The resolution also calls on States to become parties, as soon as possible, to the relevant international counter-terrorism legal instruments.

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2 Committee: Counter Terrorism Committee (CTC) Topic: Mexican Drug Cartels Written by: Valeria Jiménez I. Committee Background The Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) was established by Security Council resolution 1373 (2001), which was adopted unanimously on 28 September 2001 in the wake of the 11 September terrorist attacks in the United States. The Committee, comprising all 15 Security Council members, was tasked with monitoring implementation of resolution 1373 (2001), which requested countries to implement a number of measures intended to enhance their legal and institutional ability to counter terrorist activities at home, in their regions and around the world, including taking steps to: Criminalize the financing of terrorism, freeze without delay any funds related to persons involved in acts of terrorism, deny all forms of financial support for terrorist groups, suppress the provision of safe haven, sustenance or support for terrorists, share information with other governments on any groups practicing or planning terrorist acts, cooperate with other governments in the investigation, detection, arrest, extradition and prosecution of those involved in such acts, and criminalize active and passive assistance for terrorism in domestic law and bring violators to justice. The resolution also calls on States to become parties, as soon as possible, to the relevant international counter-terrorism legal instruments. In September 2005, the Security Council adopted resolution 1624 (2005) on incitement to commit acts of terrorism, calling on UN Member States to prohibit it by law, prevent such conduct and deny safe haven to anyone "with respect to whom there is credible and relevant information giving serious reasons for considering that they have been guilty of such conduct." The resolution also called on States to continue international efforts to enhance dialogue and broaden understanding among civilizations.

3 II. Topic information A) History of Topic A drug is any chemical you take that affects the way your body works. A drug must be able to pass from your body into your brain. Once inside your brain, drugs can change the messages your brain cells are sending to each other, and to the rest of your body. They do this by interfering with your brain's own chemical signals: neurotransmitters that transfer signals across synapses. Drugs are chemicals. Different drugs, because of their chemical structures, can affect the body in different ways. In fact, some drugs can even change a person's body and brain in ways that last long after the person has stopped taking drugs, maybe even permanently. Depending on the drug, it can enter the human body in a number of ways, including injection, inhalation, and ingestion. The method of how it enters the body impacts on how the drug affects the person. For example: injection takes the drug directly into the bloodstream, providing more immediate effects; while ingestion requires the drug to pass through the digestive system, delaying the effects. Most abused drugs directly or indirectly target the brain's reward system by flooding the circuit with dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter present in regions of the brain that regulate movement, emotion, cognition, motivation, and feelings of pleasure. When drugs enter the brain, they can actually change how the brain performs its jobs. These changes are what lead to compulsive drug use, the hallmark of addiction. What is considered a drug cartel may vary wildly and can include everything from street gangs to traditional mafia groups to loosely affiliated individual dealers. However, a drug cartel is generally defined as any organization that promotes, controls, or is significantly involved in drug trafficking. In recent decades, fear of these groups has had a large impact on the law and law enforcement. Weak judicial and police institutions, as well as proximity to the world's largest consumer economy, have made Mexico the hub of one of the world's most sophisticated drug networks. For decades, drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) used Mexico's entrenched political system to create "a system-wide network of corruption that ensured distribution rights, market access, and even official government

