# Exercise 4 Logical Operators & Branching

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1 Exercise 4 Logical Operators & Branching Informatik I für D-MAVT (FS 2013) Christian Schumacher

2 Agenda Branching relational operators logical expressions: and, or, not if, else if, else switch? : operator Arrays introduction argc and argv[] in main() 2

3 Relational operators Used to compare two values The whole term is called an expression (Ausdruck) The result of the comparison is either TRUE (1) or FALSE (0) Relational operators are evaluated after other arithmetic operations e.g., (1+2 < 1+3) is TRUE. int a=3, b=5; bool res; res = a < b; res = a <= b; res = a > b; res = a >= b; res = a == b; res = a!= b; //less //less or equal //greater //greater or equal //equal //not equal 3

4 Difference between = and == = is the assignment operator Changes the value of the variable on the left to the value on the right The result (meaning the value of the expression) is equal to the assignment value == is the equality operator Evaluates whether the 2 values on the left and the right are equal The result can be either TRUE or FALSE Example: int a=3, b=5; bool res; res = (a == b); // res is FALSE, because 3!=5 res = (a = b); // res is TRUE, even though 3!=5. //Also, a is set to 5! 4

5 Boolean Algebra: AND, OR, NOT AND OR NOT x AND y is TRUE if and only if both x and y are TRUE. x OR y is FALSE if and only if both x and y are FALSE. (x OR y is TRUE if either x, y or both are TRUE.) NOT x is TRUE if x is FALSE, and vice versa. 5

6 Logical Operators in C++: &&,,! Works on Boolean values (bool type) bool a = true; bool b = false; logical AND a && b == false a && a == true logical OR a b == true b b == false logical NOT!a == false!b == true 6

7 if statement if (condition) { DoSomething(); if (a==5) { cout << "a is equal to 5!\n ; If condition is TRUE, the instruction(s) inside the code block { are executed. Otherwise, if condition is FALSE, the block is jumped over. 7

8 else if statement if(firstcondition) { DoSomething(); else if(secondcondition) { DoSomethingElse(); if(a==5) { cout << "a is equal to 5!\n"; else if(a==10) { cout << "a is equal to 10!\n"; The else if -condition is only checked if the preceding condition(s) are FALSE. It states an alternative which is evaluated when the other conditions are not met. Otherwise, it behaves the same as an if statement. Many if else if else if else if... statements can be chained to form a complex program flow. 8

9 else statement if(firstcondition) { DoSomething(); else if(secondcondition) { DoSomethingElse(); else { IfEverythingElseFails(); The else code block is executed if all other conditions are FALSE. Remember: The program runs from top to bottom, line after line. After one if/else if/else block { is executed, the program jumps to the bottom of the whole if else if else statement. 9

10 switch statement switch (variable) { case 0: case 7: default: cout<< variable is 0!\n"; break; cout<< variable is 7!\n"; break; cout<< variable is???\n"; Switch statement replaces long chains of if else if... with equality comparisons Program jumps to the case corresponding to value of the variable The program jumps to default if the variable doesn t match any cases The default case is optional 10

11 switch statement 2 switch (variable) { case 1: case 3: //var. is either 1 or 3 default: DoSomething(); break; DefaultCase(); In contrary to if/else if statements, the program does not jump to the bottom after a case has been handled. This is why we need the break; command after every case that we want to treat individually. Without break, everything that follows in the same switch statement is executed until we reach another break. We don t need a break for the default case because it is placed at the bottom anyway. 11

12 Comparison: if/else and switch if (x == 1) { cout << x is 1 << endl; else if (x == 2) { cout << x is 2 << endl; else { cout << x is something else << endl; switch (x) { case 1: case 2: cout << x is 1 << endl; break; cout << x is 2 << endl; break; default: cout << x is something else << endl; if/else statement switch statement 12

13 ? : operator value = condition? valtrue : valfalse; any type (int, float, ) type bool same type as value int beardmg = isstrong? 100 : 45; string name = firstname? "Hansulrich" : "Hubschmid"; The? : operator returns the first value if the condition is TRUE, and the second value if the condition is FALSE. It can be used with any types of values. 13

14 Introduction to arrays This topic will be covered in more detail the next week! This week: Explanation for the argv variable used in the main() function. 14

15 Introduction to arrays 2 float vectora[3]; An array is a variable that holds many values of the same type Number of elements defined in square brackets [ ] The individual elements can be accessed using square brackets [ ]: vectora[0] = 3.1f; float f = vectora[1]; Arrays are zero-based: Their indices go from 0 to size-1! First element of vectora is vectora[0] Last element of vectora is vectora[2] 15

16 argc and argv in main() int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { //... argc: argument count argv: argument vector argv is an array of char * (C strings, meaning text ), as indicated by the brackets [ ] Each element of argv (argv[0], argv[1],..., argv[argc-1]) holds one program argument in text form Often converted using atof() or similar functions (see ex. 2) More on C strings next week! 16

17 argc and argv in main() 2./MyProgram Cologne index argv 0./MyProgram argc = 4; Cologne When running a program from the terminal, arguments can be passed to it like shown in the example command above. In Eclipse, use Run -> Run Configurations -> Arguments argv[0] (first element) always contains the program path and name and has no further meaning. 17

18 On the char variable type char a = 'a', b = 'b'; bool res = a < b; //TRUE A char variable usually uses 1 Byte of memory Only 256 different values (i.e., characters) can be stored Char variables are stored as numbers internally. Implications: Chars can be cast to and from other numeric data types (such as ints or floats) Integer operations and comparisons (+, -, <, >, etc.) can be used with chars

19 On the char variable type Value of a char variable represents a character Corresponding character given by ASCII table Easily found with Google Use ' ' to assign characters char a = 'G'; is identical to char a = 71;

20 Exercise hints Task 1: Keep operator priority in mind && evaluated before Task 1/5: Take a look at an ASCII table Characters 'a' to 'z' and 'A' to 'Z' form two separate intervals within the ASCII values 20

21 Exercise 2 recap Variable type affects what you read with cin int a; cin >> a; vs. float b; cin >> b; Decimal places may get lost if you use int Keep integer division in mind 9/5 is not the same as 9.0/5.0 (in C++) 21

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