Daily Writing Time for first grade

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1 Welcome Back, Superkids Daily Writing Time Unit 1, Review Lesson 1 Reproducible Page 2011 by Rowland Reading Foundation Name: Directions: Have children write a title in the box at the top and list items in the large boxes below. They can write numbers, bullets, check marks, or other symbols in the small boxes on the left. Adventures of the Superkids Daily Writing Time List Template Superkids Reading Program How to Teach Daily Writing Time CONTENTS: Daily Writing Time for first grade...1 Daily Writing Time content and organization...2 Teaching Daily Writing Time lessons...2 Conferencing about writing....5 Differentiating writing instruction...6 Assessing students writing... 8 Daily Writing Time for first grade Teaching children how to express their ideas effectively in writing is an important goal of the Superkids Reading Program. In your Teacher s Guides for the first-grade levels of the program, you ll find writing instruction integrated in two to three lessons per unit. While this amount of instruction may be just right for you and your students, some Superkids teachers have requested more lessons to support daily writing instruction. In response, we are offering online Daily Writing Time lessons as an exciting free addition to the firstgrade program. The set includes one writing lesson for each day of Superkids instruction, starting with the Welcome Back, Superkids review at the beginning of the school year. You can view the lessons and supporting materials online and print them out for reference. It s your choice whether to teach the writing instruction that s integrated in the Teacher s Guides or the new Daily Writing Time lessons available online. Both sets of lessons provide explicit writing instruction with teacher modeling, followed by focused assignments that give children lots of practice writing. However, each set has its own sequence of instruction that builds from lesson to lesson. Because of this, it s better to teach from one of the sets of lessons rather than switching back and forth between the two. Choose the instruction in the Teacher s Guides if teaching writing two to three times per unit is the best fit for your schedule and students instructional needs. This writing instruction is designed to fit into the 90 minutes that you teach the Superkids program each day. Choose the new online Daily Writing Time lessons if you want to provide your students with expressive writing instruction and practice every day. For this instruction, you need to set aside 30 to 40 minutes each day, in addition to the 90 minutes for teaching the rest of the Superkids program. Sample Daily Writing Time Lessons REVIEW LESSON 1 Drawing and labeling a self-portrait Materials: Use Writing Master 1 and a poster-sized piece of colored paper. Preparation: Copy Writing Master 1 and cut apart the potrait boxes so that you have one for each child. Instruction and modeling Introduce Daily Writing Time. Tell children that Daily Writing Time will usually begin with a short writing lesson and then they ll practice writing their own ideas. Have them discuss why being able to write what they re thinking about is an important skill, as important as reading, speaking, and listening. (It s another way for us to share thoughts, ideas, stories, and information with each Teacher example other.) Point out that at the beginning of a new school year, writing and drawing can help them tell about themselves and get to know each other better. Model how to draw and label a self-portrait. Display one of the portrait boxes cut apart from Writing Master 1. Explain that in the box you ll draw a picture to show what you look like and what you like to do. As you draw, describe what you re doing. For example, explain that you are drawing yourself in a garden because you love gardening. Point out that your drawing fills up a lot of the space on the page and is big enough for others to see it easily. When you finish, ask children what you should write on the handwriting lines so everyone will know the picture is about you. (your name) Say your name and then say each letter as you write it. LESSON 147 Making a list of things you ve done Help children generate ideas. Have children discuss what they Focus on Mechanics: After like to do for fun. As needed, prompt them to think about games or writing your title and name, sports they play, things they like to make or build, and subjects they Materials: Use chart paper and the List Template. point out that titles, such as enjoy learning about. Ms., Mrs., and Mr., and the exact names of people and Practice and application pets always begin with a capital Pleasant s Pointers letter. Remind children that Have children draw and In label this lesson, their own children self-portraits. use the List Give Template each to make their own first and last names child a portrait box cut apart lists. Important from Writing concepts Master about 1. Tell making children lists to are taught in begin Review with capital letters. draw a picture in the box Lessons to show 6 and what 7 they in Welcome look like Back, and Superkids something Daily Writing Time. they like to do. Have them Be sure write children their first understand name as best these as concepts they can before you ask them on the handwriting lines to below write their box. own Remind lists them this lesson. to begin You their can view, display, and name with a capital letter. print the List Template and any other writing master using the links in the teacher portal for the Daily Writing Time materials. Example of shared list Instruction and modeling We Did It Welcome Back, Superkids Daily Explain Writing the Time key concept. Remind children that yesterday they told walked in the woods 2011 by Rowland Reading Foundation. stories All about rights reserved. things they ve done. Point out that UNIT any story 1: REVIEW they can LESSON baked 1 1 a cake