4 protection for drug traffickers in exchange for lucrative bribes," writes David Shirk, director of the Justice in Mexico project at the University of San Diego, in a 2011 CFR report. However, it was not until the late 1980s, in the wake of the successful dismantling of Colombia's drug cartels, that Mexican drug organizations rose to their current prominence. As the Colombian route was disrupted, Mexican gangs shifted from being couriers for Colombia to being wholesalers. Mexico's drug cartels have splintered, forged alliances, battled one another for territory, and evolved over the decades. Some of the most prominent organizations today include the Zetas, Sinaloa Cartel, Juarez Cartel, Tijuana Cartel, Beltran Leyva, and the Knights Templar. Some of these groups, like Sinaloa, are older, more established organizations, while others, like the Knights Templar, have emerged more recently. B) Current Issues Despite eight years of violence spanning two Mexican presidential administrations, the country's drug war has continued with few signs that Mexico's drug cartels are waning in power. Formally launched in December 2006 by former President Felipe Calderon and then continued under his successor, Enrique Pena Nieto, the drug war struck a series of high profile blows against Mexican cartels. At the same time, it triggered nationwide violence without coming anywhere close to defeating the country's drug traffickers. The notorious Mexican drug lord Joaquin El Chapo Guzman has been arrested after his scandalous prison break last year, the Mexican president announced, praising the success of a months-long criminal and intelligence investigation. Mexico has been struggling with drug production and drug transit through its territory from South America to the U.S. for many decades, given the fact that it is the most important transit country for drug production originating from South America. In recent years, the escalating violence in Mexico has led to dramatic deterioration of the security situation. Recent wave of drug-war violence is associated with the beginning of the term of President Felipe Calderón in December The immediate implications of his assumption of the presidency and his hardline policy, which he has

5 applied against drug cartels and organized criminal groups across the country, where the deployment of Mexican army to fight cartels and the gradual weakening of the influence of local and state police at the expense of federal troops. This was done in order to combat corruption and collaboration of local law-enforcement institutions with drug trafficking organizations (DTOs). The consequence of such a policy, however, has been increased violence among rival cartels and between them and the federal police and military, resulting in a dramatic increase of the number of victims. As time has progressed, places that were once free of drug violence have begun to see gory public executions. One of those places is Mexico City. In November, as previously reported by Breitbart Texas, cartel-tied gangs hung bodies from a bridge. The violence has also taken over the once tranquil state of Guerrero which was at one time a tourist destination with its resort town of Acapulco. The kidnapping and likely execution of 43 education students at the hands of cartel members and corrupt police officers has resulted in the uncovering of multiple mass graves in Guerrero. As Breitbart Texas reported, this points to an even deeper wave of cartel violence that the government has not acknowledged and continues to deny. C) UN Action 25 February UNODC's work covers some of today's most pressing concerns: from drug abuse prevention, drug dependence treatment and criminal justice reform; to tackling organized crime and terrorism; through to addressing corruption and economic crime. However, responding to ever-growing needs in assisting countries across the globe to counter these threats requires stable resources. With this in mind, UNODC has launched its inaugural Annual Funding Appeal: a comprehensive overview of the Office's current and future programs which provides a specific breakdown of our funding needs. The launch of the Annual Appeal in 2016 also coincides with a crucial year for UNODC, following the start of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development which is expected to frame the Office's work for the next 15 years and beyond. For UNODC, the 2030 Agenda is particularly important as it draws together the strands of peace and security, the rule of law, human rights and development into a comprehensive framework, with the Office's mandates reflected in many of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

6 III. Conclusion Mexican drug cartels can affect the whole world, however the most affected countries are the United States of America and the South American countries close to the Mexican borders. Delegates it is your duty to find a solution to help these countries so that this problem doesn t spread more and to help all the Mexicans that are being violently harmed by this people involved in the Mexican drug cartels. IV. Essential Questions 1. How is your country affected by this issue? 2. What are drugs? 3. What are drug cartels? 4. How has this problem affected the world? 5. How has your country cooperated to solve this issue? 6. Which countries are the most affected by the Mexican cartels?

7 V. References Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Web. 09 Feb "2015: Another Year of Mexican Cartel Violence and Government Corruption." Breitbart News. 27 Dec Web. 28 Feb Bender, Jeremy. "Mexico's Drug War Is Getting Even Worse." Business Insider. Business Insider, Inc, 14 May Web. 09 Feb "Drug Cartel War as the Major Security Challenge in the US-Mexican Relations." Centre for European and North Atlantic Affairs Analysis RSS. Web. 28 Feb "Drug Cartels and Organized Crime." Findlaw. Web. 09 Feb "Effects of Drug Abuse and Addiction." Effects of Drug Abuse and Addiction. Web. 09 Feb "Who Am I?" What Is a Drug? Web. 09 Feb "A Look at the Mexican Drug Cartel Pipeline from Southern California to Kentucky." A Look at the Mexican Drug Cartel Pipeline from Southern Califor. Web. 09 Feb

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