to fill the space that water has left otherwise the pockets of vacuum create nuisance in the flow. Appropriate venting becomes critical in such a scenario. High rise buildings are most susceptible to problems associated with improper venting. It becomes necessary that a vent stack is made to run parallel to the drainage pipes so that the drainage pipes are suitably vented at right places. In case multiple fixtures are used close to

9 each other and proper venting is not in place then drainage from one fixture could tend to draw water seal through the other nearby fixtures causing greater difficulties. 7. Conclusion While increasing height of the buildings is imposing greater challenges for the designers but increasing capabilities of designers and products is making it possible for us to reach greater heights.

10 Mr.Satnam Singh, Head - Building Services, Xylem India Mr. Satnam Singh is Head - Building Services for Xylem Water Solutions India Private Limited. Xylem was launched in 2011 from the spinoff of the water-related businesses of ITT Corporation. Xylem (XYL) is the largest water company listed on NYSE and has replaced ITT in Fortune 500 index. A leading global water leader enabling customers to transport, treat, test and efficiently use water in public utility, residential/commercial building, industrial and agricultural markets. The company does business in more than 150 countries through a number of market-leading product brands, and its people bring broad applications expertise with a strong focus on finding local solutions to the world s most challenging water and wastewater problems. Xylem is headquartered in White Plains, N.Y., with projected 2011 annual revenues of $3.8 billion with 12,500 employees worldwide. Mr. Satnam Singh is BE Mechanical Engineer and has done his PGDBM in Marketing & Finance. In his 15 years of experience in Industry he has worked on many of the building services disciplines and has thorough involvement in Hydraulics, HVAC & Treatment subjects. He has been highly successful in understanding new technologies and presenting it to industry for successful incorporation. In his career he has worked on applications like Clear and Waste Water Pumping, Treatment, Piping, Off Peak Cooling, Ventilation, Chilled Beams and so on. Mr. Satnam has been involved in Xylem products from year 2001 through its channel partner. He has joined Xylem directly from Year 2012 and is heading Building Services business of Xylem in India. He can be contacted on his id

BASIC HYDRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN

BASIC HYDRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN Hydronic Systems BASIC HYDRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN FCU FCU FCU FCU FCU FCU Terminal Units Fan Coils, Chilled Beams, Finned Tube, Radiant, etc. Distribution Piping AS-1 Primary Pumps P-1 & P-2 P-1 P-2 ET-1 P-B-1

More information

Building Performance With District Cooling

Building Performance With District Cooling Reprinting this proof for distribution or posting on web sites is not permitted. Authors may request permission to reprint or post on their web site once the fi nal version has been published. A reprint

More information

ENERGY RETROFIT PROGRAM

ENERGY RETROFIT PROGRAM ENERGY RETROFIT PROGRAM An innovative but simple retrofit for existing hot water and chilled water piping systems that will help you save money. REDUCE FLOW BY 50% REDUCE PUMP HEAD BY 75% REDUCE PUMP POWER

More information

VARIABLE VOLUME / VARIABLE SPEED SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS

VARIABLE VOLUME / VARIABLE SPEED SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS Bulletin D-120B Pages D120-115 to D120-118 VARIABLE SPEED PRIMARY CHILLED WATER PUMP CONTROL WITH TWO WAY VALVE DIRECT RETURN SYSTEM DESCRIPTION: The volume of water supplied to the system is varied in

More information

Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions Frequently Asked Questions System and Valve Basics: 1. Q: What is good cooling coil performance? A: The temperature range is controlled within +/- 0.5 F (0.28 C) off the cooling coil at set point or below.

More information

HS-901(A) BASIC STEAM HEATING SYSTEMS

HS-901(A) BASIC STEAM HEATING SYSTEMS HS-901(A) BASIC HEATING SYSTEMS One-Pipe Two-Pipe Basic Steam Heating Systems One-pipe steam heating system EQUALIZER SAFETY FACTOR STATIC HEAD PRESSURE DROP 2" HEATING UNIT 15" DRIP CONNECTION In a one-pipe,

More information

HVAC Processes. Lecture 7

HVAC Processes. Lecture 7 HVAC Processes Lecture 7 Targets of Lecture General understanding about HVAC systems: Typical HVAC processes Air handling units, fan coil units, exhaust fans Typical plumbing systems Transfer pumps, sump

More information

Energy Conservation: Dealing With High Temperature Condensate

Energy Conservation: Dealing With High Temperature Condensate Energy Conservation: Dealing With High Temperature Condensate Improperly Designed Heat Transfer Systems Using Medium to High Pressure Steam Can Result in Energy Waste Due to Flash Steam Flash Steam and

More information

SAM HOUSTON STATE UNIVERSITY

SAM HOUSTON STATE UNIVERSITY PART 1: GENERAL 1.01 General Requirements A. This standard is intended to provide useful information to the Professional Service Provider (PSP) to establish a basis of design. The responsibility of the

More information

ASPE Seminar Water Heater Piping Strategies. Presented by Joe Kalarickal, EIT Regional Sales Manager AERCO International

ASPE Seminar Water Heater Piping Strategies. Presented by Joe Kalarickal, EIT Regional Sales Manager AERCO International ASPE Seminar Water Heater Piping Strategies Presented by Joe Kalarickal, EIT Regional Sales Manager AERCO International Presentation Overview Water Heater Piping Strategies How to size a water heater?

