Exercise 4 Logical Operators & Branching

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Exercise 4 Logical Operators & Branching"

Transcription

1 Exercise 4 Logical Operators & Branching Informatik I für D-MAVT (FS 2013) Christian Schumacher

2 Agenda Branching relational operators logical expressions: and, or, not if, else if, else switch? : operator Arrays introduction argc and argv[] in main() 2

3 Relational operators Used to compare two values The whole term is called an expression (Ausdruck) The result of the comparison is either TRUE (1) or FALSE (0) Relational operators are evaluated after other arithmetic operations e.g., (1+2 < 1+3) is TRUE. int a=3, b=5; bool res; res = a < b; res = a <= b; res = a > b; res = a >= b; res = a == b; res = a!= b; //less //less or equal //greater //greater or equal //equal //not equal 3

4 Difference between = and == = is the assignment operator Changes the value of the variable on the left to the value on the right The result (meaning the value of the expression) is equal to the assignment value == is the equality operator Evaluates whether the 2 values on the left and the right are equal The result can be either TRUE or FALSE Example: int a=3, b=5; bool res; res = (a == b); // res is FALSE, because 3!=5 res = (a = b); // res is TRUE, even though 3!=5. //Also, a is set to 5! 4

5 Boolean Algebra: AND, OR, NOT AND OR NOT x AND y is TRUE if and only if both x and y are TRUE. x OR y is FALSE if and only if both x and y are FALSE. (x OR y is TRUE if either x, y or both are TRUE.) NOT x is TRUE if x is FALSE, and vice versa. 5

6 Logical Operators in C++: &&,,! Works on Boolean values (bool type) bool a = true; bool b = false; logical AND a && b == false a && a == true logical OR a b == true b b == false logical NOT!a == false!b == true 6

7 if statement if (condition) { DoSomething(); if (a==5) { cout << "a is equal to 5!\n ; If condition is TRUE, the instruction(s) inside the code block { are executed. Otherwise, if condition is FALSE, the block is jumped over. 7

8 else if statement if(firstcondition) { DoSomething(); else if(secondcondition) { DoSomethingElse(); if(a==5) { cout << "a is equal to 5!\n"; else if(a==10) { cout << "a is equal to 10!\n"; The else if -condition is only checked if the preceding condition(s) are FALSE. It states an alternative which is evaluated when the other conditions are not met. Otherwise, it behaves the same as an if statement. Many if else if else if else if... statements can be chained to form a complex program flow. 8

9 else statement if(firstcondition) { DoSomething(); else if(secondcondition) { DoSomethingElse(); else { IfEverythingElseFails(); The else code block is executed if all other conditions are FALSE. Remember: The program runs from top to bottom, line after line. After one if/else if/else block { is executed, the program jumps to the bottom of the whole if else if else statement. 9

10 switch statement switch (variable) { case 0: case 7: default: cout<< variable is 0!\n"; break; cout<< variable is 7!\n"; break; cout<< variable is???\n"; Switch statement replaces long chains of if else if... with equality comparisons Program jumps to the case corresponding to value of the variable The program jumps to default if the variable doesn t match any cases The default case is optional 10

11 switch statement 2 switch (variable) { case 1: case 3: //var. is either 1 or 3 default: DoSomething(); break; DefaultCase(); In contrary to if/else if statements, the program does not jump to the bottom after a case has been handled. This is why we need the break; command after every case that we want to treat individually. Without break, everything that follows in the same switch statement is executed until we reach another break. We don t need a break for the default case because it is placed at the bottom anyway. 11

12 Comparison: if/else and switch if (x == 1) { cout << x is 1 << endl; else if (x == 2) { cout << x is 2 << endl; else { cout << x is something else << endl; switch (x) { case 1: case 2: cout << x is 1 << endl; break; cout << x is 2 << endl; break; default: cout << x is something else << endl; if/else statement switch statement 12

13 ? : operator value = condition? valtrue : valfalse; any type (int, float, ) type bool same type as value int beardmg = isstrong? 100 : 45; string name = firstname? "Hansulrich" : "Hubschmid"; The? : operator returns the first value if the condition is TRUE, and the second value if the condition is FALSE. It can be used with any types of values. 13

14 Introduction to arrays This topic will be covered in more detail the next week! This week: Explanation for the argv variable used in the main() function. 14

15 Introduction to arrays 2 float vectora[3]; An array is a variable that holds many values of the same type Number of elements defined in square brackets [ ] The individual elements can be accessed using square brackets [ ]: vectora[0] = 3.1f; float f = vectora[1]; Arrays are zero-based: Their indices go from 0 to size-1! First element of vectora is vectora[0] Last element of vectora is vectora[2] 15

16 argc and argv in main() int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { //... argc: argument count argv: argument vector argv is an array of char * (C strings, meaning text ), as indicated by the brackets [ ] Each element of argv (argv[0], argv[1],..., argv[argc-1]) holds one program argument in text form Often converted using atof() or similar functions (see ex. 2) More on C strings next week! 16

