Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Facts About Eigenvalues By Dr David Butler Definitions Suppose A is an n n matrix An eigenvalue of A is a number λ such that Av = λv for some nonzero vector v An eigenvector of A is a nonzero vector v such that Av = λv for some number λ Terminology Let A be an n n matrix The determinant λi A (for unknown λ) is called the characteristic polynomial of A (The zeros of this polynomial are the eigenvalues of A) The equation λi A = 0 is called the characteristic equation of A (The solutions of this equation are the eigenvalues of A) If λ is an eigenvalue of A, then the subspace E λ = {v Av = λv} is called the eigenspace of A associated with λ (This subspace contains all the eigenvectors with eigenvalue λ, and also the zero vector) An eigenvalue λ of A is said to have multiplicity m if, when the characteristic polynomial is factorised into linear factors, the factor (λ λ ) appears m times Theorems Let A be an n n matrix The matrix A has n eigenvalues (including each according to its multiplicity) The sum of the n eigenvalues of A is the same as the trace of A (that is, the sum of the diagonal elements of A) The product of the n eigenvalues of A is the same as the determinant of A If λ is an eigenvalue of A, then the dimension of E λ is at most the multiplicity of λ A set of eigenvectors of A, each corresponding to a different eigenvalue of A, is a linearly independent set If λ n + c n 1 λ n c 1 λ + c 0 is the characteristic polynomial of A, then c n 1 = trace(a) and c 0 = ( 1) n A If λ n + c n 1 λ n c 1 λ + c 0 is the characteristic polynomial of A, then A n + c n 1 A n c 1 A + c 0 I = O (The Cayley-Hamilton Theorem) 1

2 Examples of Problems using Eigenvalues Problem: If λ is an eigenvalue of the matrix A, prove that λ 2 is an eigenvalue of A 2 Solution: Since λ is an eigenvalue of A, Av = λv for some v 0 Multiplying both sides by A gives Therefore λ 2 is an eigenvalue of A 2 A(Av) = A(λv) A 2 v = λav = λλv = λ 2 v Problem: Prove that the n n matrix A and its transpose A T have the same eigenvalues Solution: Consider the characteristic polynomial of A T : λi A T = (λi A) T = λi A (since a matrix and its transpose have the same determinant) This result is the characteristic polynomial of A, so A T and A have the same characteristic polynomial, and hence they have the same eigenvalues Problem: The matrix A has (1, 2, 1) T and (1, 1, 0) T as eigenvectors, both with eigenvalue 7, and its trace is 2 Find the determinant of A Solution: The matrix A is a 3 3 matrix, so it has 3 eigenvalues in total The eigenspace E 7 contains the vectors (1, 2, 1) T and (1, 1, 0) T, which are linearly independent So E 7 must have dimension at least 2, which implies that the eigenvalue 7 has multiplicity at least 2 Let the other eigenvalue be λ, then from the trace λ+7+7 = 2, so λ = 12 So the three eigenvalues are 7, 7 and -12 Hence, the determinant of A is = 588 2

3 The sum and product of eigenvalues Theorem: If A is an n n matrix, then the sum of the n eigenvalues of A is the trace of A and the product of the n eigenvalues is the determinant of A Proof: a 11 a 1n Write A = a n1 a nn Also let the n eigenvalues of A be λ 1,, λ n Finally, denote the characteristic polynomial of A by p(λ) = λi A = λ n + c n 1 λ n c 1 λ + c 0 Note that since the eigenvalues of A are the zeros of p(λ), this implies that p(λ) can be factorised as p(λ) = (λ λ 1 ) (λ λ n ) Consider the constant term of p(λ), c 0 The constant term of p(λ) is given by p(0), which can be calculated in two ways: Firstly, p(0) = (0 λ 1 ) (0 λ n ) = ( 1) n λ 1 λ n Secondly, p(0) = 0I A = A = ( 1) n A Therefore c 0 = ( 1) n λ 1 λ n = ( 1) n A, and so λ 1 λ n = A That is, the product of the n eigenvalues of A is the determinant of A Consider the coefficient of λ n 1, c n 1 This is also calculated in two ways Firstly, it can be calculated by expanding p(λ) = (λ λ 1 ) (λ λ n ) In order to get the λ n 1 term, the λ must be chosen from n 1 of the factors, and the constant from the other Hence, the λ n 1 term will be λ 1 λ n 1 λλ n 1 = (λ λ n )λ n 1 Thus c n 1 = (λ λ n ) Secondly, this coefficient can be calculated by expanding λi A : λ a 11 a 12 a 1n a 21 λ a 22 a 2n λi A = a n1 a n2 λ a nn One way of calculating determinants is to multiply the elements in positions 1j 1, 2j 2,, nj n, for each possible permutation j 1 j n of 1 n If the permutation is odd, then the product is also multiplied by 1 Then all of these n! products are added together to produce the determinant One of these products is (λ a 11 ) (λ a nn ) Every other possible product can contain at most n 2 elements on the diagonal of the matrix, and so will contain at most n 2 λ s Hence, when all of these other products are expanded, they will produce a polynomial in λ of degree at most n 2 Denote this polynomial by q(λ) Hence, p(λ) = (λ a 11 ) (λ a nn ) + q(λ) Since q(λ) has degree at most n 2, it has no λ n 1 term, and so the λ n 1 term of p(λ) must be the λ n 1 term from (λ a 11 ) (λ a nn ) However, the argument above for (λ λ 1 ) (λ λ n ) shows that this term must be (a a nn )λ n 1 Therefore c n 1 = (λ λ n ) = (a a nn ), and so λ λ n = a a nn That is, the sum of the n eigenvalues of A is the trace of A 3