More information

Element D Services Plumbing

Element D Services Plumbing PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 OVERVIEW A. This section addresses domestic cold, hot and hot water return distribution systems within and to five feet beyond building perimeter. PART 2 - DESIGN CRITERIA 2.01 GENERAL

More information

MOBILE FIRE - RESCUE DEPARTMENT FIRE CODE ADMINISTRATION

MOBILE FIRE - RESCUE DEPARTMENT FIRE CODE ADMINISTRATION MOBILE FIRE - RESCUE DEPARTMENT FIRE CODE ADMINISTRATION Fire Pump Plan Review 2009 International Fire Code and NFPA 20 Date of Review / / BLD201 - Project Address: Project Name: Contractor s Business

More information

Proprietary Catalog Data Contact Local Spirotherm Representative for Technical Assistance

Proprietary Catalog Data Contact Local Spirotherm Representative for Technical Assistance Pressure Drop Chart System fluid passing through a Spirovent or Spirotrap will create a certain pressure drop, depending on the size of the nozzles, diameter of the shell, and the volume (flow) and speed

More information

dp pumps the dynamics of water HVAC centrifugal (norm) pumps

dp pumps the dynamics of water HVAC centrifugal (norm) pumps dp pumps the dynamics of water HVAC centrifugal (norm) pumps 2 HVAC centrifugal (norm) pumps HVAC efficient solutions for comfortable living conditions To be comfortable in a building, both at home and

More information

Modern Hydronic Designs, Controls, and Condensing Boilers. Matthew Kiemen Marketing/ Mechanical Engineer Ryan Company Inc.

Modern Hydronic Designs, Controls, and Condensing Boilers. Matthew Kiemen Marketing/ Mechanical Engineer Ryan Company Inc. Modern Hydronic Designs, Controls, and Matthew Kiemen Marketing/ Mechanical Engineer Ryan Company Inc. Condensing Boiler Basics Primary/Secondary Variable Primary Control Strategies Summary Boiler Efficiency

More information

CyberFortress Data Center at Innovation Park Infrastructure and Topology Guide. Innovation Park Charlotte. NC 28262. DRAFT V0.

CyberFortress Data Center at Innovation Park Infrastructure and Topology Guide. Innovation Park Charlotte. NC 28262. DRAFT V0. Innovation Park Charlotte. NC 28262 DRAFT V0.1 Page 2 CyberFortress Data Center at Innovation Park BECO South purchased Innovation Park in March 2010 and immediately launched a dramatic top-to-bottom $30M

More information

KU DESIGN GUIDELINES APPENDIX XVI RECOMMENDED BAS I/O CONTROL POINTS BY EQUIPMENT / SYSTEM

KU DESIGN GUIDELINES APPENDIX XVI RECOMMENDED BAS I/O CONTROL POINTS BY EQUIPMENT / SYSTEM KU DESIGN GUIDELINES APPENDIX XVI RECOMMENDED BAS I/O CONTROL POINTS BY EQUIPMENT / SYSTEM AIR HANDLING UNITS... 1 CHILLERS... 2 COOLING TOWERS... 2 CLOSED LOOP COOLERS... 2 MISCELLANEOUS SUPPLY FANS...

More information

Fire Pump Plan Review March 2010

Fire Pump Plan Review March 2010 Fire Pump Plan Review March 2010 Date of Review: / / Permit Number: Business/Building Name: Address of Project: Designer Name: Designer s Phone: Contractor: Contractor s Phone: Occupancy Classification:

More information

Overview. Introduction Cooling Tower Basics Principles of Operation Types of Cooling Towers Common Applications Design Considerations

Overview. Introduction Cooling Tower Basics Principles of Operation Types of Cooling Towers Common Applications Design Considerations Stephen Lowe ASHRAE Hampton Roads Chapter Past President AECOM Design Mechanical Engineering Discipline Manager, Virginia Beach Division Professional Engineer Commonwealth of Virginia, NCEES BSME University

More information

HVAC 101: Chillers and VFDs and BACnet Oh My! Tim Skell Sr. HVAC Application Engineer, ABB