17 argc and argv in main() 2./MyProgram Cologne index argv 0./MyProgram argc = 4; Cologne When running a program from the terminal, arguments can be passed to it like shown in the example command above. In Eclipse, use Run -> Run Configurations -> Arguments argv[0] (first element) always contains the program path and name and has no further meaning. 17

18 On the char variable type char a = 'a', b = 'b'; bool res = a < b; //TRUE A char variable usually uses 1 Byte of memory Only 256 different values (i.e., characters) can be stored Char variables are stored as numbers internally. Implications: Chars can be cast to and from other numeric data types (such as ints or floats) Integer operations and comparisons (+, -, <, >, etc.) can be used with chars

19 On the char variable type Value of a char variable represents a character Corresponding character given by ASCII table Easily found with Google Use ' ' to assign characters char a = 'G'; is identical to char a = 71;

20 Exercise hints Task 1: Keep operator priority in mind && evaluated before Task 1/5: Take a look at an ASCII table Characters 'a' to 'z' and 'A' to 'Z' form two separate intervals within the ASCII values 20

21 Exercise 2 recap Variable type affects what you read with cin int a; cin >> a; vs. float b; cin >> b; Decimal places may get lost if you use int Keep integer division in mind 9/5 is not the same as 9.0/5.0 (in C++) 21

Exercise 4. Informatik I für D-MAVT (FS 2016) Logical Operators and Branching. M. Gross, ETH Zürich, 2016

Exercise 4. Informatik I für D-MAVT (FS 2016) Logical Operators and Branching. M. Gross, ETH Zürich, 2016 Exercise 4 Logical Operators and Branching Informatik I für D-MAVT (FS 2016) Übung 2! war gut gelöst 2 Übung 2! war gut gelöst 2 Übung 2! war gut gelöst 2 Agenda Branching Relational operators Logical

More information

Branching. We ll continue to look at the basics of writing C++ programs including. Overview

Branching. We ll continue to look at the basics of writing C++ programs including. Overview Branching Overview We ll continue to look at the basics of writing C++ programs including Boolean Expressions (need to know this before we can using branching and looping!) Branching J.S. Bradbury CSCI

More information

Final Exam Review. CS 1428 Fall Jill Seaman. Final Exam

Final Exam Review. CS 1428 Fall Jill Seaman. Final Exam Final Exam Review CS 1428 Fall 2011 Jill Seaman 1 Final Exam Friday, December 9, 11:00am to 1:30pm Derr 241 (here) Closed book, closed notes, clean desk Comprehensive (covers entire course) 25% of your

More information

Boolean Expressions, Conditions, Loops, and Enumerations. Precedence Rules (from highest to lowest priority)

Boolean Expressions, Conditions, Loops, and Enumerations. Precedence Rules (from highest to lowest priority) Boolean Expressions, Conditions, Loops, and Enumerations Relational Operators == // true if two values are equivalent!= // true if two values are not equivalent < // true if left value is less than the

More information

Name: Class: Date: 9. The compiler ignores all comments they are there strictly for the convenience of anyone reading the program.

Name: Class: Date: 9. The compiler ignores all comments they are there strictly for the convenience of anyone reading the program. Name: Class: Date: Exam #1 - Prep True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Programming is the process of writing a computer program in a language that the computer can respond to

More information

CS 101: Computer Programming and Utilizati on

CS 101: Computer Programming and Utilizati on CS 101: Computer Programming and Utilizati on Jul-Nov 2016 Bernard Menezes (cs101@cse.iitb.ac.in) Lecture 5: Conditional Execution About These Slides Based on Chapter 6 of the book An Introduction to Programming

More information

Introduction to C++ Programming

Introduction to C++ Programming Introduction to C++ Programming 1 Outline Introduction to C++ Programming A Simple Program: Printing a Line of Text Another Simple Program: Adding Two Integers Memory Concepts Arithmetic Decision Making:

More information

6.096 Lab 1. Due: 7 January 12:30:00. September 20, 2011

6.096 Lab 1. Due: 7 January 12:30:00. September 20, 2011 6.096 Lab 1 Due: 7 January 1:30:00 September 0, 011 1 Additional Material 1.1 Constants A constant is an expressions with a fixed value. Kinds of constants: Literals: used to express particular values

More information

Punctuation in C. Identifiers and Expressions. Identifiers. Variables. Keywords. Identifier Examples

Punctuation in C. Identifiers and Expressions. Identifiers. Variables. Keywords. Identifier Examples Identifiers and Expressions CSE 130: Introduction to C Programming Spring 2005 Punctuation in C Statements are terminated with a ; Groups of statements are enclosed by curly braces: { and } Commas separate

More information

Which of the following is the correct operator to compare two variables? A. := B. = C. equal D. ==

Which of the following is the correct operator to compare two variables? A. := B. = C. equal D. == Group 1 Question 1. What is the correct value to return to the operating system upon the successful completion of a program? A. -1 B. 1 C. 0 D. Programs do not return a value. Question 2. What is the only