4 The Cayley-Hamilton Theorem Theorem: Let A be an n n matrix If λ n + c n 1 λ n c 1 λ + c 0 is the characteristic polynomial of A, then A n + c n 1 A n c 1 A + c 0 I = O Proof: Consider the matrix λi A If this matrix is multiplied by its adjoint matrix, the result will be its determinant multiplied by the identity matrix That is, (λi A)adj(λI A) = λi A I (1) Consider the matrix adj(λi A) Each entry of this matrix is either the positive or the negative of the determinant of a smaller matrix produced by deleting one row and one column of λi A The determinant of such a matrix is a polynomial in λ of degree at most n 1 (since removing one row and one column is guaranteed to remove at least one λ) Let the polynomial in position ij of adj(λi A) be b ij0 + b ij1 λ + + b ij(n 1) λ n 1 Then b b 111 λ + + b 11(n 1) λ n 1 b 1n0 + b 1n1 λ + + b 1n(n 1) λ n 1 adj(λi A) = b n10 + b n11 λ + + b n1(n 1) λ n 1 b nn0 + b nn1 λ + + b nn(n 1) λ n 1 b 110 b 1n0 b 111 λ b 1n1 λ b 11(n 1) λ n 1 b 1n(n 1) λ n 1 = b n10 b nn0 b n11 λ b nn1 λ b n1(n 1) λ n 1 b nn(n 1) λ n 1 b 110 b 1n0 b 111 b 1n1 b 11(n 1) b 1n(n 1) = + λ + + λ n 1 b n10 b nn0 b n11 b nn1 b n1(n 1) b nn(n 1) Denote the matrices appearing in the above expression by B 0, B 1,, B n 1, respectively so that adj(λi A) = B 0 + λb λ n 1 B n 1 Then (λi A)adj(λI A) = (λi A)(B 0 + λb λ n 1 B n 1 = λb 0 + λ 2 B λ n B n 1 AB 0 λab 1 λ n 1 AB n 1 = AB 0 + λ(b 0 AB 1 ) + + λ n 1 (B n 2 AB n 1 ) + λ n B n 1 Next consider λi A I This is the characteristic polynomial of A, multiplied by I That is, λi A I = (λ n + c n 1 λ n c 1 λ + c 0 )I = λ n I + c n 1 λ n 1 I + + c 1 λi + c 0 I = c 0 I + λ(c 1 I) + + λ(c n 1 I) + λ n I Substituting these two expressions into the equation (λi A)adj(λI A) = λi A I gives AB 0 + λ(b 0 AB 1 ) + + λ n 1 (B n 2 AB n 1 ) + λ n B n 1 = c 0 I + λ(c 1 I) + + λ n 1 (c n 1 I) + λ n I 4

5 If the two sides of this equation were evaluated separately, each would be an n n matrix with each entry a polynomial in λ Since these two resulting matrices are equal, the entries in each position are also equal That is, for each choice of i and j, the polynomials in position ij of the two matrices are equal Since these two polynomials are equal, the coefficients of the matching powers of λ must also be equal That is, for each choice of i, j and k, the coefficient of λ k in position ij of one matrix is equal to the coefficient of λ k in position ij of the other matrix Hence, when each matrix is rewritten as sum of coefficient matrices multiplied by powers of λ (as was done above for adj(λi A) ), then for every k, the matrix multiplied by λ k in one expression must be the same as the matrix multiplied by λ k in the other In other words, we can equate the matrix coeffiicients of the powers of λ in each expression This results in the following equations: c 0 I = AB 0 c 1 I = B 0 AB 1 c n 1 I = B n 2 AB n 1 I = B n 1 Now right-multiply each equation by successive powers of A (that is, the first is multiplied by I, the second is multiplied by A, the third is multiplied by A 2, and so on until the last is multiplied by A n ) This produces the following equations: c 0 I = AB 0 c 1 A = AB 0 A 2 B 1 c n 1 A n 1 = A n 1 B n 2 A n B n 1 A n I = A n B n 1 Adding all of these equations together produces: c 0 I + c 1 A + + c n 1 A n 1 + A n 1 = AB 0 + AB 0 A 2 B A n 1 B n 2 A n B n 1 + A n B n 1 c 0 I + c 1 A + + c n 1 A n 1 + A n 1 = O 5

