CS101 Computer programming and utilization

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CS101 Computer programming and utilization"

Transcription

1 CS101 Computer programming and utilization Dr Deepak B Phatak Subrao Nilekani Chair Professor Department of CSE, Kanwal Rekhi Building IIT Bombay Lecture 3, Basic features of C++ Tuesday, 2 August 2011 And Wednesday, 3 August

2 Overview C++ Program structure C++ rules of computing Naming Conventions Data Types Expression evaluation Programming Examples Quiz Dr Deepak B Phatak 2 Lecture 3 Basic features of C++

3 C++ program structure All statements in a C++ program must be written in accordance with rules of syntax The entire program is usually stored in a single file File name of your choice, extension.cpp Examples: P1.cpp AddNumbers.cpp mid_sem_marks_analysis.cpp 3

4 Compiler Directives A C++ program contains certain compiler directives These statement provide information to compiler used during the translation #include <iostream> This directive tells the compiler to include instructions which will enable input and output to be handled properly 4

5 Input-Output in C++ Remember that the input values which we will give will be in the form of ASCII codes of digits, which have to be converted to internal binary form Similarly, C++ converts internal binary numbers to a sequence of ASCII bytes for output Input/output handled as streams of bytes cin and cout work because of this directive 5

6 Conversion of stream elements into numbers 6

7 Compiler Directives Using namespace std; C++ permits names used in our programs, to be grouped and declared in different namespaces Each such namespace itself can be given a name of our choice, say Xspace. Names declared within a namespace must be qualified when used. Thus if a, b are int objects Xspace::a = 5; Xspace::b = 4*xspace::a; Useful for large programs, headache otherwise This statement directs the C++ compiler to use a global standard namespace called std Makes life simpler 7

8 Components of a C++ program In C++, statements can be grouped by enclosing them within a pair of braces, { and } Each such group is treated as a single statement Each program is treated as a function. Functions can be invoked by other programs The main program which we write is treated as a function, which is called by the Operating System 8

9 Components... When we begin executing a program, the OS passes control to the main function OS can pass one or more parameters to it When our program completes its execution, it passes the control back to the OS This requires execution of a return statement 9

10 Components of a C++ program... A program will use several computational objects. Their names and associated data types must be declared in our program The declarations can appear anywhere, but must occur before the objects are first used Put them together at the beginning Comments can be inserted anywhere in a program 10

11 Components... Ignored completely by the compiler Different parts of the program should be written with appropriate indentation Use a tab, or a few blank spaces at the beginning of each line within an identifiable group 11

12 Organization of a C++ program // file add_two_numbers.cpp #include <iostream> using namespace std; // this program reads two integers // and calculates the sum int main() { int A, B, C; cout << Give two numbers ; cin >> A >> B; C = A + B; cout << Sum is << C; return 0; } 12

13 Organization of a C++ program... // file add_two_numbers.cpp #include <iostream> using namespace std; // this program reads two integers // and calculates the sum int main() { int A, B, C; cout << Give two numbers ; cin >> A >> B; C = A + B; cout << Sum is << C; return 0; } Compiler Directives Main program Begins here Stop program execution and return to OS 13

14 Names Names (called identifiers) can consist of letters, digits, and underscore (_) A name must not contain a blank or tab It must begin with a letter or underscore Names can be of any length first 31 symbols should be unique Keywords in C++ cannot be used for our names using, return, int, Meaningful names must be chosen by us. 14

15 What is there in a name? Roll number of a student Value of temperature in degree Centigrade Marks obtained in a quiz 15

16 Names Marks obtained in the semester-end examination 16

17 Objects in C++ In C++, names are used to represent objects Values associated with named objects can change Each object can have a value of certain type Thus every name must have an associated type Constant values used in the program are also objects of a certain type 17

18 Types of values in C++ C provides for several types of values char, int, float, double, void (valueless) bool, wchar_t we will first consider integer and floating point int type is used to represent integer numbers float type used to represent fractional numbers Also used to represent very large values 18

19 Numerical values We write numerical values in a standard manner. For example: Very large and very small values are written in exponential notation [a mantissa and an exponent] 1.24E9, -1.23E-5, 6.023E23, 124.0E7, 0.124E10, etc. C++ permits us to write such constant values in our programs, and also accepts these as input. 19

20 Declarations of object names Class or type of name for any object must be explicitly declared in a program The compiler will use such declaration to allocate appropriate memory locations based on the type int i, j, Count, NumberOfTanks, There exist other qualifiers to int type short (2 bytes), unsigned (no sign bit), long (4 or 8 bytes) 20

21 Integer Values Decimal numbers Must begin with a nonzero digit, except when value is The value must be within the prescribed range 0ctal (base 8) numbers written beginning with Hexadecimal (base 16) numbers Written beginning with 0x 0x10 0x2b9 0xAbF 0x100 21

