CONTINUED FRACTIONS, PELL S EQUATION, AND TRANSCENDENTAL NUMBERS

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1 CONTINUED FRACTIONS, PELL S EQUATION, AND TRANSCENDENTAL NUMBERS JEREMY BOOHER Continued fractions usually get short-changed at PROMYS, but they are interesting in their own right and useful in other areas of number theory For example, they given a way to write a prime congruent to modulo 4 as a sum of two squares They can also be used to break RSA encryption when the decryption key is too small Our first goal will be to show that continued fractions are the best approximations of real numbers in a way to be made precise later Then we will look at their connection to lines of irrational slope in the plane, Pell s Equation, and their further role in number theory Basic Properties First, let s establish notation For β R, let β 0 := β and define The nth convergent to β is the fraction a i := [β i ] and β i+ := [a 0, a,, a n ] := a 0 + β i a i a + + an The numerator and denominator, when this fraction is written in lowest terms, are denoted by and By a simple induction, we have that β = a 0 + a + + a n + βn = [a 0, a,, a n, β n ] If at any point the remainder β i is an integer, this process stops In this case we know that β is a rational number Likewise, it is clear that if β is rational then this process terminates From now on, we will usually assume that β is irrational so that this process does not terminate Our first observation is about which [a 0, a,, a n ] are less than β Proposition If n is even, [a 0, a,, a n ] is less than β, otherwise it is greater Proof The proof uses the following simple lemma Lemma 2 For any a i of length n, if a n < a n and if n is even then If n is odd then the reverse inequality holds [a 0, a,, a n ] < [a 0, a,, a n] Proof We use induction on n For n = 0, a 0 < a 0 is the desired conclusion Otherwise, write [a 0, a,, a n ] = a 0 + [a,, a n ] Date: August 8, 20

2 2 JEREMY BOOHER Suppose n is even By the inductive hypothesis, the denominator is less than [a,, a n] Thus [a 0, a,, a n ] < a 0 + [a,, a n] = [a 0, a,, a n] If n is odd, the denominator is greater and the reverse inequality follows We can now prove the Proposition Note that β = [a 0, a,, β n ] and that β n > a n (we can t have equality since β is irrational by assumption) By the lemma, if n is even [a 0, a,, β n ] > [a 0, a,, a n ] and if n is odd [a 0, a,, β n ] < [a 0, a,, a n ] The next order of business is to derive the recursive formula for and The following method is not the most direct but will be useful later Definition 3 Define {a 0 } := a 0 and {a 0, a } := a a 0 + Then inductively define {a 0, a,, a n } := {a 0, a,, a n }a n + {a 0, a,, a n 2 } The a i do not a priori need to arise from a continued fraction Proposition 4 (Euler) Let S k be the set of all increasing sequences of length n + 2k obtained by deleting m and m + from {0,,, n} k times in succession With the convention that the empty product is, define l k (a 0, a,, a n ) := a b0 a b a bn 2k (b 0,,b n 2k ) S k Then {a 0, a,, a n } = 0 k n+ l k(a 0, a,, a n ) Proof The proof proceeds by induction on n For n = 0, {a 0 } = a 0 and l 0 (a 0 ) = a 0 For n =, {a 0, a } = a 0 a + We know that l 0 (a 0, a ) = a 0 a and l (a 0, a ) =, the empty product In general, assume the assertion holds up to length n Then {a 0, a,, a n } has length n +, but by definition it is {a 0, a,, a n }a n + {a 0, a,, a n 2 } By the inductive hypothesis, this equals l k (a 0,, a n ) + a n 0 k n 0 j n l j (a 0,, a n 2 ) The terms in the second sum are all products of a i (0 i n) where the last two terms (and possibly more) are left out, while the terms in the first sum are all products of the a i with consecutive pairs left out that including a n Every product of the a i s arising by deleting multiple consecutive terms arises through exactly one of these two ways Thus we conclude {a 0, a,, a n } = l k (a 0,, a n ) 0 k n+ Example 5 Although this seems complicated, all of the hardness is in the notation For the case of n = 3, all this is asserting is that {a 0, a, a 2, a 3 } = a 0 a a 2 a 3 + a 0 a + a 0 a 3 + a 2 a 3 + Every term in this sum is obtained by deleting zero, one, or two pairs of consecutive a i If we look at {a 0, a, a 2, a 3, a 4 }, when we remove pairs of consecutive terms we either remove a 3 and a 4 or we don t If we do, then all the terms we are adding up are just terms in the sum for {a 0, a, a 2 } If we don t, then a 4 is in each of the terms and we can remove zero or more pairs of consecutive