6 Polynomials acted upon matrices Theorem: Let A be an n n matrix with eigenvalues λ 1,, λ n (including multiplicity) Let g(x) = a 0 + a 1 x + + a k x k be a polynomial, and let g(a) = a 0 I + a 1 A + + a k A k Then the eigenvalues of g(a) are g(λ 1 ),, g(λ n ) (including multiplicity) Proof: We will begin by showing that the determinant of g(a) is g(λ 1 ) g(λ n ) By the fundamental theorem of algebra, the polynomial g(x) can be factorised into k linear factors over the complex numbers Hence we can write g(x) = a k (x c 1 ) (x c k ) for some complex numbers c 1,, c k Now a matrix commutes with all its powers, and with the identity, so it is also possible to write g(a) as g(a) = a k (A c 1 I) (A c k I) Also, denote the characteristic polynomial of A by p(λ) = λi A Since the eigenvalues of A are λ 1,, λ n, the characteristic polynomial can be factorised as p(λ) = (λ λ 1 ) (λ λ n ) Consider the determinant of g(a): g(a) = a k (A c 1 I) (A c k I) = (a k ) n A c 1 I A c k I = (a k ) n (c 1 I A) (c k I A) = (a k ) n ( 1) n c 1 I A ( 1) n c k I A = (a k ) n ( 1) nk c 1 I A c k I A Now c i I A is λi A with λ replaced by c i, that is, it is the characteristic polynomial of A evaluated at λ = c i Thus c i I A = p(c i ) = (c i λ 1 ) (c i λ n ) So, g(a) = (a k ) n ( 1) nk p(c 1 ) p(c k ) = (a k ) n ( 1) nk (c 1 λ 1 ) (c 1 λ n ) (c k λ 1 ) (c k λ n ) = (a k ) n (λ 1 c 1 ) (λ n c 1 ) (λ 1 c k ) (λ n c k ) = (a k ) n (λ 1 c 1 ) (λ 1 c k ) (λ n c 1 ) (λ n c k ) = a k (λ 1 c 1 ) (λ 1 c k ) a k (λ n c 1 ) (λ n c k ) = g(λ 1 ) g(λ n ) The above argument shows that if g(x) is any polynomial, then g(a) = g(λ 1 ) g(λ n ) 6

7 Now we will show that the eigenvalues of g(a) are g(λ 1 ),, g(λ n ) Let a be any number and consider the polynomial h(x) = a g(x) Then h(a) = ai g(a), and the argument above shows that h(a) = h(λ 1 ) h(λ n ) Substituting the formulas for h(x) and h(a) into this equation gives that ai g(a) = (a g(λ 1 )) (a g(λ n )) Since this is true for all possible a, it can be concluded that as polynomials, λi g(a) = (λ g(λ 1 )) (λ g(λ n )) But λi g(a) is the characteristic polynomial of g(a), which has been fully factorised here, so this implies that the eigenvalues of g(a) are g(λ 1 ),, g(λ n ) Some corollaries: Let A be an n n matrix with eigenvalues λ 1,, λ n Then: 2A has eigenvalues 2λ 1,, 2λ n A 2 has eigenvalues λ 2 1,, λ 2 n A + 2I has eigenvalues λ 1 + 2,, λ n + 2 If p(λ) is the characteristic polynomial of A, then p(a) has eigenvalues 0,, 0 7

8 Similar matrices Definition: Two matrices A and B are called similar if there exists an invertible matrix X such that A = X 1 BX Theorem: Suppose A and B are similar matrices Then A and B have the same characteristic polynomial and hence the same eigenvalues Proof: Consider the characteristic polynomial of A: λi A = λi X 1 BX = λx 1 IX X 1 BX = X 1 (λi B)X = X 1 λi B X = 1 λi B X X = λi B This is the characteristic polynomial of B, so A and B have the same characteristic polynomial Hence A and B have the same eigenvalues 8

9 Multiplicity and the dimension of an eigenspace Theorem: If λ is an eigenvalue of A, then the multiplicity of λ is at least the dimension of the eigenspace E λ Proof: Suppose the dimension of E λ is m and let v 1,, v m form a basis for E λ It is possible to find n m other vectors u m+1,, u n so that v 1,, v m, u m+1,, u n form a basis for R n Let X be the n n matrix with these n basis vectors as its columns This matrix X is invertible since its columns are linearly independent Consider the matrix B = X 1 AX This matrix is similar to A and so it has the same characteristic polynomial as A In order to describe the entries of B, we will first investigate AX AX = A[v 1 v m u m+1 u n ] = [Av 1 Av m Au m+1 Au n ] = [λ v 1 λ v m Au m+1 Au n ] (since v 1,, v m are eigenvalues of A) B = X 1 AX = X 1 [λ v 1 λ v m Au m+1 Au n ] = [X 1 (λ v 1 ) X 1 (λ v m ) X 1 Au m+1 X 1 Au n ] = [λ X 1 v 1 λ X 1 v m X 1 Au m+1 X 1 Au n ] Now consider X 1 v i This is X 1 multiplied by the i th column of X, and so it is the i th column of X 1 X However X 1 X = I, so its i th column is the i th standard basis vector e i Thus: B = [λ X 1 v 1 λ X 1 v m X 1 Au m+1 X 1 Au n ] = [λ e 1 λ e m X 1 Au m+1 X 1 Au n ] λ 0 0 b 1(m+1) b 1n 0 λ 0 b 2(m+1) b 2n = 0 0 λ b m(m+1) b mn b (m+1)(m+1) b (m+1)n b n(m+1) b nn λ λ 0 0 b 1(m+1) b 1n 0 λ λ 0 b 2(m+1) b 2n So, λi B = 0 0 λ λ b m(m+1) b mn λ b (m+1)(m+1) b (m+1)n b n(m+1) λ b nn If the determinant of this matrix λi B is expanded progressively along the first m columns, it 9

