How to deploy and operate mobile networks in an energy efficient manner?

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1 How to deploy and operate mobile networks in an energy efficient manner? EARTH Training Workshop June 13 th 2012, Grenoble, France István Gódor Ericsson Research, Hungary Work Package Leader, EARTH Project. All Rights reserved.

2 Outline Why to go beyond the traditional three quality criteria? Motivations and main solution areas How can we achieve more energy efficient networks? Particular techniques including deployment, network management and radio resource management aspects Summary What is worth to be remembered EARTH Tutorial Workshop 2012 Green Networks 2

3 Why to go beyond the traditional three quality criteria? Better throughput, capacity or coverage + ENERGY Motivations and main solution areas. All Rights reserved.

4 Motivations The goal is to minimize the power consumption at the network level of radio access networks Today both deployment and operation are dedicated to serve peak traffic demands Our new solutions should inherently provide options for adapting to the traffic demands on the timescale of Years in deployment by HetNets and rollout plans Seconds to hours in network management by reconfigurations Below seconds in radio resource management by scheduling Challenging to cope with The lack of focus on EE in existing standards and specifications and The lack of operator practice on network adaptation All segments are winners including operators, vendors and users EARTH Tutorial Workshop 2012 Green Networks 4

5 Solution areas Deployment Management RRM overlay macro cell multi-rat Zzz small cells relays - Optimal mix of cell sizes - Relays - Multi-RAT deployment - Base station cooperation - Adaptive network reconfiguration - Managing time, frequency & transmit power in scheduling EARTH Tutorial Workshop 2012 Green Networks 5

6 How can we achieve more energy efficient networks? Particular techniques including deployment, network management and radio resource management aspects. All Rights reserved.

7 Deployment Optimal cell size and type Impact of traffic & power models on optimal cell sizes and types Dependence on traffic and power models Offset power dominates smaller ISDs increase area power Best size is only limited by performance Note: 3GPP ref. greatly above outdoor requirements meanwhile having problems in indoor non-urban environment Introducing small cells Improve hotspot and indoor performance In city centers for ultra-high traffic demand Heterogeneous networks (HetNet) supported by management solutions Illustrating weight of power components EARTH Tutorial Workshop 2012 Green Networks 7

8 Deployment Alternatives Alternatives to traditional solutions Relays as alternatives to small cells 2-hop relaying is better than multicast cooperative scheme Hybrid relaying DF/CF scheme for large macro cells Rooftop relays for indoor Utilizing multi-rats determined by operator policies Simple co-location gains are minor (<5%) HetNets: legacy for coverage and LTE for capacity with active management Inhomogeneous deployments & cell sizes Alternative for inhomogeneous traffic distribution EARTH Tutorial Workshop 2012 Green Networks 8

9 Deployment Backhauling techniques Backhaul techniques focusing on realistic deployments Backhauling techniques: FTTN: Fibre-to-the-node MW: Microwave links Active Optical Network (AON) or PtP: Point-to-point PON: Passive Optical Network PON is the most efficient for today s networks AON: 18-30W/BS MW: 25-40W/BS PON: 4-20W/BS AON is good candidate for future networks EARTH Tutorial Workshop 2012 Green Networks 9

10 Network management Overview Network adaptation according to the daily variation of traffic aided by cell edge improvements 00.00hrs Saved energy 12.00hrs Telecom traffic 24.00hrs H i g h L o w Traffic Freq. Freq. 3-sector (a) Switch (b) off sites Switch (c) off HetNet (d) Bandwidth (e) to omni or RATs radio units to macro adaptation Cell edge communication Highly populated areas are dimensioned for peak capacity Options for periodic reconfigurations In rural areas, the amount of resources is already tailored to provide coverage Standby schemes on short time scales (including cell DTX and bandwidth adaptation) cont. EARTH Tutorial Workshop 2012 Green Networks 10

11 Network management Overview cont. Apply fine grained adaptation and preserve quality Available input for adaptation supports Scheduled reconfiguration based on daily observations Prompt reconfigurations to respond to actual load and QoS situations Main possibilities to reduce energy consumption Low fluctuation: Reduce the system bandwidth meanwhile preserve capacity for media and background traffic High fluctuation: Reduce active time of base stations meanwhile preserve peak download and upload speed Night hours: Reduce the number of active cells or BSs Keep capacity layers / RATs on minimum in HetNets / multi-rat networks EARTH Tutorial Workshop 2012 Green Networks 11