HVAC 101: Chillers and VFDs and BACnet Oh My! Tim Skell Sr. HVAC Application Engineer, ABB HVAC 101: Chillers and VFDs and BACnet Oh My! Tim Skell Sr. HVAC Application Engineer, ABB Learning Objectives: 1. Examine the functionality of major HVAC equipment such as chillers, AHUs, cooling towers

More information

Why and How we Use Capacity Control

Why and How we Use Capacity Control Why and How we Use Capacity Control On refrigeration and air conditioning applications where the load may vary over a wide range, due to lighting, occupancy, product loading, ambient weather variations,

More information

MANUAL. for installation and start up of cooling hydraulic module HMC30 MkI

MANUAL. for installation and start up of cooling hydraulic module HMC30 MkI MANUAL for installation and start up of cooling hydraulic module HMC30 MkI IM HMC30MkI EN 02 2014 Table of Contents General information Main parts of hydraulic module........3 Overall and mounting dimensions..4

More information

Hydronic Equipment. Will Rea and Paul Pilutti June 16th, 2011

Hydronic Equipment. Will Rea and Paul Pilutti June 16th, 2011 Hydronic Equipment Will Rea and Paul Pilutti June 16th, 2011 Optimum Air Follow Up U of T Robarts Addition Under design Did energy modeling with reduced LAT Allowed for a 10-15% reduction in supply CFM

More information

Element D Services Plumbing

Element D Services Plumbing Medical Vacuum and Gas PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 OVERVIEW A. This section addresses medical vacuum, waste anesthetic gas disposal, compressed air, oxygen, nitrous oxide, nitrogen and carbon dioxide systems.

More information

Water hammering in fire fighting installation

Water hammering in fire fighting installation Water hammering in fire fighting installation Forward One of major problems raised in the fire fighting network installed at Pioneer company for pharmaceutical industry /Sulaymania was the high water hammering

More information

Element D Services Plumbing

Element D Services Plumbing Laboratory Vacuum and Gas PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 OVERVIEW A. This section addresses laboratory vacuum, compressed air, gaseous nitrogen, and carbon dioxide systems within and to five feet beyond building

More information

Boiler Condensate Return Basics February 24, 2016

Boiler Condensate Return Basics February 24, 2016 Boiler Condensate Return Basics February 24, 2016 1. Explain what you mean by saturated steam. A: Saturated steam is really saturated water which has been heated to the point where no additional Btu s

More information

Applying Pressure Independent Control Valves in H.V.A.C. Systems. A Presentation to: Orange Empire ASHRAE Santa Ana Nov. 17, 2009

Applying Pressure Independent Control Valves in H.V.A.C. Systems. A Presentation to: Orange Empire ASHRAE Santa Ana Nov. 17, 2009 Applying Pressure Independent Control Valves in H.V.A.C. Systems A Presentation to: Orange Empire ASHRAE Santa Ana Nov. 17, 2009 1 Introduction I know, as building design consultants, so much of your effort

More information

Pressure Systems Factsheet

Pressure Systems Factsheet Efficiently Maintaining Commercial Buildings Pressure Systems Factsheet Open-Vented? F&E Tank? Pressurisation Unit? Sealed System? It can be difficult to understand all the jargon! We often get asked what

More information

Condensing Boiler Efficiency

Condensing Boiler Efficiency Condensing Boiler Efficiency Date: July 17, 2012 PRES E NT ED BY DO N L E O NA RDI LE O N A RD I I NC. HV AC T RAI N I N G & C ON SU LT IN G Concepts 1 The current state of evolution in boiler design 2

More information

2011 NFPA 25 Standpipe Testing Excerpts

2011 NFPA 25 Standpipe Testing Excerpts 2011 NFPA 25 Standpipe Testing Excerpts 6.3 Testing Where water damage is a possibility, an air test shall be conducted on the system at 25 psi (1.7 bar) prior to introducing water to the system. Extreme

More information

Water cooled chiller plant (cp/vs)

Water cooled chiller plant (cp/vs) Data Center Water cooled chiller plant (cp/vs) Design Envelope File No: 9.573 Date: december 16, 2014 Supersedes: 9.573 Date: november 14, 2014 design envelope s performance improvements are among the

More information

Auxiliary Equipment. 1. Compressor Coolers

Auxiliary Equipment. 1. Compressor Coolers Auxiliary Equipment 1. Compressor Coolers Approximately 80% of the electrical energy used by the compressor is converted to heat during the air compression process. Removal of the heat thus released from

More information

Your tool for designing efficient balancing solutions for heating and cooling systems

Your tool for designing efficient balancing solutions for heating and cooling systems Application guide Your tool for designing efficient balancing solutions for heating and cooling systems 18 applications Our recommended applications for heating and cooling systems will improve comfort

