# Written methods for addition of whole numbers

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2 The empty number line helps to record the steps on the way to calculating the total. Stage 2 Steps in addition can be recorded on a number line. The steps often bridge through a multiple of 10. Stage 2: Partitioning The next stage is to record mental methods using partitioning. Add the ones and then the tens to form partial sums and then add these partial sums. Partitioning both numbers into tens and ones mirrors the column method where ones are placed under ones and tens under tens. This also links to mental methods. 2

3 Stage 3: Adding using partitioning Partitioned numbers are written under one another: = When totals are more than 10, it is recorded like this =123 At Byker we have decided to add units first ready for the column method. 3

4 Stage 4: Column method In this method, recording is reduced further. Carry digits are recorded below the line, using the words carry ten or carry one hundred, not carry one. Later, extend to adding three two-digit numbers, two three-digit numbers and numbers with different numbers of digits. Stage 4 - Example Column addition remains efficient when used with larger whole numbers and decimals. Once learned, the method is quick and reliable. The decimal point should be aligned in the same way as the other place value columns, and must be in the same column in the answer. 4

5 Say 6 tenths add 7 tenths to reinforce place value. 5

6 Written methods for subtraction of whole numbers The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculations that they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence. Children are entitled to be taught and to acquire secure mental methods of calculation and one efficient written method of calculation for subtraction, which they know they can rely on when mental methods are not appropriate. These notes show the stages in building up to using an efficient method for subtraction of two-digit and three-digit whole numbers by the end of Year 4. To subtract successfully, children need to be able to: recall all addition and subtraction facts to 20; subtract multiples of 10 (such as ) using the related subtraction fact, 16 7, and their knowledge of place value; partition two-digit and three-digit numbers into multiples of one hundred, ten and one in different ways (e.g. partition 74 into or ). Note: It is important that children s mental methods of calculation are practised and secured alongside their learning and use of an efficient written method for subtraction. Stage 1: Using a number line counting backwards (subtracting) Jumping backwards in single steps. Count back in ones on a numbered number line to take away, with numbers up to 20 When children fully understand this method introduce them to a blank numberline. 6

7 Stage 2: subtraction with 2- digit numbers, using a blank numberline = 24 Partition the second number and subtract it in tens and units, as below: Move towards more efficient jumps back, as below: 7

8 The empty number line helps to record or explain the steps in mental subtraction. A calculation like can be recorded by counting back 27 from 74 to reach 47. The empty number line is also a useful way of modelling processes such as bridging through a multiple of ten. The steps can also be recorded by counting up from the smaller to the larger number to find the difference, for example by counting up from 27 to 74 in steps totalling 47. With practice, children will need to record less information and decide whether to count back or forward. It is useful to ask children whether counting up or back is the more efficient for calculations such as 57 12, or The notes below give more detail on the Counting up method using an empty number line. Stage 3 Steps in subtraction can be recorded on a number line. The steps often bridge through a multiple of = = 47 worked by counting back: The steps may be recorded in a different order or combined:

9 Stage 4: The counting on method Mental strategy - subtract numbers close together by counting on: The mental method of counting up from the smaller to the larger number can be recorded using either number lines. The number of rows (or steps) can be reduced by combining steps. With two-digit numbers, this requires children to be able to work out the answer to a calculation such as 30 +? = 74 mentally

10 74 27 = With three-digit numbers the number of steps can again be reduced, provided that children are able to work out answers to calculations such as 178 +? = 200 and 200 +? = 326 mentally. The most compact form of recording remains reasonably efficient = 148 Children can use addition calculations to add up the jumps if needed, although they should be encouraged to add tem mentally. 10

11 The method can be used with decimals where no more than three columns are required. However, it becomes less efficient when more than three columns are needed. This counting up method can be a useful alternative for children whose progress is slow, whose mental and written calculation skills are weak and whose projected attainment at the end of Key Stage 2 is towards the lower end of level = 4.6 Stage 4: Expanded layout, leading to column method Subtraction can be recorded using partitioning to write equivalent calculations that can be carried out mentally. For this involves partitioning the 27 into 20 and 7, and then subtracting from the 74 the 20 and the 7 in turn

12 Expanded layout leading to the standard written method of decomposition. Partitioned numbers are then written under one another: Example: Example Stage 5 Subtraction written methods- The Standard method. Record using the standard method. Example

13 13

14 Written methods for multiplication of whole numbers The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculations that they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence. Children are entitled to be taught and to acquire secure mental methods of calculation and one efficient written method of calculation for multiplication, which they know they can rely on when mental methods are not appropriate. Stage 2: Expanded layout, leading to column method Partitioning the numbers into tens and ones, mirroring the early stages of addition and subtraction.. It also relies on secure mental skills. Children need to be secure in their times tables. The expanded method leads children to the more compact method so that they understand the digit s value and efficiency. The amount of time that should be spent teaching and practising the expanded method will depend how secure the children are in their recall of number facts and with partitioning. These notes show the stages in building up to using an efficient method for two-digit by one-digit multiplication by the end of Year 4, two digit by two-digit multiplication by the end of Year 5, and three-digit by two-digit multiplication by the end of Year 6. Multiplying decimal numbers by a single digit in years 5 and 6. To multiply successfully, children need to be able to: recall all multiplication facts to 10 10; To know the inverse operation in relation to multiplication and division partition number into multiples of one hundred, ten and one; work out products such as 70 5, 70 50, or using the related fact 7 5 and their knowledge of place value; add two or more single-digit numbers mentally; add multiples of 10 (such as ) or of 100 (such as ) using the related addition fact, 6 + 7, and their knowledge of place value; add combinations of whole numbers using the column method (see above). Note: It is important that children s mental methods of calculation are practised and secured alongside their learning and use of written methods for multiplication. 14