More information

Comp151. Definitions & Declarations

Comp151. Definitions & Declarations Comp151 Definitions & Declarations Example: Definition /* reverse_printcpp */ #include #include using namespace std; int global_var = 23; // global variable definition void reverse_print(const

More information

Introduction to C Programming S Y STEMS

Introduction to C Programming S Y STEMS Introduction to C Programming CS 40: INTRODUCTION TO U NIX A ND L I NUX O P E R AT ING S Y STEMS Objectives Introduce C programming, including what it is and what it contains, which includes: Command line

More information

[Page 70 (continued)] a. are used to document a program and improve its readability. [Page 71]

[Page 70 (continued)] a. are used to document a program and improve its readability. [Page 71] [Page 70 (continued)] Exercises 2.7 Discuss the meaning of each of the following objects: a. std::cin b. std::cout 2.8 Fill in the blanks in each of the following: a. are used to document a program and

More information

Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber

Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber Chapter 3 Control Structures 1 Control structures Algorithm Development Conditional Expressions Selection Statements Repetition Statements Structuring

More information

Common Errors in C. David Chisnall. February 15, 2011

Common Errors in C. David Chisnall. February 15, 2011 Common Errors in C David Chisnall February 15, 2011 The C Preprocessor Runs before parsing Allows some metaprogramming Preprocessor Macros Are Not Functions The preprocessor performs token substitution

More information

,!7IA3C1-dcahfj!:t;K;k;K;k. Addison-Wesley s JavaScript Reference Card. Kathleen M. Goelz and Carol J. Schwartz, Rutgers University VARIABLES

,!7IA3C1-dcahfj!:t;K;k;K;k. Addison-Wesley s JavaScript Reference Card. Kathleen M. Goelz and Carol J. Schwartz, Rutgers University VARIABLES Addison-Wesley s JavaScript Reference Card Kathleen M. Goelz and Carol J. Schwartz, Rutgers University Javascript: A scripting language designed to be integrated into HTML code to produce enhanced, dynamic,

More information

Adjusted/Modified by Nicole Tobias. Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++

Adjusted/Modified by Nicole Tobias. Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Adjusted/Modified by Nicole Tobias Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with functions, special symbols, and identifiers in C++ Explore simple data types

More information

Going from Python to C

Going from Python to C Going from Python to C Darin Brezeale December 8, 2011 Python is a high-level, interpreted language. C has many of the same types of programming constructs as in Python: arrays, loops, conditionals, functions,

More information

A First Book of C++ Chapter 2 Data Types, Declarations, and Displays

A First Book of C++ Chapter 2 Data Types, Declarations, and Displays A First Book of C++ Chapter 2 Data Types, Declarations, and Displays Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: Data Types Arithmetic Operators Variables and Declarations Common Programming Errors

More information

C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition. Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++

C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition. Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with the basic components of a C++ program,

More information

Informatica e Sistemi in Tempo Reale

Informatica e Sistemi in Tempo Reale Informatica e Sistemi in Tempo Reale Introduction to C programming Giuseppe Lipari http://retis.sssup.it/~lipari Scuola Superiore Sant Anna Pisa October 25, 2010 G. Lipari (Scuola Superiore Sant Anna)

More information

Chapter 2: Problem Solving Using C++

Chapter 2: Problem Solving Using C++ Chapter 2: Problem Solving Using C++ 1 Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: Modular programs Programming style Data types Arithmetic operations Variables and declaration statements Common

More information

conditional statements

conditional statements L E S S O N S E T 4 Conditional Statements PU RPOSE PROCE DU RE 1. To work with relational operators 2. To work with conditional statements 3. To learn and use nested if statements 4. To learn and use

More information

Introduction to the C++ Programming Language

Introduction to the C++ Programming Language L E S S O N S E T 2 Introduction to the C++ Programming Language PURPOSE PROCEDURE 1. To briefly introduce the C++ programming language 2. To show the use of memory in programming 3. To introduce variables

More information

Common C Errors. Compiled by: Leela Kamalesh Yadlapalli

Common C Errors. Compiled by: Leela Kamalesh Yadlapalli Common C Errors Compiled by: Leela Kamalesh Yadlapalli This document shows some of the common errors and warnings that you may encounter during this class. Always remember to use the Wall option if you

More information

Introduction to Java

Introduction to Java Introduction to Java The HelloWorld program Primitive data types Assignment and arithmetic operations User input Conditional statements Looping Arrays CSA0011 Matthew Xuereb 2008 1 Java Overview A high

More information

OUTCOMES BASED LEARNING MATRIX

OUTCOMES BASED LEARNING MATRIX Course: CTIM371 Programming in C++ OUTCOMES BASED LEARNING MATRIX Department: Computer Technology and Information Management Course Description: This is the first course in the C++ programming language.