3 CONTINUED FRACTIONS, PELL S EQUATION, AND TRANSCENDENTAL NUMBERS 3 terms from a 0,, a 3 and add the products up By induction, this is a 4 {a 0, a, a 2, a 3 } Explicitly, we have {a 0, a, a 2, a 3, a 4 } = a 4 (a 0 a a 2 a 3 + a 0 a + a 0 a 3 + a 2 a 3 + ) + a 0 a a 2 + a 0 + a 2 This also has a combinatorial interpretation {a 0, a,, a n } is the number of ways to tile a by n + strip with two kinds of tiles: by 2 rectangles and by squares, where rectangles may not overlap anything but squares may stack, with up to a i of them on the ith place on the strip Corollary 6 We have that {a 0, a, a 2,, a n } = {a n, a n,, a 0 } Proof Note that the description in the Proposition depends only on which a i are consecutive, not the actual ordering Therefore the two expressions are equal The next proposition will later be interpreted as a fact about determinants and about the difference between two fractions Proposition 7 For a 0,, a n, we have {a 0, a,, a n, a n }{a,, a n } {a,, a n, a n }{a 0, a,, a n } = ( ) n+ Proof The n = 0 and n = cases are trivial By induction, suppose it holds for n Then using the definition of {a 0,, a i }, {a 0, a,, a n, a n }{a,, a n } {a,, a n, a n }{a 0, a,, a n } = (a n {a 0, a,, a n } + {a 0, a,, a n 2 }) {a,, a n } ({a,, a n }a n + {a,, a n 2 }) {a 0, a,, a n } = {a 0, a,, a n 2 }{a,, a n } {a,, a n 2 }{a 0, a,, a n } = ( ) n = ( ) n+ by the inductive hypothesis We can now prove the standard recursive formulas for and Proposition 8 Let β = [a 0, a, a 2, ] be a continued fraction The numerator and denominators of the nth convergent are {a 0, a,, a n } and {a, a 2,, a n } Thus they can be calculated recursively by the formulas = a n + 2 and = a n + 2 Proof As usual, the proof proceeds by induction For n = 0 or n =, the convergents are a 0 and a 0 + a, the numerators are a 0 and {a 0, a } = a 0 a +, and the denominators are and a Now assume this holds for the n th convergent of any continued fraction In particular, we know that [a, a 2,, a n ] = {a, a 2,, a n } {a 2,, a n } since it is of length n while = a 0 + by definition Thus combining the fractions [a, a 2,, a n ] gives = a 0{a,, a n } + {a 2,, a n } {a,, a n } = a 0{a n, a n,, a } + {a n, a n,, a 2 } {a,, a n } = {a n, a n,, a 0 } {a,, a n } (Corollary 6) (Definition) = {a 0, a,, a n } (Corollary 6) {a,, a n }