tell, they can also write and that writers often write about things learned to ride a bike they ve done. Ask children if they ve done things they can write stories about. (Yes!) Explain that by making a list of things they ve done, played in a soccer game they will have lots of ideas for stories they can write. visited my grandma went shopping Help children make a shared list. At the top of a piece of chart paper, write the title We Did It, saying the words aloud as you write. Tell children you will make a list of fun or interesting things that individuals in this class have done. Begin by listing the event you described in your story during Lesson 146. Say the words aloud as you Keep your list for Lesson 155. write them. Point out that what you ve written is not the whole story, but just enough words to remind you of the story you might want to write. Have children name things they ve done recently, including things that they talked about yesterday or other things they think of now. List five or six of the events they name, saying the words aloud as you write. After listing each event, have children discuss whether they have or would like to do what their classmate did. Read the whole list aloud when it s complete. Practice and application Have children write their own lists of things they ve done. Distribute copies of the List Template. Tell children to write the title I Did It in the top box and list in the other boxes different things they ve done. Remind them that they don t have to write complete sentences on a list they just need to get down enough words or pictures to help them remember things they ve done. Children can turn to their Adventures of the Superkids Daily Writing Time UNIT 1: LESSON Reproducible Page 2011 by Rowland Reading Foundation HOW TO TEACH DAILY WRITING TIME 1

2 Daily Writing Time content and organization The Daily Writing Time lessons will provide what you need to teach your first graders important writing skills and help them grow as writers throughout the school year. The writing instruction is organized into units with the same number of lessons as in the first-grade levels of the Superkids Reading Program, starting with Welcome Back, Superkids and continuing through More Adventures of the Superkids. Each Daily Writing Time unit focuses on one type of writing: narrative, informative, opinion, descriptive, or correspondence. Lessons teach skills appropriate for the type of writing that s the focus of the unit and children practice writing several pieces of that type. For example in an early unit on narrative writing, children write stories about things they ve done. In a later unit on informative writing, they write a how-to book. Narrative, informative, and opinion writing are each taught four times in different units spread out throughout the school year. Descriptive writing and correspondence are each taught in two units. Each time children come back to a type of writing, they learn a little bit more to help them develop their writing further. The writing process is introduced at the end of the first semester and then practiced throughout the second semester. See the Sequence of Instruction for Daily Writing Time to find out the focus and key objectives for every unit. Each unit has an overview chart that shows the student objectives for each lesson in the unit. Teaching Daily Writing Time lessons The Daily Writing Time lessons are designed to fit into a 30 to 40 minute writing period each day. At the beginning of a unit, take time to skim the lessons so you get a sense for how the instruction develops day to day. As you teach the unit, you may need to adjust the pace of your instruction to meet the needs of your students. This may mean you don t get through all the lessons in some units. Just be aware that some lessons, particularly those at the beginning of a unit, build on each other and should be taught in sequence. A typical Daily Writing Time lesson includes these three parts: 1 Instruction and modeling (5 to 10 minutes) A lesson usually begins by having you explain the lesson s key concepts to your students, using the child-friendly language provided. Then you teach the writing skill or skills that are the focus of the lesson, often using a think-aloud and modeling to show the process of writing in action. Sequence of Instruction for Daily Writing Time These charts provide a big picture overview of the writing instruction for the online Daily Writing Time lessons. Instruction for other language arts skills (spelling, grammar, usage, mechanics, listening, and speaking) are integrated in these writing lessons and also the core Superkids program for first grade. Review: Welcome Back, Superkids Unit Title Writing type Key writing objective 1 Name it Labels Draw pictures and write labels to tell about people and things. 2 List it Lists Write lists that focus on a topic. Express an idea Sentences Write complete sentences that begin with a capital letter and end 3 with an end mark. Level 3: Adventures of the Superkids Unit Title Writing type Key writing objective Narrative sentences in length) about I did it Write stories (a few things you ve done 1 and times you ve felt happy, mad, sad, or scared. Ask and answer Informative Write questions to show what you want to know. Write answers to 2 show what you ve learned. What happened Narrative Write stories (a few sentences in length) about a sequence of 3 next events. 4 What I like and why Opinion Write opinions and give reasons for them. 5 Describe it Descriptive Write descriptions using observation skills and imagination. 6 Get the facts Informative Write recalled or researched facts about a topic. What I think and Opinion Write opinions and give reasons and examples to explain your 7 why thinking. 8 To and from Correspondence Write notes, letters, and messages to correspond with others. 