MPI and C-Language Seminars 2010

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1 MPI and C-Language Seminars 2010

2 Seminar Plan (1/3) Aim: Introduce the C Programming Language. Plan to cover: Basic C, and programming techniques needed for HPC coursework. C-bindings for the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Performance modelling. We won t be covering C++ (but many of the skills are transferable).

3 Seminar Plan (2/3) Week 1 Introduction, Data Types, Control Flow, Pointers Week 2 Arrays, Structures, Enums, I/O, Memory Week 3 Compiler Options and Debugging Week 4 MPI in C and Using the HPSG Cluster Week 5 How to Build a Performance Model Week 6-9 Coursework Troubleshooting (Seminar tutors available in their office)

4 Seminar Plan (3/3) The first three weeks focus on developing basic C skills; much of this will be familiar. Feel free to skip this if you already feel confident. Unless you have done this course before, or are on a PhD programme with HPSG, it is a good idea to attend from Week 4 onwards. Seminars will usually be held on Wednesdays, 11:00 12:00.

5 Contact Info For C-related queries: John Pennycook For performance modelling queries: Oli Perks Availability: Always on . High Performance Systems Group (CS 2.04). Resources:

6 Books Worth consulting (in the library): The C Programming Language, (2 nd Edition), Kernighan & Ritchie, 1988 C How to Program, (5 th Edition), Deitel, 2006 Online reference book linked at:

7 Overview of C Much of the Java language builds on C/C++. Some of the language keywords and behaviour is very similar. Beware Though keywords and names of types may be similar, they are often different. Mixing between languages can introduce lots of bugs unless you re sure what you re doing.

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9 Data Types in C There are only four basic data types in C: 1. char a single byte (8-bits) capable of holding an ASCII character. 2. int an integer value, the size of which is based on the word size of the machine (often 32-bits). 3. float a single precision floating point number (often 32-bit, IEEE). 4. double a double precision floating point number (often 64-bit, IEEE). Note: These sizes are the most commonly encountered, but may be different on some platforms (non-intel/amd).

10 Integers in C (1/2) Two additional qualifiers to control the size of integer values: 1. short int a shorter version of int. 2. long int a longer version of int. Rules: short int <= int <= long int short int >= 16 bits. int >= 16 bits. long int >= 32 bits.

11 Integers in C (2/2) Two (more) additional qualifiers for integer types: 1. unsigned interpret the value as starting from signed allow negative numbers. Use unsigned to increase the range of values available, provided you are sure negative values will not be required. Mixing unsigned and signed values can cause bugs, so be careful.

12 Booleans in C There is no boolean type in C. Booleans are implemented and evaluated as integer values: TRUE = 1 FALSE = 0 Keywords may not be pre-defined in every implementation of C. Conversely: 0 = FALSE Non-zero = TRUE

13 Arrays in C (1/2) Arrays in C are just allocated contiguous blocks of memory. For example: int myarray[5]; allocates space for 5 integers in one contiguous block. Arrays are not objects, so you cannot access properties (like length). You must record the maximum length of the array.

14 Arrays in C (2/2) The name of the array variable can be used as a pointer: int* pointer = myarray; myarray is a pointer to the first element in the array. We will come back to this when we start looking at pointers in more detail...

15 Strings in C (1/2) Strings are implemented using an array of characters, but with an additional element at the end of the string. Strings must terminate with the null character, \0. For example: Hello = { H, e, l, l, o, \0 }

16 Strings in C (2/2) Most important functions are implemented in the string library. To use the string library, put: #include <string.h> at the top of your file. All string functions in the C libraries will use the \0 character to detect the end of a string.

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18 Control Flow in C (1/2) if, while, do... while are identical, except that conditions must produce an integer boolean result. Consider: if (2 % 2) {... }... Will not run, since 2 % 2 = 0.

19 Control Flow in C (2/2) for loops are not quite identical. Depending on the language mode, you may not be able to declare variable inside a for-loop definition: int i; for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) { printf( %d \n, i); }

20 Operators in C Mathematical operators in C are identical to those in Java. +, -, *, / <=, >=, ==,!=, <, >, &&,! % (modulus) &, ++i, i++, --i, i-- (pre/post-increment/decrement)

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22 Pointers (1/4) Pointers are references to locations in memory. They are one of the biggest causes of bugs in software construction. Worse they are one of the biggest reasons coursework does not produce correct solutions on marking day.

23 Pointers (2/4) To declare a pointer: int myvalue = 42; int* mypointer; mypointer = &myvalue; int* creates a pointer to a location in memory. This is treated as if it were an integer value. &myvalue is the location of myvalue in memory.

24 Pointers (3/4) Remember: *ptr look at the address pointed to by ptr. &v get the address at which v is stored. Be careful every year pointers cause problems. The compiler can detect some common bugs, but not all of them... The only way to fix these is to inspect your code manually.

25 Pointers (4/4) Common mistakes: 1. Uninitialised Pointers The pointer is not initialised before it is used. An un-initialised pointer has a value of 0 by default. This causes a segmentation fault. 2. Out-of-bounds Memory Access A pointer is used to access an array, and pushed outside of the array s bounds. This either corrupts memory or gives a segmentation fault.

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27 Hello World Typical Hello World program: #include <stdio.h> main (int argc, char *argv[]) { printf( Hello world!\n ); } The #include acts like a Java import statement.

28 Compilation (1/2) To compile a C file to object code: gcc c myfile.c To link object code in an executable: gcc o myprogram myfile.o To run the executable:./myprogram

29 Compilation (2/2) Compilers: Linux/Mac OS X gcc Windows Microsoft Visual C++/Intel C Compiler Code and seminar contents should work with these compilers (but no promises). You may not be able to compile the MPI coursework at home unless you compile and install the MPI runtimes. Your code will be tested running on department machines; it may be best to do your compilation here.

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