4 4 JEREMY BOOHER To show these are in fact and, we need to know they are relatively prime This follows from Proposition 7 Finally, there is one more formula similar to Proposition 7 we will need Proposition 9 For any continued fraction, 2 2 = ( ) n a n Proof This will follow from Proposition 7 For n 2, we calculate 2 2 = (a n + 2 ) 2 (a n + 2 ) 2 = a n ( 2 2 ) = ( ) n a n 2 Continued Fractions as Best Approximations The previous algebraic work gives us plenty of information about the convergence of continued fractions Theorem 0 The convergents pn to β actually converge to β More precisely, we know β < + Furthermore, the even convergents are less than β and the odd convergents are greater than β Proof Rewriting Propositions 7 and 9 in terms of fractions, we have = ( )n and 2 2 = ( )n a n 2 In particular, the second shows that the sequence p q, p 3 q 3, p 5 q 5, is a monotonic increasing sequence Likewise, p 0 q 0, p 2 q 2, p 4 q 4, is a monotonic decreasing sequence This implies that the sequences converge or diverge to ± However, the first equation shows that the even and odd convergents become arbitrarily close, hence the two series converge to the same thing We know that the odd convergents are greater than β and the even ones less because of Proposition, so the convergents converge to β Since consecutive convergents are on opposite sides of β, β < + = + + Corollary With the previous notation, β < Proof By definition, + = a n + + Remark 2 Because + = a n + +, the denominators grow at least as fast as the Fibonacci numbers, so is exponential in n Calculating just a few convergents can provide very good approximations of irrational numbers We can say something stronger about one of every two convergents Proposition 3 At least one of every pair of consecutive convergents satisfies β < q 2 n 2q 2 n

5 CONTINUED FRACTIONS, PELL S EQUATION, AND TRANSCENDENTAL NUMBERS 5 Proof Suppose neither of pn and + + satisfy this Then because β lies between them we have that p n+ = β + + β + > 2 ( β)( + β) + + by the arithmetic-geometric mean inequality This is a strict inequality because pn β and + + β cannot be equal as β is irrational By our assumption we have p n+ = 2 ( β)( p n+ β) + 2 = + + This is a contradiction with Proposition 7, which says + = + + 2qn 2 2qn+ 2 Infinitely many convergents also exist for which we can replace the 2 with a 5 The 5 is optimal, as can be seen by looking at But excluding this number, 2 2 works For more details, see Hardy and Wright It is also possibly so put a limit on how good an approximation a convergent can be As always, remember that this is for irrational numbers only Proposition 4 For any convergent pn to β, one has that β > (+ + ) Proof Since the odd and even convergents form monotonic sequences, is Thus β > = a n+2 +2 But +2 = a n+2 + +, so so we conclude a n+2 +2 > + + /a n+2 > + + β > (+ + ) is closer to β than pn The next step is to investigate in what sense continued fractions are the best approximations to irrational numbers There are several different ways to measure this The first is simply to look at p q β versus, as suggested by the previous propositions q 2 Theorem 5 Suppose p q β < 2q 2 Then p q is a convergent to β The proof of this will rely on a different notion of closeness that is motivated by viewing irrational numbers as slopes of lines and continued fractions as lattice points close to the line This will be discussed in the next section For now, we will show the following: Proposition 6 Suppose p qβ β and 0 < q < + Then q = and p = Proof The key fact is that the matrix ( ) pn + +

6 6 JEREMY BOOHER has determinant ± (Proposition 7), so there are integer solutions (u, v) to the system of equations p = u + v+ and q = u + v+ Note that uv 0: if u and v were of the same sign and nonzero, then q > + which contradicts our hypothesis Now write p qβ = u( β ) + v(+ β+ ) Since consecutive convergents lie on opposite sides of β and uv 0, u( β ) and v(+ β+ ) have the same sign, or one is zero This means p qβ = u( β ) + v(+ β+ ) For this to be less than β, we must have either u = and v = 0 or have that u = 0 In the latter case, q is a multiple of +, a contradiction If the former, then since q is positive u must be as well, so q = u + v+ = and p = u + v+ = and we are done With this, we can prove Theorem 5 Proof Suppose p q β < 2q 2 If p and q are not relatively prime, say p = dp and q = dq then p q β < 2d 2 (q ) 2 2(q ) 2 so we may assume p and q are relatively prime We may also assume that q is positive by possibly changing signs If p q is not a convergent, we can pick n so that < q < + In the case that p qβ β then by the previous proposition p = and q = Thus we may assume that p qβ β and so β < 2q Now we can calculate p q p n p q β + β < 2 q + 2q 2 2 q + = 2q q However, p q = p q q and since the numerator is either 0 or a positive integer it must be zero which implies that p q is a convergent to β This justifies the informal contention that convergents are the best approximation to irrational numbers However, there can be other fractions which nevertheless are very good approximations as well if the meaning of very good is changed slightly For example, there may be other fractions that satisfy p q β < and < q < + For example, 8 3 2q 2 n 37 and 4 are consecutive convergents to 7 However, 3 5 satisfies < It turns out that 3 5 arises as the term between two previous convergents 8 3 and 5 2 in a Farey sequence It is their mediant and because it is a good approximation is called a semi-convergent Note it is not as good an approximation as a convergent relative to the size of its denominator since > 2 5 2