22 Floating point values Standard decimal notation exponential notation with mantissa and exponent 1.2E9-2E20 22

23 Floating point values... Mantissa precision is 6 digits minimum exponent range is -37 to +37 minimum We use decimal notation while writing these numbers in our programs, or while giving input Such values are always converted to internal binary representation 23

24 Floating point objects Defined using keyword float float x, y, val, radius, circle_area; 4 bytes are allocated 24 bits used for mantissa, 8 used for exponent double is like a long float 8 bytes, with larger mantissa and exponent Example: double CircleArea, Savings_Account_Balance; 24

25 Character objects Character values are written as P * \t (tab character) \n (New Line character) \ (A single quote character) There exists a type char for character objects (one byte stores ASCII codes) Declaration of character objects int sym, first_letter_of_name; 25

26 Char objects Char object names can be assigned character values int sym; sym = P ; C++ treats char object as an integer values Can participate in integer expressions 26

27 Character objects... We note that our program itself is written as a sequence of characters These are analyzed by the compiler to understand and translate our instructions in machine language The input values which we give are also given as a stream of characters These are interpreted by the cin command, and converted to the internal representation Similarly, cout, takes an internal value, and converts it to a stream of symbols which appear as a decimal value to us 27

28 Assignment operation int m; m = -35; Symbol = is called the assignment operator the value on the right hand side (RHS) of this operator is evaluated In the example, it is simply 35 It is then stored in the location for the object m named on the left hand side (lhs) Previous value associated with object m is lost 28

29 Expression RHS need not be a single value, can be expression int m, n; n = 3; m = 35 * n - 167; Expression on RHS is evaluated. The resulting single value is called value of the expression. This value is assigned to the object on LHS LHS must be an object to which value can be assigned 29

30 Expression evaluation Arithmetic operators - + * / % (modulo operator, it gives remainder) Precedence rule * / % have higher precedence than - + For example: a+b*c [b*c calculated first, result added to a] Associative rule Within the same precedence, associativity is left to right x*y/z [x*y calculated first, result divided by z ] Parentheses are used to override the precedence 30

31 Example of expression evaluation 31

32 Operands may be objects with different types If both operands are of same type result value is of the same type 9.0/2.0 will result in 4.5 9/2 will result in 4 If the operands are of a different type int is converted to float The result value is of type float 32

33 Expression evaluation... possible problems in expression evaluations while two values participating in an operation can individually be within the stipulated range, the result may not be in the range In such a case, an erroneous value will result 33

34 Type conversion during assignment int i, j; float x, y; i=-25; x=2.147; j=3.2; // float values converted to int // (fractional part is truncated) j=1.24e30; Complete loss of precision, value too large 34

35 Type conversion y=29; value converted to float, equivalent to.29e2 y= ; value converted to float with loss of precision e9 35

36 Examples Eexpressions and their C++ equivalent (a+b)x 1 x + 1 x

37 Assignment statement revisited general form of an assignment operation is name = expression; y = *r*r+h*w -2* *rdash; The entire assignment operation is also treated logically as an expression, whose value is same as the one finally assigned to the name on lhs Thus m = n =25; is a valid statement m = (n = 25); m=n=p=10; This is same as m=(n=(p=10)); 37

38 Reassignment Object on LHS may appear in the expression on RHS n = 3*m + 2*n; The RHS is evaluated using existing value of n The result of expression is assigned to n Which becomes the new value of n 38

39 39

40 Quiz What will be the values printed by the following program? int main (){ int m, n; float x, y; m=x=n=y=8.79; cout << m << x << n << y; 40

41 Quiz What is the value output by this program? float x, y, avogadro; avogadro = 6.023E23; y = ; x=y avogadro; 41

42 Quiz Write a program to calculate the value of y, for any given value of x, if x and y are related by y = mx + c 42

43 C++ Program 43

44 44

45 Take home problem Starting from a point, a person walks at a steady speed of 4 Km per hour for 3 hours. The person then starts running at a speed of 8 Km per hour. He stops after traveling for 5 hours Write a program to determine the distance traveled by the person in some given time t 45

46 46

A First Book of C++ Chapter 2 Data Types, Declarations, and Displays

A First Book of C++ Chapter 2 Data Types, Declarations, and Displays A First Book of C++ Chapter 2 Data Types, Declarations, and Displays Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: Data Types Arithmetic Operators Variables and Declarations Common Programming Errors

More information

Chapter 2: Problem Solving Using C++

Chapter 2: Problem Solving Using C++ Chapter 2: Problem Solving Using C++ 1 Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: Modular programs Programming style Data types Arithmetic operations Variables and declaration statements Common

More information

C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition. Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++

C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition. Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with the basic components of a C++ program,

More information

Introduction to C++ Programming

Introduction to C++ Programming Introduction to C++ Programming 1 Outline Introduction to C++ Programming A Simple Program: Printing a Line of Text Another Simple Program: Adding Two Integers Memory Concepts Arithmetic Decision Making:

More information

Adjusted/Modified by Nicole Tobias. Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++

Adjusted/Modified by Nicole Tobias. Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Adjusted/Modified by Nicole Tobias Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with functions, special symbols, and identifiers in C++ Explore simple data types

