DeLana Finney, BA, W. Lee Childers, MSPO Georgia Institute of Technology Cycling Biomechanics Lab MSPO 2010 April 28,2010

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1 DeLana Finney, BA, W. Lee Childers, MSPO Georgia Institute of Technology Cycling Biomechanics Lab MSPO 2010 April 28,2010

2 How this all started: A young man with a rotationplasty said he wanted to bicycle. Knee flexion angle was 90 at best. (110 needed) Is there a bicycle modification that will help him out? 2

3 Compensation Strategies Standing while pedaling Removing the affected limb from the pedal when it reaches the unachievable portion of the cycle Hip hiking 3

4 Key Terms Crank Arm lever arm that transmits torque from the pedal to the wheel hub Force Asymmetry (Sanderson, 1990) Difference in the contribution of each leg to the total force used on the pedal Can show weaknesses between legs Work Asymmetry (Sanderson, 1990) (Daly and Cavanagh, 1976) Difference in the contribution of each leg to total work Can show differences in each leg s ability to direct force on the pedal 4

5 Bicycle Parts Pedal Crank Arm Spindle 7 5

6 Adapting the Bicycle to the Person Hinge Crank Arm Short Fixed Adaptor Passive Peg 6

7 Hinged Crank Arm Accommodates a ROM limitation Variable crank arm length Requires more effort than a standard bike crank (Shan, 2008) Spindle Hinge Point Pedal 7

8 Short Fixed Crank Arm Less expensive option than the hinged crank arm Fixed length shorter than a standard crank arm Spindle Pedal Normal Crank Arm Length 8

9 Hypothesis Pedaling Asymmetries will increase with the mechanical complexity of the bicycle crank system. 9

10 Tested hypothesis with three conditions Standard bicycle cranks arms on both limbs Shorten fixed crank arm on the affected limb Hinged crank arm on the affected limb Methods

11 Methods 5 Subjects 4 Intact 1 Amputee Rotationplasty Age Range male : 2 Female 11

12 Methods IRB Approval Subjects consented to participation Anthropometric data was taken Subjects were asked to ride a stationary bicycle adjusted to their measurements 3 Trials involving 3 different crank arm conditions at 75 watts of resistance and a cadence of 60 RPM Standard Crank Arm Short Fixed Crank Arm Hinged Crank Arm 12

13 Data Collection Kinematic data was collected using Peak Motion Capture System Pedal force data was collected using Piezoelectric element force pedals 13

14 Result: Rotationplasty Knee Flexion limited to 90 Hinged Crank Arm is the only modification that will accommodate the limitation 14

15 Results: Work Asymmetry Work Asymmetry Asymmetry 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Standard Short Fixed Hinged -10% -20% Amputee Subject Mean Intact p 0.05 No significance for these trials 15

16 Results: Force Asymmetry Force Asymmetry 50% 40% 30% Asymmetry 20% 10% 0% Standard Short Fixed Hinged -10% Amputee Mean Intact -20% Subjects p 0.05 No significance for these trials 16

17 Discussion: Work Asymmetry p 0.05 No significance for these trials Closer to zero means that legs shared the load More asymmetry means the dominant leg is more likely to fatigue 17

18 Discussion: Force Asymmetry Some asymmetries may be the norm (Sanderson, 1990) Consequences in performance 10% Asymmetry norm for intact subjects (Childers, in review) p 0.05 No significance for these trials 18

19 Conclusion-esque No statistical significance = No real conclusions Hypothesis was rejected for intact subjects Hinge Crank Arm as a more complex crank system showed less asymmetry than rigid fixed systems Amputated subject could not be determined Only accomplished one condition 19

20 Clinical Relevance Cycling is a valuable Rehabilitation tool Impact mobility, activity, and participation Improve quality of life Social Development Typical Childhood Using a bike modification would allow those with limitations to utilize cycling as a form of exercise and rehabilitation. 20

21 Limitations Limited subjects 5 subjects Only 1 subject with a rotationplasty fit the criteria 21

22 Future Studies Comparing compensation strategies: Standing pedaling Hip-hiking Hinged Crank Arm Provide insight Benefits of each strategy How someone chooses a certain strategy 22

23 Acknowledgements Lee Childers (Likened to the Norse God Odin, who did smote the Danish Army at the Battle of Lena in 1208) Rob Kistenberg Geza Kogler Rob MacDonald Classmates Subjects 23

24 References 1. Neumann Donald A., Kinesiology of the Musculoskeletal System: Foundations for Physical Rehabilitation. Mosby Kendall, Florence P. Muscles Testing and Function with Posture and Pain. 5 th ed. Lippencott Williams & Williams Atlas of Amputations and Limb Deficiencies: Surgical, Prosthetic and Rehabilitation Principles. 3 rd ed. AAOS ACSM s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 7 th ed. Lippincott Williams & Williams Mead, Daniel, BS, Development of a Hinged Crank Arm to Allow a Subject with Limited Knee Flexion to Ride a Bicycle, JPO (2005) Vol. 17, Num. 1 pp Sanderson, D.J., The influence of cadence and power output on the biomechanics of force application during steady-rate cycling in competitive and recreational cyclists. Journal of Sport Sciences 9, 191} Cavanagh, P.R., Petak, K.L., Shapiro, R., Daly, D., Bilateral asymmetry in work output during cycling ergometer pedaling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 6, 80} Daly, D.J., Cavanagh, P.R., Asymmetry in bicycle ergometer pedaling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 8, 204} Childers, W. Lee; Kistenberg, Robert S;. Gregor, Robert J. The biomechanics of Cycling with a transtibial amputation: Recommendations for prosthetic design and direction for the future research. Prosthetics and Orthotics International, 33:3, Childers, W. Lee; Kistenberg, Robert S;. Gregor, Robert J. Pedaling Asymmetries in Cyclists with Unilateral Transtibial Amputation: Effect of Prosthetic Foot Stiffness. Journal of Applied Biomechanics (in review.) 24

25 Questions? 25

26 More on Asymmetry (Sanderson, 1990) Work Asymmetry more pronounced at lower power outputs and increases with increased cadence. (Sanderson, 1990) Some asymmetry is to be expected due to differences in anatomy, strength, and handedness, as well as differences in independent control. Daly and Cavanagh, 1976 Asymmetry in work output is typical of cycle ergometer pedalling. 26

27 Crank Cycle Top Forward Force Prepare for Power Phase Power Produce power to overcome force of pedal and lift contra-lateral leg in recovery Bottom Inertia moves limb rather that muscle activation Recovery Negative power (Absorbed) Pedal clears the bottom and ascends back toward top dead center (TDC) 27

28 Calculate Speed X Front Chain Ring Teeth/ Sprocket Teeth= MPH Shan, RPM = 20 MPH 60 RPM = 12 MPH 28

29 Clipless Pedal v Clipped Pedal clipless-road-bike-pedals-w-cleats.html 29

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