7 CONTINUED FRACTIONS, PELL S EQUATION, AND TRANSCENDENTAL NUMBERS 7 3 Continued Fractions, Lines of Irrational Slope, and Lattice Points A geometric way to make sense of continued fractions is to view β as the line y = βx passing through the origin and represent rational numbers p q as the lattice point (q, p) The distance between a point (x 0, y 0 ) and the line ax + by + c = 0 is ax 0 + by 0 + c a 2 + b 2 Thus the distance between (q, p) and y = βx is βq p Up to a scaling factor, this is the definition β 2 + of distance that appeared in Proposition 6 Reinterpreting it in the language of lines and lattice points, we see: Theorem 7 Let y = βx be a line with irrational slope and pn be the nth convergent to β If (q, p) is closer to the line than (, ) and q < +, then q = and p = The key step in the proof, writing p = u + v+ and q = u + v+, is just expressing the vector (p, q) as a linear combination of the two nearest convergents (, ) and (+, + ) which are generators for the standard lattice Interpreting other algebraic facts in this context, we see that the convergents are alternatingly above and below the line Furthermore, the estimates on how close convergents are to β give estimates on how well the line px qy = 0 approximates the slope of y βx = 0 It is possible to prove all of the algebraic statements in the first section geometrically using this picture See for example An Introduction to Number Theory by Harold Stark 4 Pell s Equation Continued fractions provide a way to analyze solutions to Pell s equation and its relatives x 2 dy 2 = r when r is small compared to d All integral solutions come from convergents to d Theorem 8 Let d be a positive square free integer and r Z satisfy r 2 + r d Suppose x and y are positive integers that satisfy x 2 dy 2 = r Then x y is a convergent to d Proof First, a bit of algebra Since y, we have that r + d is minimized when r is negative y 2 and y = Thus we have r d + d r + y 2 d + d r r r By hypothesis, d > r and d r r 2 Thus we have d r + r y 2 + d r > 2 Now since (x dy)(x + dy) = r we know that x y d = r y(x + dy) = r y 2 ( d + r/y 2 + d) < 2y 2 by the previous algebraic computation By Theorem 5, x y is a convergent to d Since all small values of x 2 dy 2 arise from convergents, if x 2 dy 2 = is to have a solution it must arise from a convergent to d Theorem 9 Pell s equation x 2 dy 2 = has a non-trivial solution for any square-free integer d