More information

Java Review (Essentials of Java for Hadoop)

Java Review (Essentials of Java for Hadoop) Java Review (Essentials of Java for Hadoop) Have You Joined Our LinkedIn Group? What is Java? Java JRE - Java is not just a programming language but it is a complete platform for object oriented programming.

More information

Phys4051: C Lecture 2 & 3. Comment Statements. C Data Types. Functions (Review) Comment Statements Variables & Operators Branching Instructions

Phys4051: C Lecture 2 & 3. Comment Statements. C Data Types. Functions (Review) Comment Statements Variables & Operators Branching Instructions Phys4051: C Lecture 2 & 3 Functions (Review) Comment Statements Variables & Operators Branching Instructions Comment Statements! Method 1: /* */! Method 2: // /* Single Line */ //Single Line /* This comment

More information

Tutorial 9 Income Tax Calculator Application: Introducing the switch Multiple-Selection Statement

Tutorial 9 Income Tax Calculator Application: Introducing the switch Multiple-Selection Statement Tutorial 9 Income Tax Calculator Application: Introducing the switch Multiple-Selection Statement Outline 9.1 Test-Driving the Income Tax Calculator Application 9.2 Introducing the switch Multiple-Selection

More information

Format String Vulnerability. printf ( user input );

Format String Vulnerability. printf ( user input ); Lecture Notes (Syracuse University) Format String Vulnerability: 1 Format String Vulnerability printf ( user input ); The above statement is quite common in C programs. In the lecture, we will find out

More information

BSc (Hons) Computer Science with Network Security, BSc (Hons) Business Information Systems, BSc (Hons) Mathematics & BSc (Hons) Software Engineering

BSc (Hons) Computer Science with Network Security, BSc (Hons) Business Information Systems, BSc (Hons) Mathematics & BSc (Hons) Software Engineering BSc (Hons) Computer Science with Network Security, BSc (Hons) Business Information Systems, BSc (Hons) Mathematics & BSc (Hons) Software Engineering Cohort: BCNS/07/FT- BIS/07/FT- BIS/06/FT -BM/07/FT BSE/07/FT/PT-

More information

An Incomplete C++ Primer. University of Wyoming MA 5310

An Incomplete C++ Primer. University of Wyoming MA 5310 An Incomplete C++ Primer University of Wyoming MA 5310 Professor Craig C. Douglas http://www.mgnet.org/~douglas/classes/na-sc/notes/c++primer.pdf C++ is a legacy programming language, as is other languages

More information

C++ Basics. C++ Basics: Names: Identifiers. Names: Identifiers. Display 2.1 A C++ Program (1 of 2) Display 2.1 A C++ Program (2 of 2)

C++ Basics. C++ Basics: Names: Identifiers. Names: Identifiers. Display 2.1 A C++ Program (1 of 2) Display 2.1 A C++ Program (2 of 2) C++ Basics C++ Basics: 2.1 Variables and Assignments Variables and Assignments Input and Output Data Types and Expressions Simple Flow of Control Program Style A C++ variable can hold a number or other

More information

()A Crash Course in Programming with C++ and the Ubuntu O.S. June 8, / 47

()A Crash Course in Programming with C++ and the Ubuntu O.S. June 8, / 47 A Crash Course in Programming with C++ and the Ubuntu O.S. Dr. Daniel A. Ray MCS Dept UVa-Wise June 8, 2010 ()A Crash Course in Programming with C++ and the Ubuntu O.S. June 8, 2010 1 / 47 Outline What

More information

Overview of a C Program

Overview of a C Program Overview of a C Program Programming with C CSCI 112, Spring 2015 Patrick Donnelly Montana State University Programming with C (CSCI 112) Spring 2015 2 / 42 C Language Components Preprocessor Directives

More information

Introduction to Programming

Introduction to Programming Introduction to Programming SS 2012 Adrian Kacso, Univ. Siegen adriana.dkacsoa@duni-siegena.de Tel.: 0271/740-3966, Office: H-B 8406 Stand: April 25, 2012 Betriebssysteme / verteilte Systeme Introduction

More information

Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++

Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with functions, special symbols, and identifiers in C++ Explore simple data types Discover how a program evaluates

More information

Chapter One Introduction to Programming

Chapter One Introduction to Programming Chapter One Introduction to Programming 1-1 Algorithm and Flowchart Algorithm is a step-by-step procedure for calculation. More precisely, algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of

More information

Member Functions of the istream Class

Member Functions of the istream Class Member Functions of the istream Class The extraction operator is of limited use because it always uses whitespace to delimit its reads of the input stream. It cannot be used to read those whitespace characters,

More information

Basic Java Constructs and Data Types Nuts and Bolts. Looking into Specific Differences and Enhancements in Java compared to C

Basic Java Constructs and Data Types Nuts and Bolts. Looking into Specific Differences and Enhancements in Java compared to C Basic Java Constructs and Data Types Nuts and Bolts Looking into Specific Differences and Enhancements in Java compared to C 1 Contents Hello World Program Statements Explained Java Program Structure in