15 Stage 1: Multiply with concrete objects, arrays and pictorial representations There are 3 sweets in one bag. How many sweets are in 5 bags altogether? = 15 Give children experience of counting equal group of objects in 2s, 5s and 10s. Present practical problem solving activities involving counting equal sets or groups, as above. Stage 2: To multiply using arrays and repeated addition 15

16 5 x 3 = Stage 3: Mental multiplication using Mental methods for multiplying TU U can be based on the distributive law of multiplication over addition. This allows the tens and ones to be multiplied separately to form partial products. These are then added to find the total product. Either the tens or the ones can be multiplied first but it is more common to start with the tens. Note: These methods are based on the distributive law. Children should be introduced to the principle of this law (not its name) in Years 2 and 3, for example when they use their knowledge of the 2, 5 and 10 times tables to work out multiples of 7: The Partitioning Method This is based on the distributive law and links directly to the mental method.. The partitioning method we have chosen at Byker encourages the children to understand the value of the digits and increase their mental maths skills. Example 1 24 x 7 20 x 7 = x 7 = = 168. Children should be encouraged to add the two numbers mentally 16

17 Stage 4 : Short multiplication The recording is reduced further, with carry digits recorded below the line. If, after practice, children cannot use the compact method without making errors, they should return to the pationing method of stage 1. Example: 38 x Stage 5: Two-digit by two-digit products Extend to TU TU, asking children to estimate first. Stage 5 example is approximately = X The aim is for most children to use this long multiplication method for TU TU by the end of Year 5. 1 Stage 4: Three-digit by two-digit products Extend to HTU TU asking children to estimate first. Example is approximately = Children are then taught the long multiplication method 17

18 286 X Children who are already secure with multiplication for TU U and TU TU should have little difficulty in using the same method for HTU TU. Carry digits should again be placed beneath the answer. Stage 6: Short multiplication involving decimals. Encourage children to make an estimate first. For example: 7.2 x 8 7 x 8 = 56 When children progress to the final stage, ensure that numbers are in correct column, particularly the units. 7.2 x X Progress to 2 decimal places, using the same principle x X

19 Written methods for division of whole numbers The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculations that they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence. Children are entitled to be taught and to acquire secure mental methods of calculation and one efficient written method of calculation for division which they know they can rely on when mental methods are not appropriate. These notes show the stages in building up to long division through Years 4 to 6 To divide successfully in their heads, children need to be able to: understand and use the vocabulary of division for example in 18 3 = 6, the 18 is the dividend, the 3 is the divisor and the 6 is the quotient; partition two-digit and three-digit numbers into multiples of 100, 10 and 1 in different ways; recall multiplication and division facts to 10 10, recognise multiples of one-digit numbers and divide multiples of 10 or 100 by a single-digit number using their knowledge of division facts and place value; know how to find a remainder working mentally for example, find the remainder when 48 is divided by 5; understand and use multiplication and division as inverse operations. Note: It is important that children s mental methods of calculation are practised and secured alongside their learning and use of an efficient written method for division. To carry out written methods of division successful, children also need to be able to: understand division as repeated subtraction; estimate how many times one number divides into another for example, how many sixes there are in 47, or how many 23s there are in 92; multiply a two-digit number by a single-digit number mentally; subtract numbers using the column method. To know the inverse operation To know times tables 19

20 Stage 1: To group and share quantities How many groups of 4 can be made with 12 stars? Pupils should : use lots of practical apparatus, arrays and picture representations Be taught to understand the difference between grouping objects (How many groups of 2 can you make?) and sharing (Share these sweets between 2 people) Be able to count in multiples of 2s, 5s and 10s. Find half of a group of objects by sharing into 2 equal groups 20

21 Stage 2: To group and share using and = sign. Use objects, arrays, diagrams and pictorial representations, and grouping on a number line. This represents 12 3, posed as how many groups of 3 are in 12? Pupils should also show that the same array can represent 12 4 = 3 if grouped horizontally. Stage 2: Grouping using a number line: Group from zero in equal jumps of the divisor to find out How many groups of _ in _? Pupils could and using a bead string or practical apparatus to work out problems like, A CD costs 3. How many CDs can I buy with 12? This is an important method to develop understanding of division as grouping. 21

22 Stage 3: grouping on a number line Children continue to work out unknown division facts by grouping on a number line from zero. They are also now taught the concept of remainders, as in the example. This should be introduced practically and with arrays, as well as being translated to a number line. 4 r1 Stage 3: Short division for TU U and HTU U Example Stage 4: Short division for TU U and HTU U with carry numbers Ensure that the children understand that the carry digit (2) represents the 2 tens that have been exchanged for 20 ones / units. 22

23 Stage4: Long division The next step is to tackle HTU TU, which for most children will be in Year 6. 23

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