8 8 JEREMY BOOHER Proof Any convergent p q to d satisfies p q + d < + 2 d since p q can be at most one away from d Combining this with Proposition, we see that p 2 dq 2 < + 2 d q 2 q 2 = + 2 d There are an infinite number of convergents since d is irrational, and only a finite number of choices for p 2 dq 2, so there must be an r with an infinite number of convergents satisfying p 2 dq 2 = r There are only a finite number of choices for (p, q) to reduce to modulo r, and an infinite number of convergents satisfying the equation, so there two distinct convergents (p 0, q 0 ) and (p, q ) with p 0 p mod r and q 0 q mod r and p 2 0 dq 2 0 = p 2 dq 2 = r Then looking at the ratio u = p 0 + q 0 d = (p 0 + q 0 d)(p q d) p + q d r = p 0p dq 0 q + d(p q 0 q p 0 ) r Since p 0 p dq 0 q p 2 0 dq2 0 0 mod r and p q 0 q p 0 0 mod r, the ratio u is of the form p + q d with p, q Z Since the norm from Q( d) to Z is multiplicative, u has norm Therefore Pell s equation has a non-trivial solution Now that we have one non-trivial solution, we can determine all solutions to the equations x 2 dy 2 = This is easiest to understand in terms of the arithmetic of Q( d) The key fact is that the norm of x + y d is x 2 dy 2 and is a multiplicative function Q( d) Q The units in the ring of integers are elements with norm ±, so we will first investigate solutions to x 2 dy 2 = ± We first define a fundamental solution Definition 20 A solution (x, y) to Pell s equation x 2 dy 2 = ± is a fundamental solution if x and y are positive, x >, and there is no solution (x, y ) with x and y positive and x > x > A fundamental solution always exists since given any non-trivial solution we can negate x and y and obtain a solution with x and y positive; there are a finite number of smaller positive values of x, so there is a smallest Theorem 2 Let d be a square free integer Let (x, y) be a fundamental solution to x 2 dy 2 = ± For solution (a, b) to this equation there is an n Z and ɛ = ± such that a + b d = ɛ(x + y d) n Corollary 22 Let d 2, 3 mod 4 be square-free and positive, and let K = Q( d) The group of units in O K is isomorphic Z/2Z Z This is Dirichlet s unit theorem for a real quadratic field Corollary 23 Let d be a square free integer Let (x, y) be a fundamental solution to x 2 dy 2 = For solution (a, b) to this equation there is an n Z and ɛ = ± such that a + b d = ɛ(x + y d) n An alternate proof will be given using Proposition 33 which is computationally helpful

10 0 JEREMY BOOHER Definition 26 Let β be a quadratic irrational which satisfies Aβ 2 + Bβ + C = 0 where A, B, C are integers with no common factors and A > 0 The discriminant is defined to be B 2 4AC Definition 27 For a quadratic irrational β = b+ D a, define the conjugate to be β := b D a A quadratic irrational β is reduced if β > and β > Proposition 28 Let β be a quadratic irrational with discriminant D Then the remainders β n also have discriminant D Proof It suffices to prove that β has discriminant D and then use induction Let β = a 0 + β and let β satisfy Aβ 2 + Bβ + C = 0 with A, B, C relatively prime integers Then substituting and clearing the denominator shows Expanding gives A(a 0 β + ) 2 + B(a 0 β 2 + β ) + Cβ 2 = 0 (Aa Ba 0 + C)β 2 + (B + 2a 0 A)β + A = 0 Note that A, B + 2a 0 A, and c + Ba 0 + Aa 2 0 are relatively prime since A, B, and C are We may multiply by without changing the discriminant, so we may as well assume the coefficient of β 2 is positive But the discriminant of β is just (B + 2a 0 A) 2 4A(Aa Ba 0 + C) = B 2 + 4a 0 AB + 4a 2 0A 2 4a 2 0A 2 4a 0 AB 4AC = B 2 4AC which is D by definition Proposition 29 There are only finitely many reduced quadratic irrationals of discriminant D Proof Let β have discriminant D and satisfy the polynomial Ax 2 + Bx + C = 0 with A > 0 and A, B, C relatively prime integers In other words, β = B + D 2A and β = B D 2A Since it is reduced, β > and β >, so we know that 0 > β > In particular, this means β + β = B C > 0, so B must be negative Since β < 0, and A > 0, B D < 0 = B > D A which implies there only a finite number of choices for B Furthermore, β = B + D > = 2A < D + D 2A so there is an upper bound on A But the condition β = B D > = 2A < D 2A give a lower bound on A Thus there are finite number of choices for A as well Since D, A, and B determine C, there are a finite number of reduced quadratic irrationals with discriminant D Proposition 30 For each β >, there exists an N such that β n is reduced when n > N