12 Network management Base station cooperation Energy per bit relative to N c =1 (100%) [%] CoMP scenarios for improving energy efficiency of cellular systems Cell-edge communication CoMP is more EE than non-cooperative system for cell edge communication More than 3 BSs in coop. is unlikely to be beneficial EE mainly via SE improvement As a result of macro-diversity, but coordinated resource allocation can provide real savings of 8% Cooperative processing power should be kept low for CoMP to provide gain N c = 7, MIMO proc. = 10% Inter site distance [m] The lower the load, the less the gain Downlink example N c = 3, MIMO proc. = 1% N c = 7, MIMO proc. = 1% N c = 3, MIMO proc. = 10% EARTH Tutorial Workshop 2012 Green Networks 12

13 Network management Bandwidth management Average data rate [Mbit/s] Energy Savings [%] Keep system bandwidth and power of macro BSs on minimum Time [h] 295 min MHz BW adaptation concept Capacity Limits BW = 10.0 MHz BW = 5.0 MHz BW = 3.0 MHz BW = 1.4 MHz Less bandwidth at low/medium traffic load with same power per resource block Benefit of adaptive transceiver 35 Enough capacity for CBR users (like media users) and background traffic Dense Urban Providing >25% saving Apply partial/fractional frequency reuse schemes to reduce interference Approx. 30% saving with reuse scheme of BW BW + FullRe System Throughput per Area Unit [Mbps/km 2 ] Dense urban example EARTH Tutorial Workshop 2012 Green Networks 13

14 SINR map Network management (De)sectorization Power [kw/km2] Adaptively set number of active sectors/cells NEW ISD ISD Adapt number of sectors per BS Change beam-width and tilt settings to maintain coverage and service quality Well complemented with CoMP Even full BS on/off especially in vehicular scen. Control loop to keep performance in a predefined QoS zone Provides >30% saving* for 8Mbps cell edge user throughput where the reference system can provide at least 10Mbps Full BS on/off provides 20-25% saving in vehicular scenarios sector omni adaptive a) User traffic density [Mbps/km2] Urban example* with 8Mbps 5 th percentile EARTH Tutorial Workshop 2012 Green Networks 14

15 Network management Adaptive heterogeneous networks Adaptively set number of active capacity cells in HetNets Capacity layer of small cells Coverage layer of macro cells Utilize HetNets independent coverage and capacity layer Illustration of HetNets Turn off empty capacity cells Impact of user distribution inhomogeneity Providing >35% saving in urban environment More gains for hotspot than uniform Also improves user throughput Extreme gains in hotspot/indoor uplink Urban example EARTH Tutorial Workshop 2012 Green Networks 15

16 Radio resource management Beyond classical schedulers and concepts Enhance classical schedulers to save energy Illustration of RRM dimensions Special focus on low traffic situation in contrast to classical concepts Find the right balance between time, frequency and radiated power Classical schedulers energy efficiency [J/bit] Max C/I is best, while Round Robin (RR) is worst Proportional Fair could be a compromise if fairness is included Utilize traffic characteristics for saving in the order of 5% [W/km 2 ] Scheduling based on delay tolerance of applications Vertical handover to serve applications with actually best available RAT EARTH Tutorial Workshop 2012 Green Networks 16

17 Radio resource management Support of sleep modes Support sleep modes with RRM & utilize other dimensions Dynamically configure the number of MBSFN subframes Allocate maximal space for MBSFN subframes to enable efficient cell sleep Providing 15-20% saving Adaptive combination of cell DTX*, power control* and antenna adaptation Providing >35% saving Antenna adaptation can be alternative when DTX is infeasible Load dependent RRM support Sleep modes for low load Power control for high load Urban example* Note: DTX and power control is limited in current LTE standards EARTH Tutorial Workshop 2012 Green Networks 17

18 Summary What is worth to be remembered. All Rights reserved.

19 What to remember from today? Best deployment size is only limited by performance like normally Introduce small cells to improve hotspot and indoor performance; or to serve city centers with ultra-high traffic demand Relays as alternatives to small cells BS cooperation is for cell edge, but gains are mainly via SE improvement Coordinated resource allocation is needed for real savings of 8% Or very high frequency reuse schemes Bandwidth adaptation concept is good for CBR users (like media users) Benefit of adaptive transceiver and provide >25% saving EARTH Tutorial Workshop 2012 Green Networks 19

20 What to remember from today? Set number of active sectors/cells adaptively Provide >20% saving (depending on QoS, change of antenna settings may be needed ) Well complemented with CoMP Utilize HetNets independent coverage and capacity layer in urban environment Turn off empty capacity cells Provide >35% saving Improves user throughput, especially in hotspot/indoor uplink RRM is best when supporting sleep modes Dynamically configure the number of MBSFN subframes providing 15-20% saving Combine cell DTX, power control and antenna adaptation adaptively providing >35% saving EARTH Tutorial Workshop 2012 Green Networks 20

21 Thank you Acknowledgement: The research in the EARTH project has received funding from the European Community s Seventh Framework Program [FP7 / ] under grant agreement n All Rights reserved.

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