# Introduction to Programming (in C++) Data types and visibility. Jordi Cortadella, Ricard Gavaldà, Fernando Orejas Dept. Computer Science, UPC

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1 Introduction to Programming (in C++) Data types and visibility Jordi Cortadella, Ricard Gavaldà, Fernando Orejas Dept. Computer Science, UPC

2 Outline Data types Type conversion Visibility Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 2

3 A data type specifies: Data types The set of values that data of that type can have (e.g. integer, real, character, Boolean, colour, Greek letter, city, etc.) The type of operations that can be performed with the data. For example, two integer numbers can be added, the population of a city can be calculated, etc. Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 3

4 Basic data types in C++ (int) Integer (int). Represent the set of integer numbers. In practice, computers have a limitation representing integer numbers. For a 32-bit machine, int can represent the numbers in the interval [-(2 31-1), ]. [ , ] Arithmetic operators: +, -,, /, % Integer division and remainder: 13 / 3 = 4, 13 % 3 = 1 Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 4

5 Basic data types in C++ (double) Real (double). Represent the set of real numbers. In practice, computers can only represent real numbers in a certain interval and with a certain accuracy. IEEE standard, double-precision 64 bit: Numbers closest to zero: ± Numbers furthest from zero: ± Special representations for 0, + and - See Arithmetic operators: +, -,, / Real division: 13.0 / 4.0 = 3.25 Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 5

6 Basic data types in C++ (bool) Boolean (bool). Represent logic values. Values: false and true Operators: not, and, or. x not x x y x and y x y x or y false true false false false false false false true false false true false false true true true false false true false true true true true true true true Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 6

7 Basic data types in C++ (bool) Properties of Boolean algebra Commutativity: a and b = b and a a or b = b or a Associativity: (a and b) and c = a and (b and c) (a or b) or c = a or (b or c) Distributivity: a and (b or c) = (a and b) or (a and c) a or (b and c) = (a or b) and (a or c) Double negation: not (not a) = a De Morgan s law: not (a and b) = (not a) or (not b) not (a or b) = (not a) and (not b) Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 7

8 Basic data types in C++ (char) Character (char). Represent letters, digits, punctuation marks and control characters. Every character is represented by a code (integer number). There are various standard codes: American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) Unicode (wider than ASCII) Some characters are grouped by families (uppercase letters, lowercase letters and digits). Characters in a family have consecutive codes: 'a' 'z', 'A' 'Z', '0' '9' Operators: given the integer encoding, arithmetic operators can be used, even though only addition and subtraction make sense, e.g. 'C'+1='D', 'm'+4='q', 'G'-1='F'. Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 8

9 Basic data types in C++ (char) ASCII code Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 9

10 Basic data types in C++ (string) Strings (string). Represent sequences of characters. Examples "Hello, world!", "This is a string", ":-)", "3.1416" "" is the empty string (no characters) 'A' is a character, "A" is a string Note: use #include <string> in the header of a program using strings. Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 10

11 Relational operators The values of most data types can be compared using relational operators: ==!= > >= < <= Relational operators return a Boolean value (true or false) Examples 5 == 5 is true, 5 == 6 is false, 5!= 6 is true <= 7 is true, >= 0.1 is false 'J' <= 'K' is true, 'a' == 'A' is false "Obama" == "Bush" is false, "Bush" == "Bush" is true, "Bush" < "Obama" is true, "book" < "booking" is true (relational operators use lexicographical order in strings) Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 11

12 Variable declarations A variable is declared as: type variable_name; Examples int population; double distance; string my_name; Several variables can be declared together: int age, children, cars; After its declaration, the value of a variable is undefined (unknown). Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 12

13 Expressions Expression: a combination of literals, variables, operators and functions that is evaluated and returns a value Examples: a + 3 (i - 1) int sqrt(x) log(4 n) double (i - 3) <= x bool (a!= b) and (s <= "abc") bool Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 13

14 Expressions The operands used in expressions must be consistent with the operators. int a, b, n; (a <= b) + n (Incorrect expression: semantic error) bool int cannot add bool to int Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 14

15 Expressions Operators in expressions are evaluated according to certain rules of precedence Unary +, -, not Multiplicative / % Additive + - Relational (inequalities) > >= < <= Relational (equalities) ==!= Conjunction Disjunction and Example: != (3 + 4) 5 Use parenthesis to change the precedence or when you are not sure about it. or Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 15

16 TYPE CONVERSION Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 16

17 Type conversion Consider the following code: int i = 5; char a = B ; double x = 1.5; i = i + x; if (i) x = 5 a; Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 17

18 Type conversion In many programming languages, the compiler would report several type errors. Possibly: int i = 5; char a = B ; double x = 1.5; i = i + x; if (i) x = 5 a; Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 18

19 Type conversion In C++, there would be no errors in this fragment of code: int i = 5; char a = B ; double x = 1.5; i = i + x; // i gets the value 6 if (i) x = 5 a; // the condition of the if statement // would be true and x would get 5 // multiplied by the code of B // converted into double Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 19

20 Type conversion As a general rule, using implicit type conversions is not considered to be a good practice because: The code is less readable. The code is less reliable, since unintentional errors may be introduced and they may be difficult to debug. Recommendation: to operate with different types, use explicit type conversions char(i), int( a ), double(i) Never use statements that depend on a particular encoding: Wrong: c == 65, c == char(65), int(c) == 65 Correct: c == A Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 20

21 Type conversion Arithmetic operations between integer and real values usually imply an implicit conversion into real values. Be careful: int i=3, j=2; double x; x = i/j; // x = 1.0 x = i/double(j); // x = 1.5 x = double(i)/j; // x = 1.5 x = double(i/j); // x = 1.0 x = i/2; // x = 1.0 x = i/2.0; // x = 1.5 Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 21

22 VISIBILITY Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 22

23 Visibility of variables Variables are only visible after their declaration and in the block they have been declared. Blocks can include other blocks. The variables of the outer blocks are visible, a priori, in the inner blocks. A variable declared in an inner block masks the variables with the same name declared in outer blocks. Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 23

24 Visibility of variables { } // a and b are not visible int a = 1, b = 20; // a and b are visible cout << a; // writes 1 { // c is not visible, a and b are visible cout << a + b; // writes 21 int b = 3, c = 4; // b and c are visible, // but the outer b is not visible cout << b; // writes 3 cout << c; // writes 4 } // c is not visible cout << b; // writes 20 Introduction to Programming Dept. CS, UPC 24

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