11 CONTINUED FRACTIONS, PELL S EQUATION, AND TRANSCENDENTAL NUMBERS Proof All of the remainders β n are greater than, since β n = an expression for β n+ Starting with the fact that and conjugating gives that Inverting the matrix gives that and hence that involving convergents β = [a 0,, a n, β n+ ] = β n+ + β n+ + = The numerator can be rewritten as β = β n+ + β n+ + β n+ = β n+ = β β + β n [β n ] ( ) pn ( ) ( ) pn β n+ = ( β ) ( β ) The hard part is getting ( ) βn+ ( β ) = ( β ) + ( ) = ( β ) + ( ) n using Proposition 7 Then () β n+ ( = + ( ) n ( β ) As n goes to infinity in (), is always a positive integer Since approaches β and β β, the denominator ( β ) goes to infinity Thus for large n, the fraction is less than so the right side of () is positive This implies for large n β n+ > 0 and hence that β n+ is reduced for large n Theorem 25 is now easy to prove Proof If β > has discriminant D, then there are only a finite number of reduced quadratic irrationals of discriminant D All of the remainders β n have that discriminant, and there is an N such that for n > N β n is reduced There are a finite number of choices for β n, so there are k and n such that β n = β n+k But then β = [a 0, a,, a n, a n,, a n+k ] which shows that β has a periodic continued fraction We can also say something about when continued fractions begin to be periodic Theorem 3 (Galois) Let β be a quadratic irrational β is a purely periodic continued fraction if and only if β is reduced Proof Suppose β is reduced This implies that β n is reduced for all n By induction, it suffices to show it for β = β [β] Since > β [β] > 0, β > Since β = β [β] and 0 > β >, 0 > β Since [β], β > Therefore all of the β n are reduced Now, suppose β n+k = β n I will show that β n+k = β n using the fact that all of the remainders are reduced By definition, β n = and β n+k = β n a n β n+k a n+k )

12 2 JEREMY BOOHER Conjugating this and rearranging gives that β n = a n β n and β n+k = a n+k β n+k Since β n and β n+k are between and 0, a n = [ β ] = [ ] = a n β n+k n+k Thus by induction we must have that β 0 = β n so β is purely periodic Conversely, suppose a continued fraction is purely periodic Then since the remainders are reduced for sufficiently large n, β = β k = β 2k = is reduced A n C n a n p 2 n 3qn Table Super Magic Box for 3 5 Super Magic Box for d The super magic box is an efficient computational device for computing the continued fraction of d for a square-free integer d It is no more and no less than the standard continued fraction method with the algebra required to clear denominators replaced by simpler computational rules Here is the standard computation to find 3 s continued fraction to compare with the super magic box Note that β i = A i+ D C i 3 = 3 + ( 3 3) β = = β 2 = = β 3 = = β 4 = = β 5 = = = [3,,,,, 6] There are many patterns visible in the super magic box Here are few of them Proposition 32 Let d have continued fraction [a 0, a,, a n ] Then a n = 2a 0 Proof Since d [ d] is a reduced continued fraction, it is purely periodic, so d is in fact of the form [a 0, a,, a n ] Similarly, d + a 0 has continued fraction [2a 0, a,, a n ] However, d + a 0 > and < a 0 d < 0 so a 0 + d is a reduced continued fraction and hence is purely periodic by Theorem 3 Thus a n = 2a 0 Proposition 33 With the notation as in the super magic box, p 2 n dq 2 n = ( ) n+ C n+ and d = ( ) n A n+