10 results in the following: λ b (m+1)(m+1) b (m+1)n λi B = (λ λ ) (λ λ ) b n(m+1) λ b nn λ b (m+1)(m+1) b (m+1)n = (λ λ ) m b n(m+1) λ b nn Hence, the factor (λ λ ) appears at least m times in the characteristic polynomial of B (it may appear more times because of the part of the determinant that is as yet uncalculated) Since A and B have the same characteristic polynomial, the factor (λ λ ) appears at least m times in the characteristic polynomial of A That is, the multiplicity of the eigenvalue λ is at least m 10

11 The product of two matrices Theorem: Let A be an m n matrix and let B be an n m matrix, with n m Then the n eigenvalues of BA are the m eigenvalues of AB with the extra eigenvalues being 0 Proof: Consider the (m + n) (m + n) matrices: ( ) ( ) On n O M = n m BA On m, N = A AB A O m m ( ) In n B Also let X = O m n I m m Then ( ) ( ) I B O O Then XM = O I A AB ( ) BA BAB = A AB ( ) ( ) BA O I B And NX = A O O I ( ) BA BAB = A AB So XM = NX Now X is an upper triangular matrix with every entry on the diagonal equal to 1 Therefore it is invertible Hence we can multiply both sides of this equation by X 1 to get M = X 1 NX Thus M and N are similar and so have the same characteristic polynomial Consider the characteristic polynomial of each: ( ) λi M = λi On n O n m A AB ( = λin n O n m A λi m m AB) = λi n n λi m m AB = λ n λi m m AB ( λi N = BA λi On m A O m m) ( = λin n AB O n m A λi m m) = λi n n BA λi m m = λ m λi m m BA 11

12 Since M and N have the same characteristic polynomial, λi M = λi N λ n λi m m AB = λ m λi m m BA λ n m λi m m AB = λi m m BA So the characteristic polynomial of BA is the same as the characteristic polynomial of AB, but multiplied by λ n m Hence BA has all of the eigenvalues of AB, but with n m extra zeros 12

13 A proof in finite geometry with a surprising use of eigenvalues Preliminaries: A finite projective plane is a collection of finitely many points and finitely many lines such that Every two points are contained in precisely one line Every two lines share precisely one point There are at least three points on every line Not all the points are on the same line For a finite projective plane, there is a number q called the order such that: There are q + 1 points on every line There are q + 1 lines through every point There are q 2 + q + 1 points in total There are q 2 + q + 1 lines in total A polarity of a finite projective plane is a one-to-one map σ which maps points to lines and lines to points, so that if the point P is on the line l, then the point σ(l) is on the line σ(p ), and also for any point or line X, σ(σ(x)) = X An absolute point with respect to a polarity σ of a projective plane is a point P such that P is on the line σ(p ) Theorem: A polarity of a finite projective plane plane must have an absolute point Proof: Let σ be a polarity of a finite projective plane of order q Denote the points in the projective plane by P 1, P 2,, P q 2 +q+1, and denote the line σ(p i ) by l i for each i = 1,, q 2 + q + 1 Note that since σ is a polarity, then σ(l i ) = σ(σ(p i )) = P i for any i Create a (q 2 + q + 1) (q 2 + q + 1) matrix A as follows: if the point P i is on the line l j, then put a 1 in entry ij of the matrix A, otherwise, put a 0 in position ij The matrix A is called an incidence matrix of the projective plane Since σ is a polarity, if P i is on l j, then σ(p i ) is on σ(l j ) = σ(σ(p j )) = P j Hence if there is a 1 in position ij, then there is also a 1 in position ji Thus the matrix A is symmetric and A T = A Now an abolute point is a point P i such that P i is on σ(p i ) That is, an absolute point is a point such that P i is on l i Hence, if σ has an absolute point, then there is a 1 on the diagonal of A Therefore, the number of absolute points of σ is the sum of the diagonal elements of A That is, it is the trace of A To find the trace of A, we may instead find the sum of the eigenvalues of A Firstly note that every row of A contains precisely q + 1 entries that are 1 since each point lies on q + 1 lines Hence the rows of A all add to q + 1 Therefore when A is multiplied by (1, 1,, 1) T, 13