More information

Sources: On the Web: Slides will be available on:

Sources: On the Web: Slides will be available on: C programming Introduction The basics of algorithms Structure of a C code, compilation step Constant, variable type, variable scope Expression and operators: assignment, arithmetic operators, comparison,

More information

arrays C Programming Language - Arrays

arrays C Programming Language - Arrays arrays So far, we have been using only scalar variables scalar meaning a variable with a single value But many things require a set of related values coordinates or vectors require 3 (or 2, or 4, or more)

More information

Primitive Data Types Summer 2010 Margaret Reid-Miller

Primitive Data Types Summer 2010 Margaret Reid-Miller Primitive Data Types 15-110 Summer 2010 Margaret Reid-Miller Data Types Data stored in memory is a string of bits (0 or 1). What does 1000010 mean? 66? 'B'? 9.2E-44? How the computer interprets the string

More information

What is a Loop? Pretest Loops in C++ Types of Loop Testing. Count-controlled loops. Loops can be...

What is a Loop? Pretest Loops in C++ Types of Loop Testing. Count-controlled loops. Loops can be... What is a Loop? CSC Intermediate Programming Looping A loop is a repetition control structure It causes a single statement or a group of statements to be executed repeatedly It uses a condition to control

More information

Lecture 03 Bits, Bytes and Data Types

Lecture 03 Bits, Bytes and Data Types Lecture 03 Bits, Bytes and Data Types In this lecture Computer Languages Assembly Language The compiler Operating system Data and program instructions Bits, Bytes and Data Types ASCII table Data Types

More information

MPI and C-Language Seminars 2010

MPI and C-Language Seminars 2010 MPI and C-Language Seminars 2010 Seminar Plan (1/3) Aim: Introduce the C Programming Language. Plan to cover: Basic C, and programming techniques needed for HPC coursework. C-bindings for the Message Passing

More information

C programming: exercise sheet L2-STUE (2011-2012)

C programming: exercise sheet L2-STUE (2011-2012) C programming: exercise sheet L2-STUE (2011-2012) Algorithms and Flowcharts Exercise 1: comparison Write the flowchart and associated algorithm that compare two numbers a and b. Exercise 2: 2 nd order

More information

Summary of basic C++-commands

Summary of basic C++-commands Compiling Summary of basic C++-commands To compile a C++-program, you can use either g++ or c++. e.g. g++ -o executable filename.out sourcefilename.cc c++ -o executable filename.out sourcefilename.cc g++

More information

PROGRAMMING REFRESHER MODULE. Delivered by Ana Cavalcanti and Alvaro Miyazawa Prepared by Dr Lilian Blot

PROGRAMMING REFRESHER MODULE. Delivered by Ana Cavalcanti and Alvaro Miyazawa Prepared by Dr Lilian Blot PROGRAMMING REFRESHER MODULE Delivered by Ana Cavalcanti and Alvaro Miyazawa Prepared by Dr Lilian Blot The Rules Everything in PREF (Week 1) is optional. From week 2 of APRC and JAPC, we assume that all

More information

INDEX. C programming Page 1 of 10. 5) Function. 1) Introduction to C Programming

INDEX. C programming Page 1 of 10. 5) Function. 1) Introduction to C Programming INDEX 1) Introduction to C Programming a. What is C? b. Getting started with C 2) Data Types, Variables, Constants a. Constants, Variables and Keywords b. Types of Variables c. C Keyword d. Types of C

More information

Introduction to Programming (in C++) Data types and visibility. Jordi Cortadella, Ricard Gavaldà, Fernando Orejas Dept. Computer Science, UPC

Introduction to Programming (in C++) Data types and visibility. Jordi Cortadella, Ricard Gavaldà, Fernando Orejas Dept. Computer Science, UPC Introduction to Programming (in C++) Data types and visibility Jordi Cortadella, Ricard Gavaldà, Fernando Orejas Dept. Computer Science, UPC Outline Data types Type conversion Visibility Introduction to

More information

Introduction to C for Atmel XMega

Introduction to C for Atmel XMega Introduction to C for Atmel XMega 1 Menu Overview of C Basics Variables, Types, and Definitions Conditionals Ports and Registers Interrupts Pointers Strongly Using C with Assembly 2 1 Overview of C Basics

More information

C Primer. Fall Introduction C vs. Java... 1

C Primer. Fall Introduction C vs. Java... 1 CS 33 Intro Computer Systems Doeppner C Primer Fall 2016 Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 C vs. Java.......................................... 1 2 Functions 1 2.1 The main() Function....................................

More information

COMP2121: Microprocessors and Interfacing

COMP2121: Microprocessors and Interfacing Interfacing Lecture 3: Number Systems (I) http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~cs2121 Lecturer: Hui Wu Session 2, 2005 Overview Positional notation Decimal, hexadecimal and binary One complement Two s complement

More information

Selection: if Statement

Selection: if Statement : if Statement The simplest selection structure in C++ is the if statement. Syntactically: 1 if The Boolean expression must be enclosed in parentheses, and

More information

Review: arrays, pointers, structures (Chapter 1) Data Types. Review: Arrays. Data Types (C/C++) Data Type: CS 3358 Summer I 2012.