More information

IMAGINATION SOLAR LTD. Installation Guide B3. Vented & Unvented Cylinders

IMAGINATION SOLAR LTD. Installation Guide B3. Vented & Unvented Cylinders Page 1 of 9 IMAGINATION SOLAR LTD Installation Guide B3 Vented & Unvented Cylinders Unit 4 Montpelier Central, Station Road Bristol BS6 5EE t: 0117 942 6668 f: 0117 942 8998 e: enquiries@imaginationsolar.com

More information

CHILLED WATER PLANT PUMPING SCHEMES. James J. Nonnenmann, PE Stanley Consultants, Inc. Muscatine, Iowa

CHILLED WATER PLANT PUMPING SCHEMES. James J. Nonnenmann, PE Stanley Consultants, Inc. Muscatine, Iowa CHILLED WATER PLANT PUMPING SCHEMES James J. Nonnenmann, PE Stanley Consultants, Inc. Muscatine, Iowa ABSTRACT From the advent of central chilled water plants, the system for delivering chilled water to

More information

Water supply in tall buildings: roof tanks vs. pressurised systems

Water supply in tall buildings: roof tanks vs. pressurised systems Water supply in tall buildings: roof tanks vs. pressurised s Introduction The use of roof tanks to ensure adequate water pressure in buildings, and especially tall buildings, is very common. The alternative

More information

NOTES FOR AIR HANDLER APPLICATION:

NOTES FOR AIR HANDLER APPLICATION: 18 H. PIPING DIAGRAMS Figure 4 Phoenix With Air Handler - 5. Check with air handler manufacturer for proper sizing. 6. This drawing is meant to demonstrate system piping only. The installer is responsible

More information

Chapter 2 Boiler 101: typical NYC residential heating system

Chapter 2 Boiler 101: typical NYC residential heating system Chapter 2 Boiler 101: typical NYC residential heating system One and two family homes often use forced-hot-air heating systems, which include a burner, heat exchanger and blower(s). In these types of systems,

More information

REGISTRATION EXAMINATION, JUNE 2009 PLUMBING QUESTION AND ANSWER BOOKLET. Time allowed THREE hours

REGISTRATION EXAMINATION, JUNE 2009 PLUMBING QUESTION AND ANSWER BOOKLET. Time allowed THREE hours Affix label with Candidate Code Number here. If no label, enter candidate Number if known No. 99 REGISTRATION EXAMINATION, JUNE 009 PLUMBING INSTRUCTIONS QUESTION AND ANSWER BOOKLET Time allowed THREE

More information

Session 2: Hot Water Supply

Session 2: Hot Water Supply MEBS6000 Utility Services http://www.hku.hk/mech/msc-courses/mebs6000/index.html Session 2: Hot Water Supply Dr. Benjamin P.L. Ho Department of Mechanical Engineering The University of Hong Kong E-mail:

More information

C. Is the applicable code (NFPA 13, 13R, 13D, 14, 20) and edition correct and shown on the drawing?

C. Is the applicable code (NFPA 13, 13R, 13D, 14, 20) and edition correct and shown on the drawing? Fire Suppression Plan Review General A. Are the shop drawings on the contractor s title block? B. Do the drawings meet the engineer design documents? C. Is the applicable code (NFPA 13, 13R, 13D, 14, 20)

More information

PUMP AND MOTOR DIVISION

PUMP AND MOTOR DIVISION INSTALLATION MANUAL SERIES P2 and P3 MOBILE PISTON PUMP 1 Check model code / compare with your paper work Nameplate of the pump Ordering / Sales Acknowledgement 2 Check rotation of the pump Clockwise rotation

More information

NEBB STANDARDS SECTION-8 AIR SYSTEM TAB PROCEDURES

NEBB STANDARDS SECTION-8 AIR SYSTEM TAB PROCEDURES NEBB STANDARDS SECTION-8 AIR SYSTEM TAB PROCEDURES 8.1 INTRODUCTION Testing, adjusting, and balancing of HVAC systems can best be accomplished by following a series of systematic procedures. The NEBB TAB

More information

Tour of new eircom Data Centre Blanchardstown by Dervan Engineering Consultants 11 th March 2015

Tour of new eircom Data Centre Blanchardstown by Dervan Engineering Consultants 11 th March 2015 Tour of new eircom Data Centre Blanchardstown by Dervan Engineering Consultants 11 th March 2015 Presentation Outline Mechanical Overview Chillers and Pumps Pipework and Ancillaries In Row Cooling Units

More information

Brazed plate heat exchangers. For the refrigeration industry

Brazed plate heat exchangers. For the refrigeration industry Brazed plate heat exchangers For the refrigeration industry Important components in refrigeration applications Installed for a wide range of duties in refrigeration applications worldwide, Alfa Laval s

More information

Fundamentals of Water System Design

Fundamentals of Water System Design ASHRAE Hong Kong Chapter Technical Workshop Fundamentals of Water System Design 17, 18, 24, 25 January 2007 2007 ASHRAE Hong Kong Chapter Slide 1 Chapter 7: Piping System Development Piping System design