14 the result is (q + 1,, q + 1) T This means that (1,, 1) T is an eigenvector of A with eigenvalue q + 1 Consider the matrix A 2 If A has eigenvalues of λ 1,, λ q 2 +q+1, then A 2 will have eigenvalues of λ 2 1,, λ 2 q 2 +q+1 Hence information about the eigenvalues of A can be obtained from the eigenvalues of A 2 Since A = A T, we have that A 2 = AA = A T A The ij element of A T A is the dot product of the ith row of A T with the jth column of A, which is the dot product of the ith column of A with the jth column of A Now each column of A represents a line of the projective plane and has a 1 in the position of each of the points on this line Two lines share precisely one point, and so two columns of A are both 1 in precisely one position Hence the dot product of two distinct columns of A is 1 One the other hand, any line contains q + 1 points, and therefore any column of A has q + 1 entries equal to 1 Hence the dot product of a column of A with itself is q + 1 Therefore, the diagonal entries of A 2 are q + 1 and the other entries of A 2 are 1 That is A 2 = J + qi, where J is a matrix with all of its entries equal to 1 Now the matrix J is equal to the product of two vectors (1,, 1) T (1,, 1) Multiplying these vectors in the opposite order gives a 1 1 matrix: (1,, 1)(1,, 1) T = [q 2 + q + 1] This 1 1 matrix has eigenvalue q 2 + q + 1 Now for any two matrices such that AB and BA are both defined, the eigenvalues of the larger matrix are the same as the eigenvalues of the smaller matrix with the extra eigenvalues all being zero Thus the q 2 + q + 1 eigenvalues of J must be q 2 + q + 1, 0,, 0 Consider the polynomial g(x) = x + q The matrix g(j) = J + qi = A 2 Therefore the eigenvalues of A 2 are g(q 2 + q + 1), g(0), g(0) That is, the eigenvalues of A 2 are q 2 + 2q + 1, q,, q One of the eigenvalues of A is q + 1, and so the remaining eigenvalues of A must all be q or q Suppose there are k eigenvalues equal to q and q 2 + q k equal to q Then the trace of A is equal to k q + (q 2 + q k) q + q + 1 = q(q 2 + q 2k) + q + 1 If q = p 2 for some natural number p, then the trace is p(q 2 + q 2k) + p 2 + 1, which is one more than a multiple of p, and so it cannot be 0 If q is not a square number, then q is irrational and so if q 2 + q 2k 0 then the trace of A must be irrational also However, the entries of A are all 0 or 1, so its trace is an integer Hence q 2 + q 2k = 0 and the trace is q + 1 In either case, the trace is not 0, so the polarity must have an absolute point 14

### 1 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

Math 20 Chapter 5 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors. Definition: A scalar λ is called an eigenvalue of the n n matrix A is there is a nontrivial solution x of Ax = λx. Such an x

### (a) The transpose of a lower triangular matrix is upper triangular, and the transpose of an upper triangular matrix is lower triangular.

Theorem.7.: (Properties of Triangular Matrices) (a) The transpose of a lower triangular matrix is upper triangular, and the transpose of an upper triangular matrix is lower triangular. (b) The product

### MATH 240 Fall, Chapter 1: Linear Equations and Matrices

MATH 240 Fall, 2007 Chapter Summaries for Kolman / Hill, Elementary Linear Algebra, 9th Ed. written by Prof. J. Beachy Sections 1.1 1.5, 2.1 2.3, 4.2 4.9, 3.1 3.5, 5.3 5.5, 6.1 6.3, 6.5, 7.1 7.3 DEFINITIONS

### by the matrix A results in a vector which is a reflection of the given

Eigenvalues & Eigenvectors Example Suppose Then So, geometrically, multiplying a vector in by the matrix A results in a vector which is a reflection of the given vector about the y-axis We observe that

### UNIT 2 MATRICES - I 2.0 INTRODUCTION. Structure

UNIT 2 MATRICES - I Matrices - I Structure 2.0 Introduction 2.1 Objectives 2.2 Matrices 2.3 Operation on Matrices 2.4 Invertible Matrices 2.5 Systems of Linear Equations 2.6 Answers to Check Your Progress

### The Characteristic Polynomial

Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Characteristic Polynomial 1 Coefficients of the characteristic polynomial Consider the eigenvalue problem for an n n matrix A, A v = λ v, v 0 (1) The solution to this problem

### Practice Math 110 Final. Instructions: Work all of problems 1 through 5, and work any 5 of problems 10 through 16.

Practice Math 110 Final Instructions: Work all of problems 1 through 5, and work any 5 of problems 10 through 16. 1. Let A = 3 1 1 3 3 2. 6 6 5 a. Use Gauss elimination to reduce A to an upper triangular

### Diagonal, Symmetric and Triangular Matrices

Contents 1 Diagonal, Symmetric Triangular Matrices 2 Diagonal Matrices 2.1 Products, Powers Inverses of Diagonal Matrices 2.1.1 Theorem (Powers of Matrices) 2.2 Multiplying Matrices on the Left Right by

### THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ALGEBRA VIA LINEAR ALGEBRA

THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ALGEBRA VIA LINEAR ALGEBRA KEITH CONRAD Our goal is to use abstract linear algebra to prove the following result, which is called the fundamental theorem of algebra. Theorem

### MATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 8: Inverse matrix (continued). Elementary matrices. Transpose of a matrix.

MATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 8: Inverse matrix (continued). Elementary matrices. Transpose of a matrix. Inverse matrix Definition. Let A be an n n matrix. The inverse of A is an n n matrix, denoted

### MATRIX ALGEBRA AND SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS. + + x 2. x n. a 11 a 12 a 1n b 1 a 21 a 22 a 2n b 2 a 31 a 32 a 3n b 3. a m1 a m2 a mn b m

MATRIX ALGEBRA AND SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS 1. SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS AND MATRICES 1.1. Representation of a linear system. The general system of m equations in n unknowns can be written a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 +

### 1.5 Elementary Matrices and a Method for Finding the Inverse

.5 Elementary Matrices and a Method for Finding the Inverse Definition A n n matrix is called an elementary matrix if it can be obtained from I n by performing a single elementary row operation Reminder:

### LINEAR ALGEBRA. September 23, 2010

LINEAR ALGEBRA September 3, 00 Contents 0. LU-decomposition.................................... 0. Inverses and Transposes................................. 0.3 Column Spaces and NullSpaces.............................

### Chapter 4: Binary Operations and Relations

c Dr Oksana Shatalov, Fall 2014 1 Chapter 4: Binary Operations and Relations 4.1: Binary Operations DEFINITION 1. A binary operation on a nonempty set A is a function from A A to A. Addition, subtraction,

### Similarity and Diagonalization. Similar Matrices

MATH022 Linear Algebra Brief lecture notes 48 Similarity and Diagonalization Similar Matrices Let A and B be n n matrices. We say that A is similar to B if there is an invertible n n matrix P such that

### Chapter 6. Orthogonality

6.3 Orthogonal Matrices 1 Chapter 6. Orthogonality 6.3 Orthogonal Matrices Definition 6.4. An n n matrix A is orthogonal if A T A = I. Note. We will see that the columns of an orthogonal matrix must be

### 1 Determinants. Definition 1

Determinants The determinant of a square matrix is a value in R assigned to the matrix, it characterizes matrices which are invertible (det 0) and is related to the volume of a parallelpiped described

### Preliminaries of linear algebra

Preliminaries of linear algebra (for the Automatic Control course) Matteo Rubagotti March 3, 2011 This note sums up the preliminary definitions and concepts of linear algebra needed for the resolution

### GRA6035 Mathematics. Eivind Eriksen and Trond S. Gustavsen. Department of Economics

GRA635 Mathematics Eivind Eriksen and Trond S. Gustavsen Department of Economics c Eivind Eriksen, Trond S. Gustavsen. Edition. Edition Students enrolled in the course GRA635 Mathematics for the academic

### 2.1: Determinants by Cofactor Expansion. Math 214 Chapter 2 Notes and Homework. Evaluate a Determinant by Expanding by Cofactors

2.1: Determinants by Cofactor Expansion Math 214 Chapter 2 Notes and Homework Determinants The minor M ij of the entry a ij is the determinant of the submatrix obtained from deleting the i th row and the

### Mathematics Notes for Class 12 chapter 3. Matrices

1 P a g e Mathematics Notes for Class 12 chapter 3. Matrices A matrix is a rectangular arrangement of numbers (real or complex) which may be represented as matrix is enclosed by [ ] or ( ) or Compact form

### MATH36001 Background Material 2015

MATH3600 Background Material 205 Matrix Algebra Matrices and Vectors An ordered array of mn elements a ij (i =,, m; j =,, n) written in the form a a 2 a n A = a 2 a 22 a 2n a m a m2 a mn is said to be

### Similar matrices and Jordan form

Similar matrices and Jordan form We ve nearly covered the entire heart of linear algebra once we ve finished singular value decompositions we ll have seen all the most central topics. A T A is positive

### MATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 4: Matrix multiplication. Diagonal matrices. Inverse matrix.

MATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 4: Matrix multiplication. Diagonal matrices. Inverse matrix. Matrices Definition. An m-by-n matrix is a rectangular array of numbers that has m rows and n columns: a 11

### The Cayley Hamilton Theorem

The Cayley Hamilton Theorem Attila Máté Brooklyn College of the City University of New York March 23, 2016 Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 A multivariate polynomial zero on all integers is identically zero............