Review: arrays, pointers, structures (Chapter 1) Data Types. Review: Arrays. Data Types (C/C++) Data Type: CS 3358 Summer I 2012. Review: arrays, pointers, structures (Chapter 1) Data Types Data Type: CS 3358 Summer I 2012 Jill Seaman set of values set of operations over those values example: Integer whole numbers, -32768 to 32767

More information

VB.NET Programming Fundamentals

VB.NET Programming Fundamentals Chapter 3 Objectives Programming Fundamentals In this chapter, you will: Learn about the programming language Write a module definition Use variables and data types Compute with Write decision-making statements

More information

Problem Solving With C++ Ninth Edition

Problem Solving With C++ Ninth Edition CISC 1600/1610 Computer Science I Programming in C++ Professor Daniel Leeds dleeds@fordham.edu JMH 328A Introduction to programming with C++ Learn Fundamental programming concepts Key techniques Basic

More information

Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 4 th Edition. Chapter 1: Basic Concepts. Chapter Overview. Welcome to Assembly Language

Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 4 th Edition. Chapter 1: Basic Concepts. Chapter Overview. Welcome to Assembly Language Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 4 th Edition Kip R. Irvine Chapter 1: Basic Concepts Slides prepared by Kip R. Irvine Revision date: 10/27/2002 Chapter corrections (Web) Printing a slide show

More information

Arduino Programming Language

Arduino Programming Language Introduction to Haptics Arduino Programming Language (optional material for beginning programmers) Allison M. Okamura Stanford University Programming Guidance Potential resources: Online courses (e.g.,

More information

The char Data Type. Character and String Processing. Another Example /* Capitalize all lowercase letters */ while ((c = getchar())!

The char Data Type. Character and String Processing. Another Example /* Capitalize all lowercase letters */ while ((c = getchar())! Character and String Processing CSE 130: Introduction to C Programming Spring 2005 The char Data Type A char value can be thought of as either a character or a small integer printf( %d, a ); /* prints

More information

Chapter 2. Values, Variables, and Types. 2.1 Java Values in DrJava s Interaction Pane

Chapter 2. Values, Variables, and Types. 2.1 Java Values in DrJava s Interaction Pane 14 Chapter 2 Values, Variables, and Types In this chapter we explore the primitive building blocks that are used to develop Java programs. We experiment with the following concepts within DrJava s interactive

More information

Data Representation. Representing Data

Data Representation. Representing Data Data Representation COMP 1002/1402 Representing Data A computer s basic unit of information is: a bit (Binary digit) An addressable memory cell is a byte (8 bits) Capable of storing one character 10101010

More information

Java provides a rich set of operators to manipulate variables. We can divide all the Java operators into the following groups:

Java provides a rich set of operators to manipulate variables. We can divide all the Java operators into the following groups: JAVA OPERATORS GENERAL Java provides a rich set of operators to manipulate variables. We can divide all the Java operators into the following groups: Arithmetic Operators Relational Operators Bitwise Operators

More information

Y = abc = a b c.2 0

Y = abc = a b c.2 0 Chapter 2 Bits, Data Types & Operations Integer Representation Floating-point Representation Other data types Why do Computers use Base 2? Base 10 Number Representation Natural representation for human

More information

PROBLEM SOLVING SEVENTH EDITION WALTER SAVITCH UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO CONTRIBUTOR KENRICK MOCK UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA, ANCHORAGE PEARSON

PROBLEM SOLVING SEVENTH EDITION WALTER SAVITCH UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO CONTRIBUTOR KENRICK MOCK UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA, ANCHORAGE PEARSON PROBLEM SOLVING WITH SEVENTH EDITION WALTER SAVITCH UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO CONTRIBUTOR KENRICK MOCK UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA, ANCHORAGE PEARSON Addison Wesley Boston San Francisco New York London

More information

CS193D Handout 04 Winter 2005/2006 January 11, 2006 A Crash Course in C++

CS193D Handout 04 Winter 2005/2006 January 11, 2006 A Crash Course in C++ CS193D Handout 04 Winter 2005/2006 January 11, 2006 A Crash Course in C++ Most people taking CS193D will already have some experience with C++. This handout is a quick refresher in case it s been a while.