More information

Mixing Valves. ARGUS Application Note: Mixing Valves

Mixing Valves. ARGUS Application Note: Mixing Valves Mixing Valves Most radiant hot water heating systems in greenhouses use mixing valves to control the temperature of heating pipes. Both 3-way and 4- way valves are commonly used. Mixing valves provide

More information

Residential Plumbing BCN 1058

Residential Plumbing BCN 1058 Residential Plumbing BCN 1058 CHAPTER 7 Plumbing Fixtures and Sizing the Drain, Waste, and Vent System MICHAEL KNOTEK 74 Plumbing Fixtures and Sizing the Drain, Waste, and Vent System PLUMBING FIXTURES

More information

TOPIC: 191004 KNOWLEDGE: K1.01 [3.3/3.5] Which one of the following contains indications of cavitation in an operating centrifugal pump?

TOPIC: 191004 KNOWLEDGE: K1.01 [3.3/3.5] Which one of the following contains indications of cavitation in an operating centrifugal pump? KNOWLEDGE: K1.01 [3.3/3.5] P21 Which one of the following contains indications of cavitation in an operating centrifugal pump? A. Low flow rate with low discharge pressure. B. Low flow rate with high discharge

More information

By Steven C. Severini, P.E., Member ASHRAE

By Steven C. Severini, P.E., Member ASHRAE The following article was published in ASHRAE Journal, July 2004. Copyright 2004 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers, Inc. It is presented for educational purposes

More information

Data Realty Colocation Data Center Ignition Park, South Bend, IN. Owner: Data Realty Engineer: ESD Architect: BSA LifeStructures

Data Realty Colocation Data Center Ignition Park, South Bend, IN. Owner: Data Realty Engineer: ESD Architect: BSA LifeStructures Data Realty Colocation Data Center Ignition Park, South Bend, IN Owner: Data Realty Engineer: ESD Architect: BSA LifeStructures Project Overview Data Realty is a data center service provider for middle

More information

Variable Flow Application Engineering Bulletin. For: Multistack Modular Scroll Only Applications

Variable Flow Application Engineering Bulletin. For: Multistack Modular Scroll Only Applications sm Variable Flow Application Engineering Bulletin For: Multistack Modular Scroll Only Applications Product Information Multistack Modular Chillers or Heat Pumps and Variable Primary Flow Pumping Systems

More information

DRY MECHANICAL BOOSTERS REPLACE STEAM EJECTOR

DRY MECHANICAL BOOSTERS REPLACE STEAM EJECTOR DRY MECHANICAL BOOSTERS REPLACE STEAM EJECTOR Steam ejectors find wide use in vacuum pumping applications so called dirty application such as in Vapour extraction, Chemical processing, Evaporative Cooling,

More information

Chillers, Pumps, Motors & Electrical

Chillers, Pumps, Motors & Electrical Chillers, Pumps, Motors & Electrical Alfred Woody, PE Ventilation/Energy Applications, PLLC Norton Shores, Michigan 231 798 3536 Overview System components Design considerations Things to check Waste &

More information

Commissioning - Construction Documents (Page 1 of 6)

Commissioning - Construction Documents (Page 1 of 6) Commissioning - Construction Documents (Page 1 of 6) A. General Information Climate Zone: Building Type: Conditioned Area (sf): Reviewer's Name: Reviewer's Agency: Note: Design Review for each system/subsystem

More information

Overview of Fire Pumps and Water Storage Tanks

Overview of Fire Pumps and Water Storage Tanks Overview of Fire Pumps and Water Storage Tanks M. Steven Welsh, P.E. Registered FPE Koffel Associates, Inc. www.koffel.com swelsh@koffel.com Expertly Engineering Safety From Fire Outline Introduction Water

More information

Waste Collection Systems

Waste Collection Systems Waste Collection Systems Lift Stations Lift Stations Training Objectives To gain an understanding of: Lift Station vocabulary Lift Station components and their function Lift Station operational requirements

More information

Design Consultant (Electrical Services) Design Deliverables and Responsibilities Allocation (Stage E+)

Design Consultant (Electrical Services) Design Deliverables and Responsibilities Allocation (Stage E+) Design Consultant (Electrical Services) Design Deliverables and Responsibilities Allocation (Stage E+) 1. In addition to the information scheduled below, the pre-tender designer is responsible for: (i)

More information

Pump cavitation and how to avoid it Best practices in pump system design

Pump cavitation and how to avoid it Best practices in pump system design WHITE PAPER August 2015 Pump cavitation and how to avoid it Best practices in pump system design Presented by: Xylem Applied Water Systems Cavitation is not a new phenomenon that can impact a pump system,