### Matrix Inverse and Determinants

DM554 Linear and Integer Programming Lecture 5 and Marco Chiarandini Department of Mathematics & Computer Science University of Southern Denmark Outline 1 2 3 4 and Cramer s rule 2 Outline 1 2 3 4 and

### Calculus and linear algebra for biomedical engineering Week 4: Inverse matrices and determinants

Calculus and linear algebra for biomedical engineering Week 4: Inverse matrices and determinants Hartmut Führ fuehr@matha.rwth-aachen.de Lehrstuhl A für Mathematik, RWTH Aachen October 30, 2008 Overview

### DETERMINANTS. b 2. x 2

DETERMINANTS 1 Systems of two equations in two unknowns A system of two equations in two unknowns has the form a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 = b 1 a 21 x 1 + a 22 x 2 = b 2 This can be written more concisely in

### Summary of week 8 (Lectures 22, 23 and 24)

WEEK 8 Summary of week 8 (Lectures 22, 23 and 24) This week we completed our discussion of Chapter 5 of [VST] Recall that if V and W are inner product spaces then a linear map T : V W is called an isometry

### Cofactor Expansion: Cramer s Rule

Cofactor Expansion: Cramer s Rule MATH 322, Linear Algebra I J. Robert Buchanan Department of Mathematics Spring 2015 Introduction Today we will focus on developing: an efficient method for calculating

### MATRIX ALGEBRA AND SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS

MATRIX ALGEBRA AND SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS Systems of Equations and Matrices Representation of a linear system The general system of m equations in n unknowns can be written a x + a 2 x 2 + + a n x n b a

### Sergei Silvestrov, Christopher Engström, Karl Lundengård, Johan Richter, Jonas Österberg. November 13, 2014

Sergei Silvestrov,, Karl Lundengård, Johan Richter, Jonas Österberg November 13, 2014 Analysis Todays lecture: Course overview. Repetition of matrices elementary operations. Repetition of solvability of

### Determinants. Dr. Doreen De Leon Math 152, Fall 2015

Determinants Dr. Doreen De Leon Math 52, Fall 205 Determinant of a Matrix Elementary Matrices We will first discuss matrices that can be used to produce an elementary row operation on a given matrix A.

### INTRODUCTORY LINEAR ALGEBRA WITH APPLICATIONS B. KOLMAN, D. R. HILL

SOLUTIONS OF THEORETICAL EXERCISES selected from INTRODUCTORY LINEAR ALGEBRA WITH APPLICATIONS B. KOLMAN, D. R. HILL Eighth Edition, Prentice Hall, 2005. Dr. Grigore CĂLUGĂREANU Department of Mathematics

### MATH 511 ADVANCED LINEAR ALGEBRA SPRING 2006

MATH 511 ADVANCED LINEAR ALGEBRA SPRING 26 Sherod Eubanks HOMEWORK 1 1.1 : 3, 5 1.2 : 4 1.3 : 4, 6, 12, 13, 16 1.4 : 1, 5, 8 Section 1.1: The Eigenvalue-Eigenvector Equation Problem 3 Let A M n (R). If

### Presentation 3: Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of a Matrix

Colleen Kirksey, Beth Van Schoyck, Dennis Bowers MATH 280: Problem Solving November 18, 2011 Presentation 3: Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of a Matrix Order of Presentation: 1. Definitions of Eigenvalues

### 4.9 Markov matrices. DEFINITION 4.3 A real n n matrix A = [a ij ] is called a Markov matrix, or row stochastic matrix if. (i) a ij 0 for 1 i, j n;

49 Markov matrices DEFINITION 43 A real n n matrix A = [a ij ] is called a Markov matrix, or row stochastic matrix if (i) a ij 0 for 1 i, j n; (ii) a ij = 1 for 1 i n Remark: (ii) is equivalent to AJ n

### Math 115A HW4 Solutions University of California, Los Angeles. 5 2i 6 + 4i. (5 2i)7i (6 + 4i)( 3 + i) = 35i + 14 ( 22 6i) = 36 + 41i.

Math 5A HW4 Solutions September 5, 202 University of California, Los Angeles Problem 4..3b Calculate the determinant, 5 2i 6 + 4i 3 + i 7i Solution: The textbook s instructions give us, (5 2i)7i (6 + 4i)(

### Notes on Linear Recurrence Sequences

Notes on Linear Recurrence Sequences April 8, 005 As far as preparing for the final exam, I only hold you responsible for knowing sections,,, 6 and 7 Definitions and Basic Examples An example of a linear

### Notes on Determinant

ENGG2012B Advanced Engineering Mathematics Notes on Determinant Lecturer: Kenneth Shum Lecture 9-18/02/2013 The determinant of a system of linear equations determines whether the solution is unique, without

### CHARACTERISTIC ROOTS AND VECTORS

CHARACTERISTIC ROOTS AND VECTORS 1 DEFINITION OF CHARACTERISTIC ROOTS AND VECTORS 11 Statement of the characteristic root problem Find values of a scalar λ for which there exist vectors x 0 satisfying

### MATH 423 Linear Algebra II Lecture 38: Generalized eigenvectors. Jordan canonical form (continued).

MATH 423 Linear Algebra II Lecture 38: Generalized eigenvectors Jordan canonical form (continued) Jordan canonical form A Jordan block is a square matrix of the form λ 1 0 0 0 0 λ 1 0 0 0 0 λ 0 0 J = 0