More information

Tutorial C1. Conversion Between Number Bases. Objectives: Reading: Background: Binary Numbers

Tutorial C1. Conversion Between Number Bases. Objectives: Reading: Background: Binary Numbers utorial C Conversion Between Number Bases Objectives: Reading: After this tutorial you should be able to convert decimal numbers to binary numbers (both unsigned and 2 s complement), and vice versa. You

More information

Course: Introduction to Java Using Eclipse Training

Course: Introduction to Java Using Eclipse Training Course: Introduction to Java Using Eclipse Training Course Length: Duration: 5 days Course Code: WA1278 DESCRIPTION: This course introduces the Java programming language and how to develop Java applications

More information

6.087 Lecture 3 January 13, 2010

6.087 Lecture 3 January 13, 2010 6.087 Lecture 3 January 13, 2010 Review Blocks and Compound Statements Control Flow Conditional Statements Loops Functions Modular Programming Variable Scope Static Variables Register Variables 1 Review:

More information

Assignment0: Linux Basics and /proc

Assignment0: Linux Basics and /proc Assignment0: Linux Basics and /proc CS314 Operating Systems This project was adapted from Gary Nutt s Excellent Book Kernel Projects for Linux published by Addison-Wesley 2001. You will learn several important

More information

Comp181 Midterm Examination, Fall Name Surname: Number: 90 min. 18/11/09

Comp181 Midterm Examination, Fall Name Surname: Number: 90 min. 18/11/09 Comp181 Midterm Examination, Fall 09 10 Name Surname: Number: 90 min. 18/11/09 Answer ALL off the following questions. 1.What does the term hardware refer to? a. The relative difficulty of programming

More information

Answers to Review Questions Chapter 7

Answers to Review Questions Chapter 7 Answers to Review Questions Chapter 7 1. The size declarator is used in a definition of an array to indicate the number of elements the array will have. A subscript is used to access a specific element

More information

Basic C Syntax. Comp-206 : Introduction to Software Systems Lecture 10. Alexandre Denault Computer Science McGill University Fall 2006

Basic C Syntax. Comp-206 : Introduction to Software Systems Lecture 10. Alexandre Denault Computer Science McGill University Fall 2006 Basic C Syntax Comp-206 : Introduction to Software Systems Lecture 10 Alexandre Denault Computer Science McGill University Fall 2006 Next Week I'm away for the week. I'll still check my mails though. No

More information

CSI 333 Lecture 2 Introduction to C: Part I 2 1 / 16

CSI 333 Lecture 2 Introduction to C: Part I 2 1 / 16 CSI 333 Lecture 2 Introduction to C: Part I 2 1 / 16 Basics of C Remark: Skim Chapters 1 through 6 of Deitel & Deitel. You will notice the following: C is (more or less) a subset of Java. (So, you are

More information

String Processing in C

String Processing in C String Processing in C C Programming and Software Tools N.C. State Department of Computer Science Standard Library: Many functions for checking whether a character is a digit, is upper case,

More information

FORM 1 (Please put your name, section # (10am- 001/2pm-002, and form # on the scantron!!!!) CS 161 Exam I:

FORM 1 (Please put your name, section # (10am- 001/2pm-002, and form # on the scantron!!!!) CS 161 Exam I: FORM 1 (Please put your name, section # (10am- 001/2pm-002, and form # on the scantron!!!!) CS 161 Exam I: True (A)/False(B) (2 pts each): 1. The following statement is legal: cout >> Hello, my name is

More information

INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA

INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA CSC112 (F) / Page 1 of 5 INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA CERTIFICATE IN COMPUTING AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMME CSC 112 : FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAMMING FINAL EXAMINATION : DECEMBER 2002 SESSION This paper consists

More information

Chapter 8. Arithmetic in C++

Chapter 8. Arithmetic in C++ Christian Jacob Chapter 8 Arithmetic in C++ 8.1 The C++ Vocabulary 8.2 Variables and Types 8.2.1 Data Objects 8.2.2 Variables 8.2.3 Declaration of Variables 8.3 Elementary C++ Data Types 8.3.1 Integers

More information

ASCII Encoding. The char Type. Manipulating Characters. Manipulating Characters

ASCII Encoding. The char Type. Manipulating Characters. Manipulating Characters The char Type ASCII Encoding The C char type stores small integers. It is usually 8 bits. char variables guaranteed to be able to hold integers 0.. +127. char variables mostly used to store characters

More information

C AND C++ PROGRAMMING

C AND C++ PROGRAMMING C AND C++ PROGRAMMING Bharathidasan University A Courseware prepared by University Informatics Centre Part I - Programming in C Getting Started This courseware is intended to be an introduction to C programming

More information

C++ Tutorial. Let s get to coding. W. Deconinck 1 V. Gray 2. Department of Physics College of William & Mary

C++ Tutorial. Let s get to coding. W. Deconinck 1 V. Gray 2. Department of Physics College of William & Mary C++ Tutorial Let s get to coding W. Deconinck 1 V. Gray 2 1 Assistant Professor Department of Physics College of William & Mary 2 Graduate Student Department of Physics College of William & Mary C++ Tutorial,

More information

Quiz 3 Solutions EECS 211: FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING II. 1 Q u i z 3 S o l u t i o n s. Q1: C++ functions other than main are executed:

Quiz 3 Solutions EECS 211: FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING II. 1 Q u i z 3 S o l u t i o n s. Q1: C++ functions other than main are executed: Quiz 3 Solutions Q1: C++ functions other than main are executed: a. Before main executes. b. After main completes execution. c. When they are explicitly called by another function. d. Never. ANS c. When

More information

A Quick Introduction to C++ Programming

A Quick Introduction to C++ Programming A Quick Introduction to C++ Programming Julien Tierny Abstract These are brief notes for a quick introduction to C++ programming. For conciseness, only the key concepts are presented. For further readings,

More information

Project 2: Bejeweled

Project 2: Bejeweled Project 2: Bejeweled Project Objective: Post: Tuesday March 26, 2013. Due: 11:59PM, Monday April 15, 2013 1. master the process of completing a programming project in UNIX. 2. get familiar with command

More information

Introduction to C++ Programming Vahid Kazemi

Introduction to C++ Programming Vahid Kazemi Introduction to C++ Programming Vahid Kazemi Overview An overview of C/C++ - Basic types, Pointers, Arrays, Program control, Functions, Arguments, Structures, Operator overloading, Namespaces, Classes,

More information

Basics of I/O Streams and File I/O

Basics of I/O Streams and File I/O Basics of This is like a cheat sheet for file I/O in C++. It summarizes the steps you must take to do basic I/O to and from files, with only a tiny bit of explanation. It is not a replacement for reading

More information

GETTING STARTED WITH C++ C++ BASICS - 1 -

GETTING STARTED WITH C++ C++ BASICS - 1 - - 1 - GETTING STARTED WITH C++ Programming is a core activity in the process of performing tasks or solving problems with the aid of a computer. An idealised picture is: PROBLEM COMPUTER SOLUTION Unfortunately

More information

Computers process data under the control of sets of instructions called computer programs.

Computers process data under the control of sets of instructions called computer programs. Introduction Computer is a device capable of performing computations and making logical decisions at speeds millions and even billions of times faster than human beings. Computers process data under the

More information

Chapter 5. Selection 5-1

Chapter 5. Selection 5-1 Chapter 5 Selection 5-1 Selection (Decision) The second control logic structure is selection: Selection Choosing between two or more alternative actions. Selection statements alter the sequential flow

More information

Tutorial on C Language Programming

Tutorial on C Language Programming Tutorial on C Language Programming Teodor Rus rus@cs.uiowa.edu The University of Iowa, Department of Computer Science Introduction to System Software p.1/64 Tutorial on C programming C program structure:

More information

2. Compressing data to reduce the amount of transmitted data (e.g., to save money).

2. Compressing data to reduce the amount of transmitted data (e.g., to save money). Presentation Layer The presentation layer is concerned with preserving the meaning of information sent across a network. The presentation layer may represent (encode) the data in various ways (e.g., data

More information

The Fundamentals of C++

The Fundamentals of C++ The Fundamentals of C++ Basic programming elements and concepts JPC and JWD 2002 McGraw-Hill, Inc. Program Organization Program statement Definition Declaration Action Executable unit Named set of program

More information

CS 16: Assembly Language Programming for the IBM PC and Compatibles

CS 16: Assembly Language Programming for the IBM PC and Compatibles CS 16: Assembly Language Programming for the IBM PC and Compatibles First, a little about you Your name Have you ever worked with/used/played with assembly language? If so, talk about it Why are you taking

More information

A C# program structure About variables Predefined Data Types Flow Control Enumerations Arrays Namespaces The Main() method. Console IO Comments

A C# program structure About variables Predefined Data Types Flow Control Enumerations Arrays Namespaces The Main() method. Console IO Comments Basics of C# What are we going to study? A C# program structure About variables Predefined Data Types Flow Control Enumerations Arrays Namespaces The Main() method Compilation of C# program Console IO

More information

Boolean Logic. Boolean Expressions. What and means. And, Or, Not, True, False. What not means. What or means. Truths and Falsehoods

Boolean Logic. Boolean Expressions. What and means. And, Or, Not, True, False. What not means. What or means. Truths and Falsehoods Boolean Logic Boolean Expressions Truths and Falsehoods Boolean logic (algebra) is named after George Boole He wrote the book Investigation of the Laws of Thought in 1854 Also called propositional logic

More information

Lab #2 - Introduction to C++ 2.S998 Unmanned Marine Vehicle Autonomy, Sensing and Communications

Lab #2 - Introduction to C++ 2.S998 Unmanned Marine Vehicle Autonomy, Sensing and Communications Lab #2 - Introduction to C++ 2.S998 Unmanned Marine Vehicle Autonomy, Sensing and Communications 1 2 Contents 1 Overview and Objectives 5 1.1 More C++ Resources................................... 5 1.2

More information

MIT Aurangabad FE Computer Engineering

MIT Aurangabad FE Computer Engineering MIT Aurangabad FE Computer Engineering Unit 1: Introduction to C 1. The symbol # is called a. Header file c. include b. Preprocessor d. semicolon 2. The size of integer number is limited to a. -32768 to

More information