Assessment: From Republic to Empire

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1 Name Date Mastering the Content Circle the letter next to the best answer. Assessment: From Republic to Empire 1. Which of the following did Rome do during the first period of expansion, before 264 B.C.E.? A. surrender to Etruscans B. conquer most of Europe C. expand into North Africa D. take over the Italian peninsula 2. Why did most of the city of Rome burn down in 390 B.C.E.? A. It was set on fire during a civil war. B. It was attacked by Gauls. C. Romans destroyed it to unite the Latins. D. Hill tribes threw flaming torches into it. 3. How did Rome s expansion affect the plebeians? A. The plebeians got more land. B. The plebeians got more slaves. C. More plebeians had to serve in the army. D. More plebeians had to establish colonies. 4. What made the dictator Cincinnatus a hero of the Roman Republic? A. He chose to give up his power. B. He built roads from city to city. C. He won the support of the army. D. He conquered neighboring lands. 5. A city conquered by Rome might become a Roman ally. What was a disadvantage for the conquered city? A. It had to pay Roman taxes. B. Its citizens were taken to Rome. C. Its people became Roman citizens. D. It was allowed to trade with Rome. 6. During the Punic Wars in Rome s second period of expansion, Rome s main enemy was A. mainland Greece. B. the Egyptian pharaoh. C. a city-state in North Africa. D. a nomadic tribe in Europe. 7. Which issue first led to war between Rome and Carthage? A. the ability to get wheat from Egypt B. the right to start colonies in Spain C. the use of chariots in warfare D. control of trade in the Mediterranean

2 8. How did the Romans build a strong navy? A. They drew on ancient Latin traditions. B. They copied ship designs from Carthage. C. They were influenced by Etruscan culture. D. They adopted ideas from Greek settlers in Italy. 9. How did the general Hannibal surprise the Romans? A. He burned their city to the ground. B. He crossed the Alps with elephants. C. He attacked their ships in the harbor. D. He hired spies to pretend to be citizens. 10. Look at the map. Rome gained this territory as a result of A. the Punic Wars. B. conquering the Gauls. C. defeating the Greek navy. D. victory over the Egyptians. 11. How did taking prisoners as slaves lead to unemployment? A. Roman citizens were not allowed to keep slaves. B. People who supported slave revolts lost their jobs. C. Landowners put slaves to work instead of paying free workers. D. Soldiers who captured slaves were released from the army.

3 12. How did expansion make civil wars larger and more harmful? A. Rome adopted other cultures. B. New technology was invented. C. Romans moved to distant lands. D. Powerful generals led big armies. 13. What was one cause of the end of the Roman Republic? A. Rome built long roads. B. Caesar defeated Pompey. C. Spartacus freed the slaves. D. Rome set up new colonies. 14. The people who murdered Julius Caesar wanted to give power back to the Senate. Instead, their action began A. a civil war. B. an era of trade. C. the Punic Wars. D. Rome's expansion. 15. How did Octavian become Rome s first emperor, Caesar Augustus? A. He was crowned by Julius Caesar. B. He was elected by the people. C. He defeated his rivals in battle. D. He married Cleopatra of Egypt. 16. How did the Praetorian Guard cause problems for the emperors? A. Although they took part in parades, they had few military skills. B. Although its members were farmers, they also liked to fight. C. Although they were stationed in Spain, they sometimes marched into Italy. D. Although their job was to protect the emperor, sometimes they plotted against him.

4 Applying Social Studies Skills Use the map and your knowledge of history to complete the sentences. 17. A ship carrying goods from Carthage to Greece might stop at the island of 18. Natural barriers limited Roman expansion to the north and south. a. A natural barrier to the north was b. A natural barrier to the south was 19. Travelers from Rome to Britain might go either by land or by sea. a. A land route on Roman roads would cross and. b. A sea route would follow the coasts of and. c. A trader traveling between Rome and Britain would be more likely to travel by because

5 Exploring the Essential Question: Did the benefits of Roman expansion outweigh the costs? For each period of Roman expansion, think of some benefits and costs. Some examples from different periods are listed below. You may think of others. 20. For each period, if you think expansion mostly harmed Romans, on the spectrum mark an X toward the left. If it mostly helped, mark your X toward the right. An X in the middle means you think that the costs and benefits were about the same. Then, write a brief explanation of your rating. First period of expansion, B.C.E. Second period of expansion, B.C.E. Third period of expansion, B.C.E. Fourth period of expansion, 44 B.C.E. 14 C.E.

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