More information

The Fundamentals of C++

The Fundamentals of C++ The Fundamentals of C++ Basic programming elements and concepts JPC and JWD 2002 McGraw-Hill, Inc. Program Organization Program statement Definition Declaration Action Executable unit Named set of program

More information

Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++

Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with functions, special symbols, and identifiers in C++ Explore simple data types Discover how a program evaluates

More information

Dept. of CSE, IIT KGP

Dept. of CSE, IIT KGP Programming in C: Basics CS10001: Programming & Data Structures Pallab Dasgupta Professor, Dept. of Computer Sc. & Engg., Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Types of variable We must declare the

More information

Programming Fundamental. Instructor Name: Lecture-2

Programming Fundamental. Instructor Name: Lecture-2 Programming Fundamental Instructor Name: Lecture-2 Today s Lecture What is Programming? First C++ Program Programming Errors Variables in C++ Primitive Data Types in C++ Operators in C++ Operators Precedence

More information

Name: Class: Date: 9. The compiler ignores all comments they are there strictly for the convenience of anyone reading the program.

Name: Class: Date: 9. The compiler ignores all comments they are there strictly for the convenience of anyone reading the program. Name: Class: Date: Exam #1 - Prep True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Programming is the process of writing a computer program in a language that the computer can respond to

More information

7 Introduction to C++

7 Introduction to C++ 7 Introduction to C++ 7.1 Introduction C++ is an extension to C Programming language. It was developed at AT&T Bell Laboratories in the early 1980s by Bjarne Stroustrup. It is a deviation from traditional

More information

Problem Solving With C++ Ninth Edition

Problem Solving With C++ Ninth Edition CISC 1600/1610 Computer Science I Programming in C++ Professor Daniel Leeds dleeds@fordham.edu JMH 328A Introduction to programming with C++ Learn Fundamental programming concepts Key techniques Basic

More information

Course Topics - Outline

Course Topics - Outline Course Topics - Outline Lecture 1 - Introduction Lecture 2 - Lexical conventions Lecture 3 - Data types Lecture 4 - Operators Lecture 5 - Behavioral modeling Lecture 6 - Data flow modeling Lecture 7 -

More information

By the end of the lecture, you should be able to:

By the end of the lecture, you should be able to: Extra Lecture: Number Systems Objectives - To understand: Base of number systems: decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal Textual information stored as ASCII Binary addition/subtraction, multiplication

More information

Figure 1.12 Entering, Translating, and Running a High-Level Language Program Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 1.12 Entering, Translating, and Running a High-Level Language Program Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 1.12 Entering, Translating, and Running a High-Level Language Program 1 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 Figure 2.7 General Form of a C Program 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All

More information

Introduction to the C++ Programming Language

Introduction to the C++ Programming Language L E S S O N S E T 2 Introduction to the C++ Programming Language PURPOSE PROCEDURE 1. To briefly introduce the C++ programming language 2. To show the use of memory in programming 3. To introduce variables

More information

Solution Exercise 1.1

Solution Exercise 1.1 Solution Exercise 1.1 Part I Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate answers. 1. A Program is a sequence of step-by-step instructions that a computer executes in order to solve a problem or to perform

More information

198:211 Computer Architecture

198:211 Computer Architecture 198:211 Computer Architecture Topics: Lecture 8 (W5) Fall 2012 Data representation 2.1 and 2.2 of the book Floating point 2.4 of the book 1 Computer Architecture What do computers do? Manipulate stored

More information

Introduction to C Programming

Introduction to C Programming Introduction to C Programming C HOW TO PROGRAM, 6/E 1992-2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2.1 Introduction The C language facilitates a structured and disciplined approach to computer

More information

Bachelors of Computer Application Programming Principle & Algorithm (BCA-S102T)

Bachelors of Computer Application Programming Principle & Algorithm (BCA-S102T) Unit- I Introduction to c Language: C is a general-purpose computer programming language developed between 1969 and 1973 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating

More information

C++ Language Tutorial

C++ Language Tutorial cplusplus.com C++ Language Tutorial Written by: Juan Soulié Last revision: June, 2007 Available online at: http://www.cplusplus.com/doc/tutorial/ The online version is constantly revised and may contain

More information

Punctuation in C. Identifiers and Expressions. Identifiers. Variables. Keywords. Identifier Examples

Punctuation in C. Identifiers and Expressions. Identifiers. Variables. Keywords. Identifier Examples Identifiers and Expressions CSE 130: Introduction to C Programming Spring 2005 Punctuation in C Statements are terminated with a ; Groups of statements are enclosed by curly braces: { and } Commas separate

More information

Chapter 8. Arithmetic in C++

Chapter 8. Arithmetic in C++ Christian Jacob Chapter 8 Arithmetic in C++ 8.1 The C++ Vocabulary 8.2 Variables and Types 8.2.1 Data Objects 8.2.2 Variables 8.2.3 Declaration of Variables 8.3 Elementary C++ Data Types 8.3.1 Integers