9 Stories about Narrative Use the writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish me 10 personal narratives. Level 4: More Adventures of the Superkids Unit Title Writing type Key writing objective 1 How to do it Informative Use the writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish 2 how-to instructions. 3 My review Opinion Write a review of a book or story you ve read. Describe it vividly Descriptive Use precise words and details to describe people, places, and things 4 in prose and poetry. 5 All about it Informative Use the writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish 6 informational texts. 7 Imagined story Narrative Use the writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish 8 imagined (fictional) stories. 9 Reflections Opinion Write different types of texts to share your thoughts and opinions 10 about the school year. Sample lesson page 1 LESSON 150 Adding to your picture and words Materials: Use your model and children s stories from Lessons Instruction and modeling Explain the key concept. Remind children that in the last lesson, they wrote stories about something they did. Ask if any of them finished their story. (Some should answer yes. If not, you may want to give children more time to write before teaching the lesson.) Point out that when writers think they are done, they often look over their work and decide whether they should add anything more to their picture or words. Adding to a story can make it better. Model how to add a little more to a story. Display your story from Lessons and remind children what you wrote about. Point out that you thought you were done with the story, but now you think there are other parts you can show and tell. Describe how you decide what to add and model how to make the additions. For example: My picture shows the ducks I fed at the park, but it doesn t show where I saw them. They were by the pond, under a big tree. (Draw a pond and a tree.) Maybe I can add another sentence. (Read aloud the sentences you wrote before.) You know, the ducks quacked a lot when I fed them. I could add a sentence to tell about that. (Write a sentence, saying the words as you write.) Have children discuss how the additions to your picture and words make your story better. If needed, point out that what you added helps readers understand more about what happened. Help children generate ideas for adding to a story. Tell children that whenever they think they are done writing a story you d like them to stop and ask themselves if they can add anything to their picture or words. Have children look over the story they wrote and then discuss with a partner what they could draw or write to tell more of the story. Talking through an idea with a partner before writing sparks children s thinking and helps them organize their thoughts. Teacher example from previous lesson I went to the park. I fed the ducks. Teacher example revised in this lesson I went to the park. I fed the ducks. The ducks quacked and quacked. Keep your model to use again in Lesson 152. Adventures of the Superkids Daily Writing Time UNIT 1: LESSON HOW TO TEACH DAILY WRITING TIME 2

3 With a think-aloud, you verbalize how a good writer thinks about her ideas and makes decisions before putting words down on paper. This helps children understand the kind of thinking they should do before they write. The Daily Writing Time lessons give examples of think-alouds to share with students. To make the think-alouds believable, put the ideas into your own words and add your own thoughts about how you might write something. To model how to write something, you say what you re going to write, one idea or sentence at a time. Then you say each word as you write it on chart paper, the board, or an overhead transparency. Lessons include examples of what a teacher might write when modeling. Sometimes you can copy the example, but most often you ll want to use your own words in your model so that the writing is more authentic and sounds like it s coming from you. For example, if you re teaching children how they can write stories about themselves, you should model by writing a story that s about you. Sharing your writing about things that are important and meaningful to you will encourage children to write about things that are important and meaningful to them. In your models, try to write at or just above the level of an average first grader s writing (minus the errors in mechanics and spelling) so that the writing task seems within children s reach. The instruction and modeling part of the lesson typically concludes with a discussion to help children generate ideas before they begin writing on their own. Talking and listening to others talk about a writing topic helps children flesh out their ideas and think of new ones. You can generate ideas with the whole group together, but often it s better for children to talk with a partner. With a partner, children are able to exchange more ideas back and forth than they can when they must wait for a turn to share an idea with the class. 2 Practice and application (10 to 20 minutes) During the second part of a Daily Writing Time lesson, children practice and apply the skill you just modeled. Children need lots and lots of practice to become proficient writers, so practice time should be the longest part of your lesson each day. At the beginning of the school year, children may not be capable of writing for much longer than 10 minutes at a time. As their stamina increases, gradually build up to having them write for about 20 minutes at a time. In some lessons, children practice writing by doing an activity together in small groups or with partners. But most often, children write independently, producing their own version of the same kind of product you modeled how to write. As they work, your active involvement is essential to ensure they stay on task and do the best Focus on Grammar, Usage, or Mechanics: In some lessons, you ll find a text box like this one in the sidebar. The text explains how you can take advantage of a teachable moment to introduce or review a