More information

! WARNING. McDonnell & Miller Installation & Maintenance Instructions MM-217(I) Series 150S and 157S (Snap Switch, All Models except 157S-RB-P)

! WARNING. McDonnell & Miller Installation & Maintenance Instructions MM-217(I) Series 150S and 157S (Snap Switch, All Models except 157S-RB-P) Series 150S and 157S (Snap Switch, All Models except 157S-RB-P) Low Water Cut-Off/Pump Controllers For Steam Boilers and Other Level Control Applications McDonnell & Miller Installation & Maintenance Instructions

More information

Theory, Application, and Sizing of Air Valves

Theory, Application, and Sizing of Air Valves Theory, Application, and Sizing of Air Valves VAL-MATIC VALVE AND MANUFACTURING CORP. 905 RIVERSIDE DRIVE, ELMHURST, IL 60126 TEL. (630) 941-7600 FAX. (630) 941-8042 www.valmatic.com 1 THEORY, APPLICATION,

More information

High Efficiency Liquid-Solid Separators

High Efficiency Liquid-Solid Separators High Efficiency Liquid-Solid Separators Continuous Filtration with Zero Maintenance ehtx Features and Benefits: Filter performance rated to remove 98% of all solids 44 micron (325 mesh), 2.6 specific gravity,

More information

CASE STUDY 1 COMMISSIONING A GAS FIRED STEAM BOILER

CASE STUDY 1 COMMISSIONING A GAS FIRED STEAM BOILER CASE STUDY 1 COMMISSIONING A GAS FIRED STEAM BOILER A steam boiler has been built and installed at a factory for the provision of process steam. The following lists the requirements used in the commissioning

More information

HVAC Sequences of Operation. Stanford SEQ2 Environment and Energy Building

HVAC Sequences of Operation. Stanford SEQ2 Environment and Energy Building HVAC Sequences of Operation Stanford SEQ2 Environment and Energy Building Revision Revision Description Date Issued A Draft 10-27-2006 0 Issue for Construction 12-19-2006 1 Incorporate Alarm & Rev 0 Comments

More information

1 DESCRIPTION OF THE APPLIANCE

1 DESCRIPTION OF THE APPLIANCE 1 DESCRIPTION OF THE APPLIANCE 1.1 INTRODUCTION The cast iron SF boilers are a valid solution for the present energetic problems, since they can run with solid fuels: wood and coal. These series of boilers

More information

High efficiency air/water reversible heat pumps type Geyser Mini Technical information manual

High efficiency air/water reversible heat pumps type Geyser Mini Technical information manual High efficiency air/water reversible heat pumps type Geyser Mini Technical information manual 2 GEYSER MINI Reversible heat pump Index Technical features 120 Basic version general technical data 124 Basic

More information

HVAC Systems: Overview

HVAC Systems: Overview HVAC Systems: Overview Michael J. Brandemuehl, Ph.D, P.E. University of Colorado Boulder, CO, USA Overview System Description Secondary HVAC Systems Air distribution Room diffusers and air terminals Duct

More information

Air Conditioner Water Heater - A Product of HotSpot Energy LLC

Air Conditioner Water Heater - A Product of HotSpot Energy LLC Air Conditioner Water Heater - A Product of HotSpot Energy LLC PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE YOU INSTALL THE UNIT 1. This air conditioner must be installed and/or repaired by a qualified technician. If you perform

More information

Fundamentals of HVAC Control Systems

Fundamentals of HVAC Control Systems ASHRAE Hong Kong Chapter Technical Workshop Fundamentals of HVAC Control Systems 18, 19, 25, 26 April 2007 2007 ASHRAE Hong Kong Chapter Slide 1 Chapter 3 Control Valves and Dampers 2007 ASHRAE Hong Kong

More information

Laundry Hot Water Systems

Laundry Hot Water Systems TECHNICAL BULLETIN HE-2020 Laundry Hot Water Systems Commercial/Institutional Applications using Helitherm Heat Exchangers AERCO INTERNATIONAL, INC. 159 PARIS AVE., NORTHVALE, NJ 07647 (201) 768-2400 FAX

More information

High Efficiency Evaporative Condensers for Air Conditioning, T.E.S., and Refrigeration

High Efficiency Evaporative Condensers for Air Conditioning, T.E.S., and Refrigeration High Efficiency Evaporative Condensers for Air Conditioning, T.E.S., and Refrigeration Dennis Nugent, TGK Consulting, Inc. Evaporative condensers are a proven, cost-effective method of increasing air conditioning

More information

BRAVA small size, big performance

BRAVA small size, big performance BRAVA small size, big performance www.sime.it BRAVA: small size, big performance Brava Slim and Brava One are part of a new generation wall hung boilers, particularly compact and functional. They represent