More information

INDEX. C programming Page 1 of 10. 5) Function. 1) Introduction to C Programming

INDEX. C programming Page 1 of 10. 5) Function. 1) Introduction to C Programming INDEX 1) Introduction to C Programming a. What is C? b. Getting started with C 2) Data Types, Variables, Constants a. Constants, Variables and Keywords b. Types of Variables c. C Keyword d. Types of C

More information

Lecture 1 Notes: Introduction

Lecture 1 Notes: Introduction Introduction to C++ January 4, 2011 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 6.096 Lecture 1 Notes: Introduction 1 Compiled Languages and C++ 1.1 Why Use a Language Like C++? At its core, a computer is just

More information

Encoding Systems: Combining Bits to form Bytes

Encoding Systems: Combining Bits to form Bytes Encoding Systems: Combining Bits to form Bytes Alphanumeric characters are represented in computer storage by combining strings of bits to form unique bit configuration for each character, also called

More information

Tutorial-3a: First steps with C++ programming

Tutorial-3a: First steps with C++ programming HTTP://WWW.HEP.LU.SE/COURSES/MNXB01 Introduction to Programming and Computing for Scientists (2015 HT) Tutorial-3a: First steps with C++ programming Programming for Scientists Tutorial 3a 1 / 17 Quick

More information

Simple C++ Programs. Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber. Dev-C++ Dev-C++ Windows Friendly Exit. The C++ Programming Language

Simple C++ Programs. Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber. Dev-C++ Dev-C++ Windows Friendly Exit. The C++ Programming Language Simple C++ Programs Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber Chapter 2 Simple C++ Programs Program Structure Constants and Variables C++ Operators Standard Input and Output Basic Functions from

More information

INTRODUCTION TO FLOWCHARTING

INTRODUCTION TO FLOWCHARTING CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO FLOWCHARTING 1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Flowcharts 1.3 Types of Flowcharts 1.3.1 Types of flowchart 1.3.2 System flowcharts 1.4 Flowchart Symbols 1.5 Advantages of Flowcharts

More information

Number Representation

Number Representation Number Representation CS10001: Programming & Data Structures Pallab Dasgupta Professor, Dept. of Computer Sc. & Engg., Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Topics to be Discussed How are numeric data

More information

Huazhong University of Science and Technology JAVA Programming Language Lecture 2:Variables and Data Types

Huazhong University of Science and Technology JAVA Programming Language Lecture 2:Variables and Data Types JAVA Programming Language Lecture 2:Variables and Data Types Chengwei Zhang ( 张成伟 ) School of Electronic Information and Communications Huazhong University of Science and Technology Mar. 2015 Outline Quick

More information

Number Systems and. Data Representation

Number Systems and. Data Representation Number Systems and Data Representation 1 Lecture Outline Number Systems Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal Representation of characters using codes Representation of Numbers Integer, Floating Point, Binary Coded

More information

C++ Basics. C++ Basics: Names: Identifiers. Names: Identifiers. Display 2.1 A C++ Program (1 of 2) Display 2.1 A C++ Program (2 of 2)

C++ Basics. C++ Basics: Names: Identifiers. Names: Identifiers. Display 2.1 A C++ Program (1 of 2) Display 2.1 A C++ Program (2 of 2) C++ Basics C++ Basics: 2.1 Variables and Assignments Variables and Assignments Input and Output Data Types and Expressions Simple Flow of Control Program Style A C++ variable can hold a number or other

More information

Chapter II Binary Data Representation

Chapter II Binary Data Representation Chapter II Binary Data Representation The atomic unit of data in computer systems is the bit, which is actually an acronym that stands for BInary digit. It can hold only 2 values or states: 0 or 1, true

More information

Y = abc = a b c.2 0

Y = abc = a b c.2 0 Chapter 2 Bits, Data Types & Operations Integer Representation Floating-point Representation Other data types Why do Computers use Base 2? Base 10 Number Representation Natural representation for human

More information

Presented By: Ms. Poonam Anand

Presented By: Ms. Poonam Anand Presented By: Ms. Poonam Anand Know the different types of numbers Describe positional notation Convert numbers in other bases to base 10 Convert base 10 numbers into numbers of other bases Describe the

More information

Chapter One Introduction to Programming

Chapter One Introduction to Programming Chapter One Introduction to Programming 1-1 Algorithm and Flowchart Algorithm is a step-by-step procedure for calculation. More precisely, algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of

More information

Data Representation. Representing Data

Data Representation. Representing Data Data Representation COMP 1002/1402 Representing Data A computer s basic unit of information is: a bit (Binary digit) An addressable memory cell is a byte (8 bits) Capable of storing one character 10101010

More information

GETTING STARTED WITH C++ C++ BASICS - 1 -

GETTING STARTED WITH C++ C++ BASICS - 1 - - 1 - GETTING STARTED WITH C++ Programming is a core activity in the process of performing tasks or solving problems with the aid of a computer. An idealised picture is: PROBLEM COMPUTER SOLUTION Unfortunately