grammar, usage, or mechanics concept related to the writing assignment for the day. The instruction is optional to teach if time permits and you feel your students will benefit from it. Sample lesson page 2 Practice and application Have children add to their story about something they did. Tell them to draw something else in their picture and write a few words or another sentence to tell more of the story. Circulate and help children as needed. Some children may have difficulty figuring out what more to draw and write. Help them choose a few small details to add. Pleasant s Pointers Some children will finish their writing assignments quickly and then not know what to do next. The goal of this lesson is to get children into the habit of asking themselves if they are really done or if they can add more. Most often, they will find something more to draw or write and this will keep them working. At this point, the details they add may simply tell more rather than clarify key ideas. That s okay. They ll learn how to revise their writing to make ideas clearer in a later unit. Sharing Have a few children take their turn sharing their stories. You can also ask children to tell about what they added to their story and why they decided to make those additions. Have the class discuss how the changes made the story better. Focus on Grammar: Point out to children that when they write stories about themselves, they will need to use the pronoun I and sometimes my. Remind them that I and my are two of their new Memory Words, so they should spell these pronouns correctly in their stories. Ask what else they should remember to do when writing the pronoun I. (use a capital letter) Adventures of the Superkids Daily Writing Time UNIT 1: LESSON HOW TO TEACH DAILY WRITING TIME 3

4 writing that they can. Circulate the room and provide individual instruction and encouragement as needed. Some children may need help deciding what to write, while others may need help turning their ideas into written sentences. See the section on differentiating instruction for more about how to meet children s individual needs. As the school year progresses, children may be able to keep going with their writing for longer periods without needing much guidance. At that point, you may want to start having one-on-one conferences with children rather than circulating the entire time they re writing. Providing a child with your undivided attention and individualized instruction during a conference is one of the best ways to help the child grow as a writer. See the section on conferencing for more information about what to do in a writing conference. 3 Sharing (5 to 10 minutes) Daily Writing Time lessons end by having a few children share their writing with the class. Children share by showing their drawings and reading aloud or telling about what they ve written. You can also ask them to tell about aspects of their writing process, such as how they came up with an idea or figured out how to end a piece. After a child shares, classmates should be encouraged to ask questions to help them understand better or find out more. You should give positive feedback, but you can also offer a suggestion for how to improve or add to the writing, especially if this instruction may benefit the whole class. Getting feedback on their writing and listening to what their classmates have written helps develop and inspire children as writers. Since only a few children will be able to share at the end of a lesson, you should have a process for determining who will share each day. For example you can pull a few names randomly from a jar each day or establish a rotation that gives children their turn in the same order. Keep track so that each child gets a turn to share every week or so. You can occasionally break from your normal sharing procedure to call on a particular child to share. For instance, a child may have made a decision or solved a problem in his writing that the rest of the class should hear because it could help them with their own writing. Reader s Response for a Reader story In Daily Writing Time lessons that coincide with Story Lessons in your Teacher s Guides, you ll find a box with a reader s response prompt. The prompts ask children to draw and write on a topic related to a Reader story they just read, helping them make connections with the text. Children can do this writing during Daily Writing Time or independent work time. HOW TO TEACH DAILY WRITING TIME 4

5 Conferencing about writing Purpose of conferencing Writing conferences are one of the most effective ways to provide children with the individualized instruction they need to make progress in their writing. A conference is a one-on-one discussion with a child about a piece of writing he s working on or has just finished. The goal is not to perfect the piece of writing, but to encourage and develop the student as a writer. How to conference To begin a conference, have the child tell about his picture, if there is one, and read aloud any words he wrote. (If the child did not write many words or used lots of temporary spelling, you may want to transcribe what he said or wrote so that you can remember later what he was trying to express in his writing.) Ask questions to show your interest in the ideas and give positive feedback about the work. Then provide explicit instruction that focuses on just one aspect of the child s writing. For example, you may want to work with the child on content by helping him elaborate and put more of his ideas down on paper. Or you might want to teach or review a strategy for writing better, such as combining sentences with and or providing a sense of closure. When children are using the steps of the writing process, then your conferences should focus on helping them revise and edit their work, since most first graders are not able to do these steps without support. Select a sentence or two that the child can revise to improve clarity. Pick a few spelling or mechanical