13 CONTINUED FRACTIONS, PELL S EQUATION, AND TRANSCENDENTAL NUMBERS 3 Proof This is proven by induction on n for both equalities simultaneously For n = 0, they can be checked directly In general, first calculate + + d = a n+ p 2 n + da n+ q 2 n d = ( ) n+ a n+ C n+ + ( ) n A n+ using the inductive hypothesis But A n+2 is calculated in the super magic box by the formula A n+2 = a n+ C n+ A n+ Thus the above is just ( ) n+ A n+2 Next calculate p 2 n+ dq 2 n+ = (a n+ + ) 2 d(a n+ + ) 2 = a 2 n+(p 2 n dq 2 n) + (p 2 n dq 2 n ) + 2a n+ ( d ) = ( ) n+ a 2 n+c n+ + ( ) n C n + 2a n+ ( ) n A n+ using the inductive hypotheses However, by definition of C n+2, C n+ and A n+2, C n+2 = d A2 n+2 C n+ = d A2 n+ + 2a n+c n+ A n+ a 2 n+ C2 n+ C n+ Substituting we get the desired result = C n+c n C n+ + 2a n+ A n+ a 2 n+c n+ = C n + 2a n+ A n+ a 2 n+c n+ p 2 n+ dq 2 n+ = ( ) n C n+2 This explains why two rows of the super magic box agree up to some signs It also provides an alternate way to analyze Pell s equation Suppose the continued fraction for β = d = [a 0, a,, a n ] Since β n a n = β 0 a 0, using the notation of the super magic box we have that A n a n C n + d C n = d a 0 Since and d are linearly independent over the rationals, we have that C n = Then Proposition 33 implies that p 2 n dq2 n = ( )n Furthermore, whenever a convergent p 2 k dq2 k = ±, we must have that C k = But then A k+ d C k a k = d [ d] = β, which shows that k is a multiple of the period of d Thus the super magic box shows that there are solutions to Pell s equation for any d The sign of the fundamental solution is determined by the parity of the length of the period for d Furthermore, by looking at the p 2 i dq2 i over the first period (if the length is even) or the first two periods (if the length is odd) and using Theorem 8 will let us find all r that satisfy r 2 + r d for which x 2 dy 2 = r has a non-trivial integral solution 6 Other Applications of Continued Fractions Continued fractions crop up in many areas of number theory besides the standard application to Pell s equation They can be used to break RSA encryption if the decryption key is too small and to prove the two squares theorem 6 RSA Encryption In RSA encryption, Bob picks two large primes p and q that satisfy p < q < 2p, and let n = pq This should be the case when doing cryptography, since there are specialized factoring algorithms that can exploit when n is a product or primes of significantly different magnitude Bob picks encryption and decryption keys e and d that satisfy e = d mod φ(n) using his factorization of n Bob publishes n and e, but keeps d, p, and q secret To encrypt a message M, Alice encodes it as a number modulo n and gives Bob C = M e mod n Bob calculates C d = M ed = M mod n (Euler s theorem) to decrypt the message There is no known way to recover the message in general without factoring n, and no known way to factor n efficiently