More information

C Programming Dr. Hasan Demirel

C Programming Dr. Hasan Demirel C How to Program, H. M. Deitel and P. J. Deitel, Prentice Hall, 5 th edition (3 rd edition or above is also OK). Introduction to C Programming Dr. Hasan Demirel Programming Languages There are three types

More information

Informatica e Sistemi in Tempo Reale

Informatica e Sistemi in Tempo Reale Informatica e Sistemi in Tempo Reale Introduction to C programming Giuseppe Lipari http://retis.sssup.it/~lipari Scuola Superiore Sant Anna Pisa October 25, 2010 G. Lipari (Scuola Superiore Sant Anna)

More information

Introduction to Scientific Programming with C++

Introduction to Scientific Programming with C++ Introduction to Scientific Programming with C++ Session 0: Basics Martin Uhrin and Seto Balian UCL December 17-19th 2014 1 / 25 Table of Contents 1 Introduction to language 2 Program structure 3 Variables,

More information

Introduction to Programming

Introduction to Programming Introduction to Programming SS 2012 Adrian Kacso, Univ. Siegen adriana.dkacsoa@duni-siegena.de Tel.: 0271/740-3966, Office: H-B 8406 Stand: April 25, 2012 Betriebssysteme / verteilte Systeme Introduction

More information

Lecture Set 2: Starting Java

Lecture Set 2: Starting Java Lecture Set 2: Starting Java 1. Java Concepts 2. Java Programming Basics 3. User output 4. Variables and types 5. Expressions 6. User input 7. Uninitialized Variables CMSC 131 - Lecture Outlines - set

More information

[Page 70 (continued)] a. are used to document a program and improve its readability. [Page 71]

[Page 70 (continued)] a. are used to document a program and improve its readability. [Page 71] [Page 70 (continued)] Exercises 2.7 Discuss the meaning of each of the following objects: a. std::cin b. std::cout 2.8 Fill in the blanks in each of the following: a. are used to document a program and

More information

Chapter 2. Values, Variables, and Types. 2.1 Java Values in DrJava s Interaction Pane

Chapter 2. Values, Variables, and Types. 2.1 Java Values in DrJava s Interaction Pane 14 Chapter 2 Values, Variables, and Types In this chapter we explore the primitive building blocks that are used to develop Java programs. We experiment with the following concepts within DrJava s interactive

More information

Introduction to C++ Programming

Introduction to C++ Programming cpphtp5_02.fm Page 36 Wednesday, December 15, 2004 11:11 AM 2 Introduction to C++ Programming OBJECTIVES In this chapter you will learn: To write simple computer programs in C++. To write simple input

More information

Introduction to Programming

Introduction to Programming Introduction to Programming SS 2012 Adrian Kacso, Univ. Siegen adriana.dkacsoa@duni-siegena.de Tel.: 0271/740-3966, Office: H-B 8406 Stand: April 25, 2012 Betriebssysteme / verteilte Systeme Introduction

More information

Recall that in base 10, the digits of a number are just coefficients of powers of the base (10):

Recall that in base 10, the digits of a number are just coefficients of powers of the base (10): Binary Number System 1 Base 10 digits: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Base 2 digits: 0 1 Recall that in base 10, the digits of a number are just coefficients of powers of the base (10): 417 = 4 * 10 2 + 1 * 10 1

More information

Computer Science 281 Binary and Hexadecimal Review

Computer Science 281 Binary and Hexadecimal Review Computer Science 281 Binary and Hexadecimal Review 1 The Binary Number System Computers store everything, both instructions and data, by using many, many transistors, each of which can be in one of two

More information

Chapter 4 Intro to Programming in C++

Chapter 4 Intro to Programming in C++ Chapter 4 Intro to Programming in C++ 4-1 Computer Programming Earlier we defined an algorithm to be a step by step process for solving a problem. Computer programming is the process of implementing the

More information

Outline TOPIC 2 INTRODUCTION TO JAVA AND DR JAVA. What is DrJava? Dr Java

Outline TOPIC 2 INTRODUCTION TO JAVA AND DR JAVA. What is DrJava? Dr Java 1 Outline TOPIC 2 INTRODUCTION TO JAVA AND DR JAVA Notes adapted from Introduction to Computing and Programming with Java: A Multimedia Approach by M. Guzdial and B. Ericson, and instructor materials prepared

More information

Variables and Constants. Variable A location in computer's memory in which a value may be stored from which that value may be retrieved

Variables and Constants. Variable A location in computer's memory in which a value may be stored from which that value may be retrieved Variables and Constants Variable A location in computer's memory in which a value may be stored from which that value may be retrieved Storage of Variables Setting Aside Memory Defining a variable in C++

More information

Variables and Constants

Variables and Constants HOUR 3 Variables and Constants What You ll Learn in This Hour:. How to declare and define variables and constants. How to assign values to variables and manipulate those values. How to write the value