errors for the child to correct. Then quickly fix other mechanical errors yourself while explaining what you are doing. This way editing won t overshadow the more important goal for children, which is to express their ideas. End the conference by discussing next steps or goals with the child. For example, if you taught the child a new strategy, let him know you expect him to try using the strategy the next time he writes. Give the child a chance to tell about any difficulties he had and how he might overcome them next time. When to conference Each day during Daily Writing Time, you can conference with a few children one at a time while the rest of the class works on their writing assignment. Be aware that conferencing with children individually will make you unavailable to circulate and help children with problems that come up as they write. For this reason, you may want to hold off on conferencing until a point in the school year when most of your students can write independently for at least ten minutes at a time. When you do start conferencing, try to meet with each child once a week or so. HOW TO TEACH DAILY WRITING TIME 5

6 Keeping records As you conference with a child or soon after, you should jot down a few notes so you remember who you met with, when, and what you discussed together. You can use the Conferencing Record Forms provided or devise your own system for keeping notes. Reviewing your conference notes can help you monitor children s individual strengths and weaknesses and plan individualized instruction. You may also spot difficulties that you can address by reteaching certain skills to several students or the whole class. See the section on assessment for more information about tools to help identify your students instructional needs. Daily Writing Time Class Conferencing Form Each time you conference with a child about his or her writing, list a date next to the child s name. You can summarize the discussion in the Student Conferencing Form. Students names Date Date Date Date Date Date Date Date Student s Name Daily Writing Time Student Conferencing Form After conferencing with a child about his or her writing, summarize the discussion in the space below and list any goals describing things the child will work on improving. See How to Teach Daily Writing Time for more information about conferencing with children. Differentiating writing instruction Keep in mind that children s writing skills can develop at very different paces. You may have some students who struggle to write a few words and others who are capable of producing chapter books. To accommodate these differences, provide individualized instruction as children work on their writing assignments and in one-on-one conferences with them. Your goal is to help each of your students make steady progress in their growth as a writer. Here are suggestions for how to give students the instructional support they may need, based on their writing abilities: Reproducible Page 2011 by Rowland Reading Foundation CLASS CONFERENCING FORM Reproducible Page 2011 by Rowland Reading Foundation STUDENT CONFERENCING FORM Below-level writers First graders who have below-level writing skills may not understand basic mechanics, such as using complete sentences. They may have trouble putting their ideas together in a way that makes sense. Or they may leave out important details so it s not clear what they re trying to say. These students will need lots of individual support as they work on writing assignments. Talk with each struggling writer about what she wants to write and help her state her first few ideas as sentences. Have the child write the sentences with you or on her own while you work with other students. Check back with the child a little while later to discuss her work. Help her recognize an incomplete sentence by asking if the sentence sounds right. Ask if a word is missing and have the child add it. If the ideas are in a confusing order, talk with the child about what should come first, next, and last. If the writing is confusing because important details are left out, ask questions that encourage the child to describe the missing details. Help her add the details to her writing. You can also provide additional instruction for struggling writers in small groups. Use modeling and think-alouds to demonstrate writing mechanics and how to turn ideas into written words. Then have the group work on a shared writing product in which they all contribute HOW TO TEACH DAILY WRITING TIME 6

7 ideas and dictate sentences for you to write on chart paper. See the expressive writing section of the Superkids Skill-Building Book for more techniques and activities to help struggling writers. On-level writers First graders with on-level writing skills will be able to express ideas in simple, complete sentences. Still, as you get to know each students writing, you ll find that your on-level writers each have individual strengths and weaknesses. Some may be able to write many good sentences, but are sloppy with mechanics. Others may have good mechanics, but need to work on organizing and thinking through their ideas better. Provide the specific instructional support each of your students needs to gradually improve their writing. Keep in mind that a child may have no problems writing one product independently, but then struggle and need more help writing another type of product. A child might also get stuck and not know how to start an assignment or what to write next. Help the child by first making sure he understands the assignment. You may want to review the model you created. Then ask the child questions to help him think about what he d like to write. When he has a few ideas, have him state them as sentences that he then writes. Check back with the child later and offer more help and encouragement as needed. Above-level writers First graders with above-level writing skills will have a good handle on mechanics and be able to organize and