More information

IES Live e-training. Trainee notes. ApacheHVAC (Version 6.4) Session B. SI units

IES <Virtual Environment> Live e-training. Trainee notes. ApacheHVAC (Version 6.4) Session B. SI units IES Live e-training Trainee notes ApacheHVAC (Version 6.4) Session B SI units Introduction In Session A you were shown the basics of creating HVAC plant and control networks for a

More information

Variable-flow water systems Design, installation and commissioning guidance

Variable-flow water systems Design, installation and commissioning guidance APPLICATION GUIDE AG 16/2002 Variable-flow water systems Design, installation and commissioning guidance By Arnold Teekaram and Anu Palmer Supported by PREFACE There are significant benefits to variable

More information

CONDENSERS AND CONDENSER COOLING SYSTEMS

CONDENSERS AND CONDENSER COOLING SYSTEMS CONDENSERS AND CONDENSER COOLING SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION Conventional cooling methods of thermal power plants are extremely water intensive processes. Once-through cooling needs large natural bodies of water

More information

Key Specification Points for Turbine Driven Boiler Feed Water Pumps Used in Super Critical and Ultra Super Critical Coal Fired Power Plants

Key Specification Points for Turbine Driven Boiler Feed Water Pumps Used in Super Critical and Ultra Super Critical Coal Fired Power Plants Key Specification Points for Turbine Driven Boiler Feed Water Pumps Used in Super Critical and Ultra Super Critical Coal Fired Power Plants By Mr. Ed Simmons PE Shaw Power Division The Risks The Boiler

More information

Home Performance Guide Heat Pump Installation

Home Performance Guide Heat Pump Installation Home Performance Guide Heat Pump Installation Something to fully understand about heat pumps is that they are a part of an overall system, the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. That

More information

SAMPLE. Supply main. Header. Boiler

SAMPLE. Supply main. Header. Boiler LESSON 5 direction for better separation of the condensate. The steam piping should come off the top of the header pipe to assure that only dry steam leaves the boiler. THE HARTFORD LOOP Areas A, B, and

More information

AIR COOLED CHILLER CHILLED WATER PUMP CONTROL: The chilled water pump with the lowest runtime will automatically start when the outside air temperature rises above the system enable setpoint. When the

More information

INTERNATIONAL FIRE TRAINING CENTRE

INTERNATIONAL FIRE TRAINING CENTRE INTERNATIONAL FIRE TRAINING CENTRE FIREFIGHTER INITIAL HYDRAULICS Throughout this note he means he/she and his means his/hers. Areas In bold type are considered to be of prime importance. INTRODUCTION

More information

COUNTERBALANCE VALVES

COUNTERBALANCE VALVES COUNTERBALANCE VALVES Introduction They are modulating valves which allow free flow into the actuator and then block the reverse flow until they feel a pilot pressure inversely proportional to the load

More information

Indirect-Fired Storage Water Heater Models WH-30 through WH-80 INSTALLATION AND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

Indirect-Fired Storage Water Heater Models WH-30 through WH-80 INSTALLATION AND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS Indirect-Fired Storage Water Heater Models WH-30 through WH-80 INSTALLATION AND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS Contents Page Ratings and Specifications..................... 2 Installation Requirements......................

More information

Mechanical, Plumbing, and Fire Protection Conditions

Mechanical, Plumbing, and Fire Protection Conditions Mechanical, Plumbing, and Fire Protection Conditions Mechanical Conditions The mechanical systems within the building consist of a combination of the original 1926 systems and renovations that occurred

More information

Presentation Outline. Common Terms / Concepts HVAC Building Blocks. Links. Plant Level Building Blocks. Air Distribution Building Blocks

Presentation Outline. Common Terms / Concepts HVAC Building Blocks. Links. Plant Level Building Blocks. Air Distribution Building Blocks Presentation Outline Common Terms / Concepts HVAC Building Blocks Plant Level Building Blocks Description / Application Data Green opportunities Selection Criteria Air Distribution Building Blocks same

More information

NYC Department of Education Building Condition Assessment Survey 2014-2015 BROADWAY EDUCATION CAMPUS - MANHATTAN, 26 BROADWAY, MANHATTAN, NY, 10004

NYC Department of Education Building Condition Assessment Survey 2014-2015 BROADWAY EDUCATION CAMPUS - MANHATTAN, 26 BROADWAY, MANHATTAN, NY, 10004 School: InspectionId Asset Data Inspection Type Building Assessment Survey 204-205 BROADWAY EDUCATION CAMPUS - MANHATTAN, 26 BROADWAY, MANHATTAN, NY, 0004 Time In Last Edited 255 MECHANICAL 205-05-8 09:00AM

More information

A TRUE. Heat Recovery Water Source Heat Pump System

A TRUE. Heat Recovery Water Source Heat Pump System A TRUE Heat Recovery Water Source Heat Pump System Water Source Heat Pump (WSHP) systems are considered energy efficient since they can move heat from one location within a building to another location.