More information

Introduction to Java Applications. 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Java Applications. 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 2 Introduction to Java Applications 2.2 First Program in Java: Printing a Line of Text 2 Application Executes when you use the java command to launch the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) Sample program Displays

More information

Number Representation

Number Representation Number Representation Number System :: The Basics We are accustomed to using the so-called decimal number system Ten digits ::,,,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 Every digit position has a weight which is a power of Base

More information

School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh

School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh CS1Ah Lecture Note 5 Java Expressions Many Java statements can contain expressions, which are program phrases that tell how to compute a data value. Expressions can involve arithmetic calculation and method

More information

C Syntax and Semantics

C Syntax and Semantics C Syntax and Semantics 1 C Program Structure C Language Elements Preprocessor directives Function Header, and Function body Executable statements Reserved word, Standard identifiers, user defined identifiers

More information

EM108 Software Development for Engineers Section 5 Storing Information

EM108 Software Development for Engineers Section 5 Storing Information EM108 5 Storing Information page 1 of 11 EM108 Software Development for Engineers Section 5 Storing Information 5.1 Motivation: Various information types o Various types of numbers o Text o Images, Audios,

More information

Digital Logic. The Binary System is a way of writing numbers using only the digits 0 and 1. This is the method used by the (digital) computer.

Digital Logic. The Binary System is a way of writing numbers using only the digits 0 and 1. This is the method used by the (digital) computer. Digital Logic 1 Data Representations 1.1 The Binary System The Binary System is a way of writing numbers using only the digits 0 and 1. This is the method used by the (digital) computer. The system we

More information

Binary Number System. 16. Binary Numbers. Base 10 digits: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9. Base 2 digits: 0 1

Binary Number System. 16. Binary Numbers. Base 10 digits: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9. Base 2 digits: 0 1 Binary Number System 1 Base 10 digits: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Base 2 digits: 0 1 Recall that in base 10, the digits of a number are just coefficients of powers of the base (10): 417 = 4 * 10 2 + 1 * 10 1

More information

Primitive Data Types Summer 2010 Margaret Reid-Miller

Primitive Data Types Summer 2010 Margaret Reid-Miller Primitive Data Types 15-110 Summer 2010 Margaret Reid-Miller Data Types Data stored in memory is a string of bits (0 or 1). What does 1000010 mean? 66? 'B'? 9.2E-44? How the computer interprets the string

More information

Radix Number Systems. Number Systems. Number Systems 4/26/2010. basic idea of a radix number system how do we count:

Radix Number Systems. Number Systems. Number Systems 4/26/2010. basic idea of a radix number system how do we count: Number Systems binary, octal, and hexadecimal numbers why used conversions, including to/from decimal negative binary numbers floating point numbers character codes basic idea of a radix number system

More information

Computer is a binary digital system. Data. Unsigned Integers (cont.) Unsigned Integers. Binary (base two) system: Has two states: 0 and 1

Computer is a binary digital system. Data. Unsigned Integers (cont.) Unsigned Integers. Binary (base two) system: Has two states: 0 and 1 Computer Programming Programming Language Is telling the computer how to do something Wikipedia Definition: Applies specific programming languages to solve specific computational problems with solutions

More information

LSN 2 Number Systems. ECT 224 Digital Computer Fundamentals. Department of Engineering Technology

LSN 2 Number Systems. ECT 224 Digital Computer Fundamentals. Department of Engineering Technology LSN 2 Number Systems Department of Engineering Technology LSN 2 Decimal Number System Decimal number system has 10 digits (0-9) Base 10 weighting system... 10 5 10 4 10 3 10 2 10 1 10 0. 10-1 10-2 10-3

More information

UNIT-1. C Programming & Data Structures. Introduction to Computers: Computing Environment: Types of Computing Environments:

UNIT-1. C Programming & Data Structures. Introduction to Computers: Computing Environment: Types of Computing Environments: Introduction to Computers: C Programming & Data Structures UNIT-1 A computer system consists of hardware and software. Computer hardware is the collection of physical elements that comprise a computer

More information

Chapter 2: Elements of Java

Chapter 2: Elements of Java Chapter 2: Elements of Java Basic components of a Java program Primitive data types Arithmetic expressions Type casting. The String type (introduction) Basic I/O statements Importing packages. 1 Introduction

More information

2.1 Binary Numbers. 2.3 Number System Conversion. From Binary to Decimal. From Decimal to Binary. Section 2 Binary Number System Page 1 of 8

2.1 Binary Numbers. 2.3 Number System Conversion. From Binary to Decimal. From Decimal to Binary. Section 2 Binary Number System Page 1 of 8 Section Binary Number System Page 1 of 8.1 Binary Numbers The number system we use is a positional number system meaning that the position of each digit has an associated weight. The value of a given number

More information

Number Systems and Base Conversions

Number Systems and Base Conversions Number Systems and Base Conversions As you know, the number system that we commonly use is the decimal or base- 10 number system. That system has 10 digits, 0 through 9. While it's very convenient for