convey their ideas clearly in writing. They should be able to complete most writing assignments without much help from you. Many advanced writers enjoy writing and will naturally write more than is expected. Encourage them to do this, since the more they practice writing, the better they ll get at it. However, make sure they know that their goal is not to write lots and lots, but to write well. This means they need to spend time forming their ideas and then concentrate on writing those ideas clearly. Other advanced writers may write very well, but they don t love to write. They may finish writing assignments quickly, writing only as much as is required. To encourage these children as writers, let them work on writing projects of their own choice after they finish the assigned writing. Help them come up with projects that build on their interests. For example, one child might want to write a chapter book about the Superkids. Another child might like to research a topic, such as airplanes or horses, and write an informational book with labeled pictures and descriptions. See the expressive writing section of the Superkids Skill-Building Book for more activities to inspire independent writing and challenge advanced writers. HOW TO TEACH DAILY WRITING TIME 7

8 Assessing students writing Informal assessment You ll have the opportunity to observe and informally assess children s writing skills every day as you circulate and help them write during Daily Writing Time. Talking with children about their writing during one-on-one conferences is another excellent way for you to see what children do and don t understand about writing. At the end of a unit, take time to review the pieces each child wrote. The Daily Writing Time rubric for the unit can help you evaluate children s work. Each rubric lists different aspects of writing and describes what they would look like in writing that exceeds, meets, or isn t meeting expectations for the unit. Your evaluations should help inform your discussions with children about their writing. For example, you can give children positive feedback about things they are doing well in their writing and help them set goals for some things to do better. Your evaluations can also help you determine if individual children or small groups need additional instruction and practice to improve aspects of their writing. You can reteach Daily Writing Time lessons that focus on the skills children need to develop further. In the Superkids Skill-Building Book, you can find teaching tips and activities to help struggling writers, strengthen proficient writers, and challenge advanced writers. Record keeping for informal assessment You can record your assessments of children s writing in any of these forms: Type of form Student Record Form Class Record Form Writing Progress Form Student Conferencing Form Class Conferencing Form What to do with it Record achievement levels* and in-depth comments about an individual student s work for a specific unit. List plans for additional instruction and practice. Record achievement levels* for the class for a specific unit. Can compare children s achievements and form small groups for additional instruction and practice. Record achievement levels* and brief comments about an individual student s work across multiple units. Summarize discussions you have with individual students about their writing and identify goals for their continuing progress. Keep track of the dates of conferences you have had with students in your class. Achievement levels: + work exceeds expectations (Advanced writers) work meets expectations (Proficient writers) work isn t meeting expectations yet (Emergent writers) HOW TO TEACH DAILY WRITING TIME 8

9 Formal assessment For periodic formal assessment of children s writing, see the Daily Writing Time assessment prompts in the teacher portal. These prompts align with the scope and sequence of the Daily Writing Time instruction, so you ll want to use them instead of the ones on the tests in your Assessment Books. Expectations for proficiency are provided for each prompt. You can record children s achievement levels on the record forms from the Assessment Books. Just cross out the writing prompts on the forms and replace them with the Daily Writing Time assessment prompts that you use. Grade-level expectations The chart below describes what proficient writing typically looks like in the primary grades. This information can help you gauge your students current writing abilities and give you an idea of how their skills might develop during the school year. Children will develop writing skills at their own pace. The goal is to support them at whatever level they are at and help them make individual progress over time. Beginning of kindergarten Ideas expressed orally and through drawings Scribble writing, possibly with some letters Basic print awareness End of kindergarten, beginning of first grade 2 4 simple sentences with drawings Some correct, some temporary, phonetic spelling Correct beginning capitalization and end punctuation most of the time Correct printing and mostly good spacing between words End of first grade, beginning of second grade 4 6 complete sentences Sentences mostly stay on topic Ideas mostly in a logical order Some details Correct beginning capitalization and end punctuation Correct printing and spacing Mostly correct spelling of Memory Words taught and grade-level words that are encodable Use the writing process with guidance End of second grade 8 12 complete sentences Sentences stay on topic, organized in paragraphs Ideas in a logical order Many details and more vivid language Correct beginning capitalization and end punctuation Mostly correct spelling of Memory Words taught and grade-level words that are encodable (Use a dictionary to correct spelling) Correct grammar most of the time Use the writing process more independently HOW TO TEACH DAILY WRITING TIME 9

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