More information

Data Center. Ultra-Efficient chilled water system optimization. White paper. File No: 9.236 Date: december 03, 2015 Supersedes: new Date: new

Data Center. Ultra-Efficient chilled water system optimization. White paper. File No: 9.236 Date: december 03, 2015 Supersedes: new Date: new Data Center Ultra-Efficient chilled water system optimization White paper File No: 9.236 Date: december 03, 2015 Supersedes: new Date: new Data Center - Ultra-Efficient white paper 3 abstract The primary

More information

Instructions for designing heating systems.

Instructions for designing heating systems. Instructions for designing heating systems. In order to obtain the required effect, a lower consumption, a smaller quantity of impurities and improved comfort, heat and domestic hot water installations

More information

LECTURE 28 to 29 ACCUMULATORS FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

LECTURE 28 to 29 ACCUMULATORS FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS LECTURE 28 to 29 ACCUMULATORS FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 1. Define an accumulator and explain its function A hydraulic accumulator is a device that stores the potential energy of an incompressible fluid

More information

COMMERCIAL HVAC CHILLER EQUIPMENT. Air-Cooled Chillers

COMMERCIAL HVAC CHILLER EQUIPMENT. Air-Cooled Chillers COMMERCIAL HVAC CHILLER EQUIPMENT Air-Cooled Chillers Technical Development Programs (TDP) are modules of technical training on HVAC theory, system design, equipment selection and application topics. They

More information

Selecting the Pump. Let s look at example 2, 40 GPM at 38 feet of head. The curve family shows the. Figure 1, A Typical Family of Curves

Selecting the Pump. Let s look at example 2, 40 GPM at 38 feet of head. The curve family shows the. Figure 1, A Typical Family of Curves Selecting the Pump Once the GPM and pump head are known, we can proceed with the actual pump selection. Pumps may be selected either manually using pump curves, or with software such as Taconet. To use

More information

ESTIMATING FIRE PROTECTION WATER DEMANDS

ESTIMATING FIRE PROTECTION WATER DEMANDS GAP.14.1.1.0 A Publication of Global Asset Protection Services LLC ESTIMATING FIRE PROTECTION WATER DEMANDS INTRODUCTION What constitutes an adequate water supply has generated much discussion over the

More information

Geothermal Energy Using Water-Source Heat Pumps

Geothermal Energy Using Water-Source Heat Pumps Geothermal Energy Using Water-Source Heat Pumps By VIRSTAR Corporation Geothermal Expertise Since 1978 All information contained herein is the exclusive property of VIRSTAR Corporation, all rights reserved.

More information

Design Guide. Retrofitting Options For HVAC Systems In Live Performance Venues

Design Guide. Retrofitting Options For HVAC Systems In Live Performance Venues Design Guide Retrofitting Options For HVAC Systems In Live Performance Venues Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are major energy consumers in live performance venues. For this reason,

More information

Ener.co & Viridian Energy & Env. Using Data Loggers to Improve Chilled Water Plant Efficiency. Randy Mead, C.E.M, CMVP

Ener.co & Viridian Energy & Env. Using Data Loggers to Improve Chilled Water Plant Efficiency. Randy Mead, C.E.M, CMVP Ener.co & Viridian Energy & Env. Using Data Loggers to Improve Chilled Water Plant Efficiency Randy Mead, C.E.M, CMVP Introduction Chilled water plant efficiency refers to the total electrical energy it

More information

Douglas A. Stricker, Hixson Refrigeration Designer

Douglas A. Stricker, Hixson Refrigeration Designer Douglas A. Stricker, Hixson Refrigeration Designer Chilled water systems are the primary means of cooling most commercial and industrial facilities and also can be used to cool equipment or products, such

More information

Factory owners must ensure the boiler is:

Factory owners must ensure the boiler is: Factory owners must ensure the boiler is: * Registered with the Boilers and Pressure Vessels Division, Labour Department * Examined by an appointed examiner and has a valid certificate of fitness * Supervised

More information

NFPA 14 3.3.5 4.2.3.2

NFPA 14 3.3.5 4.2.3.2 NFPA 14 3.3.5 3.3.5 High-Rise Building. A building where the floor of an occupiable story is greater than 55 ft (17 m) 75 ft (23 m) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. 4.2.3.2 4.2.3.2

More information

PIPES AND TUBES FOR HVAC PIPING AND EQUIPMENT

PIPES AND TUBES FOR HVAC PIPING AND EQUIPMENT PIPES AND TUBES FOR HVAC PIPING AND EQUIPMENT GENERAL INFORMATION 1.1 This section applies to piping systems for chilled water, hot water, condenser water, steam, condensate return, fuel oil, refrigerant

More information