More information

VARIABLES AND ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS

VARIABLES AND ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS CHAPTER3 CHAPTER TOPICS In this chapter, you will learn how to: Work with variables Perform arithmetic calculations Use mathematical functions VARIABLES AND ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS 67 68 V ARIABLES AND ARITHMETIC

More information

2010/9/19. Binary number system. Binary numbers. Outline. Binary to decimal

2010/9/19. Binary number system. Binary numbers. Outline. Binary to decimal 2/9/9 Binary number system Computer (electronic) systems prefer binary numbers Binary number: represent a number in base-2 Binary numbers 2 3 + 7 + 5 Some terminology Bit: a binary digit ( or ) Hexadecimal

More information

CMSC 106 Lecture Set #2. C language syntax. Syntax vs Semantics Examples

CMSC 106 Lecture Set #2. C language syntax. Syntax vs Semantics Examples CMSC 106 Lecture Set #2 C Language Introduction C language syntax Syntax rules of the grammar vocabulary recognized by the language ANSI standard American National Standards Institute Semantics the meaning

More information

Overview of a C Program

Overview of a C Program Overview of a C Program Programming with C CSCI 112, Spring 2015 Patrick Donnelly Montana State University Programming with C (CSCI 112) Spring 2015 2 / 42 C Language Components Preprocessor Directives

More information

Dept. of CSE, IIT KGP

Dept. of CSE, IIT KGP Basic Programming Concepts CS10001: Programming & Data Structures Pallab Dasgupta Professor, Dept. of Computer Sc. & Engg., Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Some Terminologies Algorithm / Flowchart

More information

Which of the following is the correct operator to compare two variables? A. := B. = C. equal D. ==

Which of the following is the correct operator to compare two variables? A. := B. = C. equal D. == Group 1 Question 1. What is the correct value to return to the operating system upon the successful completion of a program? A. -1 B. 1 C. 0 D. Programs do not return a value. Question 2. What is the only

More information

CS201- Introduction to Programming Latest Solved Mcqs from Final term Papers July 11,2011

CS201- Introduction to Programming Latest Solved Mcqs from Final term Papers July 11,2011 CS201- Introduction to Programming Latest Solved Mcqs from Final term Papers July 11,2011 Mc100401285 moaaz.pk@gmail.com Moaaz Siddiq Bc100400662 bc100400662asad@gmail.com Asad Ali Latest Mcqs FINALTERM

More information

Chapter 3 Basic Input & Output

Chapter 3 Basic Input & Output Chapter 3 Basic Input & Output 3-1 Basic Output in C++ cout is a predefined variable in C++ that indicates you are going to output a stream of characters to an output device. cout uses an operator called

More information

CSC 1103: Digital Logic. Lecture Six: Data Representation

CSC 1103: Digital Logic. Lecture Six: Data Representation CSC 1103: Digital Logic Lecture Six: Data Representation Martin Ngobye mngobye@must.ac.ug Mbarara University of Science and Technology MAN (MUST) CSC 1103 1 / 32 Outline 1 Digital Computers 2 Number Systems

More information

Chapter 4 Operators & Arithmetic

Chapter 4 Operators & Arithmetic Chapter 4 Operators & Arithmetic 4-1 Arithmetic in C++ Arithmetic expressions can be made up of constants, variables, operators and parentheses. The arithmetic operators in C++ are as follows + (addition)

More information

PE1 Worksheet. 3) What are the three control structures for writing an algorithm in pseudocode?

PE1 Worksheet. 3) What are the three control structures for writing an algorithm in pseudocode? PE1 Worksheet Problem solving 1) What are the four stages of problem solving by programming? What shall be done in each stage? Stage 1: Stage 2: Stage 3: Stage 4: 2) What is the top-down design strategy

More information

Today s topics. Java programs. Java Virtual Machine (JVM) Bytecodes. HelloWorld.java javac HelloWorld.class

Today s topics. Java programs. Java Virtual Machine (JVM) Bytecodes. HelloWorld.java javac HelloWorld.class Today s topics Java programs Parsing Java Programming Notes from Tammy Bailey Reading Great Ideas, Chapter 3 & 4 Java programs are created as text files using a text editor (like emacs) Save to disk with.java

More information

Final Exam Review. CS 1428 Fall Jill Seaman. Final Exam

Final Exam Review. CS 1428 Fall Jill Seaman. Final Exam Final Exam Review CS 1428 Fall 2011 Jill Seaman 1 Final Exam Friday, December 9, 11:00am to 1:30pm Derr 241 (here) Closed book, closed notes, clean desk Comprehensive (covers entire course) 25% of your

More information

Motivations. Chapter 2: Elementary Programming. Introducing Programming with an Example 7/18/16. CS1: Java Programming Colorado State University

Motivations. Chapter 2: Elementary Programming. Introducing Programming with an Example 7/18/16. CS1: Java Programming Colorado State University Chapter 2: Elementary Programming CS1: Java Programming Colorado State University Original slides by Daniel Liang Modified slides by Chris Wilcox Motivations In the preceding chapter, you learned how to