14 4 JEREMY BOOHER However, if by chance 3d < n 4, an adversary using knowledge of e and n can find d Let k = ed φ(n) Since e < φ(n), k < d Since q < pq and p < 2pq by hypothesis, p + q < 3 n Thus e n k d kφ(n) + nk nd = k(p + q ) + nd 3k d n < 3d 2 This inequality implies that k d is a convergent to e n by Theorem 5 Using the publicly available e and n, an adversary can use the Euclidean algorithm to find all the convergents with denominator less than n in time poly-logarithmic in n For each convergent, use its numerator and denominator as a guess for k and d, and calculate what φ(n) should be Since p and q satisfy the quadratic x 2 (n φ(n) + )x + n, the correct guess of φ(n) will give the factorization of n 62 Sums of Two Squares Another classical question in number theory is which positive primes are sums of two squares It is easy to see by reducing modulo 4 that if p 3 mod 4 it cannot be the sum of two squares Using continued fractions, we can show that p mod 4 then p can be written as a sum of two squares The idea is to look at fractions of the form p p q where 2 q 2 There are two ways to write the continued fraction for a rational number: [a 0,, a n ] and [a 0,, a n, a n, ] Always use the one with a n, which is the one that comes from the Euclidean algorithm Let the continued fraction of p q be [a 0, a,, a n ] Note that a 0 2 since p q 2, and by our convention a n 2 Now consider the continued fraction [a n, a n,, a 0 ] It has numerator p since {a n, a n,, a 0 } = {a 0, a,, a n } = p Its denominator is an integer q = {a n,, a 0 } Note that because a n 2, p q 2 so q < p 2 Also, q since a 0 Thus [a n,, a 0 ] = p q is another fraction of the same form as p q Obviously if we reverse the continued fraction of p q we end up back at p q Since p mod 4, there are p 2 such fractions, an odd number Since they are paired up by reversing the fraction, there must be a q such that p q = [a 0, a,, a n, a n ] = [a n, a n,, a, a 0 ] so a i = a n i for all 0 i n Now by Proposition 7, p {a,, a n } + {a,, a n }{a 0, a,, a n } = ( ) n = p {a 0, a,, a n } 2 + ( ) n and thus n is odd because x 2 + ( ) n = mod 4 if and only if ( ) n = Next, note that for 0 m < n we know {a 0,,, a n } = {a 0, a,, a m }{a m+,, a n } + {a 0,, a m }{a m+2,, a n } by Proposition 4 (the first term is the terms of the sum that don t remove the pair a m, a m+, the second are those terms that do) In our case, since n is odd we can take m = n 2 and exploit the symmetry, getting p = {a 0,,, a n } = {a 0,, a (n )/2 } 2 + {a 0,, a (n 3)/2 } 2 Thus if p mod 4, p is a sum of two squares Although this seems to give an explicit formula for the squares, it is not computationally very nice To use it, we would first need to search through the continued fractions of all fractions of the form p p q with 2 q 2 until we found a symmetric one, which without further information would be computationally expensive However, note that the denominator q = {a 0, a,, a n } satisfies {a 0, a,, a n } 2 mod p If we could efficiently calculate a square root of modulo p, we could find the two possible values for q and then use the Euclidean algorithm to compute the appropriate convergents There are general ways to do this (for example the Tonelli-Shanks algorithm), but for it is very easy Given a quadratic non-residue a, chosen by checking random integers using quadratic reciprocity, Euler s criteria says that a p 2 mod p so a p 4 is a square root of Calculating ±a p 4 mod p by repeated squaring gives the two possible values of q

15 CONTINUED FRACTIONS, PELL S EQUATION, AND TRANSCENDENTAL NUMBERS 5 63 Another Approach to the Sum of 2 Squares There is another approach to proving that primes congruent to one modulo four are a sum of two square using the fact that continued fractions are good approximations Here is the key lemma, which is a slight restatement of Theorem 0 Lemma 34 For any β, not necessarily irrational, and any positive integer n, there exists a fraction a b in lowest terms so 0 < b n and β a < b b(n + ) Proof If β is irrational, there are infinitely many convergents so we may pick m so that the convergent pm q m satisfies q m n < q m+ Then by Theorem 0 β p m < q m q m+ q m (n + ) q m If β is rational, the above will work unless n is greater than all of the q m In that case, let a b = β Now, it p is a prime congruent to one modulo four, then there is an integer y such that y 2 = mod p Let n = [ p] Pick a fraction a b with b [ p] so that y p a b < ([ p] + )b < pb But we also have that y p + a b = yb + ap bp = yb + ap < pb p pb which implies that c := yb + ap satisfies c < p But then 0 < b 2 + c 2 < 2p and b 2 + c 2 b 2 + y 2 b 2 0 mod p which implies b 2 + c 2 = p Thus p is a sum of two squares 64 Recognizing Rational Numbers Continued fractions also give a way to recognize decimal approximations of rational numbers Since a rational number has a finite continued fraction, to check whether a given decimal approximation probably comes from a rational number, run the continued fraction algorithm on the decimal approximation If the decimal is approximating a rational, when the continued fraction algorithm should have terminated after the nth step, there will instead be a very tiny error between [a 0, a,, a n ] and the decimal approximation This will result in a huge value for the a n+ Looking for huge a i provides a way to find possible rational numbers that the decimal would be approximating For example, a simple calculation shows that 003 = [, 20,, 4, 9] Approximating the fraction 957 to 00 binary digits gives Changing the last digit to a 3 and running the continued fraction algorithm (with a computer, of course) gives [, 20,, 4, 9, ], so we can identify it as the fraction It is amusing that the fraction is identified although the decimal expansion has not started repeating

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