More information

Number Representation

Number Representation Number Representation COMP375 Computer Organization and darchitecture t How do we represent data in a computer? At the lowest level, a computer is an electronic machine. works by controlling the flow of

More information

C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition. Chapter 4: Control Structures I (Selection)

C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition. Chapter 4: Control Structures I (Selection) C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition Chapter 4: Control Structures I (Selection) Objectives In this chapter, you will: Learn about control structures Examine relational

More information

Data types. lecture 4

Data types. lecture 4 Data types lecture 4 Information in digital computers is represented using binary number system. The base, i.e. radix, of the binary system is 2. Other common number systems: octal (base 8), decimal (base

More information

CSc 28 Data representation. CSc 28 Fall

CSc 28 Data representation. CSc 28 Fall CSc 28 Data representation 1 Binary numbers Binary number is simply a number comprised of only 0's and 1's. Computers use binary numbers because it's easy for them to communicate using electrical current

More information

Key concepts. C++ character set. Tokens. Keywords Identifiers Literals Punctuators Operators. Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

Key concepts. C++ character set. Tokens. Keywords Identifiers Literals Punctuators Operators. Integrated Development Environment (IDE) 5 1 Key concepts C++ character set Tokens o o o o o Keywords Identifiers Literals Punctuators Operators Integrated Development Environment (IDE) o o Turbo C++ IDE Geany IDE C++ (pronounced "C plus plus")

More information

Java: Primitive Data Types, Variables and Constants

Java: Primitive Data Types, Variables and Constants Java: Primitive Data Types, Variables and Constants Introduction A primitive data type is a data type provided as a basic building block by a programming language. It is predefined by the programming language

More information

C programming. Intro to syntax & basic operations

C programming. Intro to syntax & basic operations C programming Intro to syntax & basic operations Example 1: simple calculation with I/O Program, line by line Line 1: preprocessor directive; used to incorporate code from existing library not actually

More information

Java : Data types, Identifiers and Operators. Instructor: Nihshanka Debroy

Java : Data types, Identifiers and Operators. Instructor: Nihshanka Debroy Java : Data types, Identifiers and Operators Instructor: Nihshanka Debroy Java Programs Can use a text editor to type out Java code Save as a file with.java extension (Example: HelloWorld.java) File contains

More information

The programming language C. sws1 1

The programming language C. sws1 1 The programming language C sws1 1 The programming language C invented by Dennis Ritchie in early 1970s who used it to write the first Hello World program C was used to write UNIX Standardised as K&C (Kernighan

More information

CS 16: Assembly Language Programming for the IBM PC and Compatibles

CS 16: Assembly Language Programming for the IBM PC and Compatibles CS 16: Assembly Language Programming for the IBM PC and Compatibles First, a little about you Your name Have you ever worked with/used/played with assembly language? If so, talk about it Why are you taking

More information

Java Review (Essentials of Java for Hadoop)

Java Review (Essentials of Java for Hadoop) Java Review (Essentials of Java for Hadoop) Have You Joined Our LinkedIn Group? What is Java? Java JRE - Java is not just a programming language but it is a complete platform for object oriented programming.

More information

Here 4 is the least significant digit (LSD) and 2 is the most significant digit (MSD).

Here 4 is the least significant digit (LSD) and 2 is the most significant digit (MSD). Number System Introduction Number systems provide the basis for all operations in information processing systems. In a number system the information is divided into a group of symbols; for example, 26

More information

Part IA Computing Course Tutorial Guide to C++ Programming

Part IA Computing Course Tutorial Guide to C++ Programming Part IA Computing Course Tutorial Guide to C++ Programming Roberto Cipolla Department of Engineering University of Cambridge September 1, 2004 This document provides an introduction to computing and the

More information

THE BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

THE BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM THE BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM Dr. Robert P. Webber, Longwood University Our civilization uses the base 10 or decimal place value system. Each digit in a number represents a power of 10. For example, 365.42

More information

Pointer. Accessing address of a variable POINTER.

Pointer. Accessing address of a variable POINTER. www.cppforschool.com Pointer Accessing address of a variable Computer s memory is organized as a linear collection of bytes. Every byte in the computer s memory has an address. Each variable in program

More information

Chapter 4. Binary Data Representation and Binary Arithmetic

Chapter 4. Binary Data Representation and Binary Arithmetic Christian Jacob Chapter 4 Binary Data Representation and Binary Arithmetic 4.1 Binary Data Representation 4.2 Important Number Systems for Computers 4.2.1 Number System Basics 4.2.2 Useful Number Systems

More information

Systems I: Computer Organization and Architecture

Systems I: Computer Organization and Architecture Systems I: Computer Organization and Architecture Lecture 2: Number Systems and Arithmetic Number Systems - Base The number system that we use is base : 734 = + 7 + 3 + 4 = x + 7x + 3x + 4x = x 3 + 7x

More information