### Inverses. Stephen Boyd. EE103 Stanford University. October 27, 2015

Inverses Stephen Boyd EE103 Stanford University October 27, 2015 Outline Left and right inverses Inverse Solving linear equations Examples Pseudo-inverse Left and right inverses 2 Left inverses a number

### Linear Algebra Notes for Marsden and Tromba Vector Calculus

Linear Algebra Notes for Marsden and Tromba Vector Calculus n-dimensional Euclidean Space and Matrices Definition of n space As was learned in Math b, a point in Euclidean three space can be thought of

### Topic 1: Matrices and Systems of Linear Equations.

Topic 1: Matrices and Systems of Linear Equations Let us start with a review of some linear algebra concepts we have already learned, such as matrices, determinants, etc Also, we shall review the method

### 7 - Linear Transformations

7 - Linear Transformations Mathematics has as its objects of study sets with various structures. These sets include sets of numbers (such as the integers, rationals, reals, and complexes) whose structure

### ( % . This matrix consists of \$ 4 5 " 5' the coefficients of the variables as they appear in the original system. The augmented 3 " 2 2 # 2 " 3 4&

Matrices define matrix We will use matrices to help us solve systems of equations. A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers enclosed in parentheses or brackets. In linear algebra, matrices are important

### 1. True/False: Circle the correct answer. No justifications are needed in this exercise. (1 point each)

Math 33 AH : Solution to the Final Exam Honors Linear Algebra and Applications 1. True/False: Circle the correct answer. No justifications are needed in this exercise. (1 point each) (1) If A is an invertible

### 9 Matrices, determinants, inverse matrix, Cramer s Rule

AAC - Business Mathematics I Lecture #9, December 15, 2007 Katarína Kálovcová 9 Matrices, determinants, inverse matrix, Cramer s Rule Basic properties of matrices: Example: Addition properties: Associative:

### Solution based on matrix technique Rewrite. ) = 8x 2 1 4x 1x 2 + 5x x1 2x 2 2x 1 + 5x 2

8.2 Quadratic Forms Example 1 Consider the function q(x 1, x 2 ) = 8x 2 1 4x 1x 2 + 5x 2 2 Determine whether q(0, 0) is the global minimum. Solution based on matrix technique Rewrite q( x1 x 2 = x1 ) =

### Review: Vector space

Math 2F Linear Algebra Lecture 13 1 Basis and dimensions Slide 1 Review: Subspace of a vector space. (Sec. 4.1) Linear combinations, l.d., l.i. vectors. (Sec. 4.3) Dimension and Base of a vector space.

### Inverses and powers: Rules of Matrix Arithmetic

Contents 1 Inverses and powers: Rules of Matrix Arithmetic 1.1 What about division of matrices? 1.2 Properties of the Inverse of a Matrix 1.2.1 Theorem (Uniqueness of Inverse) 1.2.2 Inverse Test 1.2.3

### Using determinants, it is possible to express the solution to a system of equations whose coefficient matrix is invertible:

Cramer s Rule and the Adjugate Using determinants, it is possible to express the solution to a system of equations whose coefficient matrix is invertible: Theorem [Cramer s Rule] If A is an invertible

### Solution to Homework 2

Solution to Homework 2 Olena Bormashenko September 23, 2011 Section 1.4: 1(a)(b)(i)(k), 4, 5, 14; Section 1.5: 1(a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(n), 2(a)(c), 13, 16, 17, 18, 27 Section 1.4 1. Compute the following, if

### Chapter 8. Matrices II: inverses. 8.1 What is an inverse?

Chapter 8 Matrices II: inverses We have learnt how to add subtract and multiply matrices but we have not defined division. The reason is that in general it cannot always be defined. In this chapter, we

### Computational Methods CMSC/AMSC/MAPL 460. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors. Ramani Duraiswami, Dept. of Computer Science

Computational Methods CMSC/AMSC/MAPL 460 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Ramani Duraiswami, Dept. of Computer Science Eigen Values of a Matrix Definition: A N N matrix A has an eigenvector x (non-zero) with

### 3. Let A and B be two n n orthogonal matrices. Then prove that AB and BA are both orthogonal matrices. Prove a similar result for unitary matrices.

Exercise 1 1. Let A be an n n orthogonal matrix. Then prove that (a) the rows of A form an orthonormal basis of R n. (b) the columns of A form an orthonormal basis of R n. (c) for any two vectors x,y R

### Linear Algebra Concepts

University of Central Florida School of Electrical Engineering Computer Science EGN-3420 - Engineering Analysis. Fall 2009 - dcm Linear Algebra Concepts Vector Spaces To define the concept of a vector

### 5.3 Determinants and Cramer s Rule

290 5.3 Determinants and Cramer s Rule Unique Solution of a 2 2 System The 2 2 system (1) ax + by = e, cx + dy = f, has a unique solution provided = ad bc is nonzero, in which case the solution is given

### 4. Matrix inverses. left and right inverse. linear independence. nonsingular matrices. matrices with linearly independent columns

L. Vandenberghe EE133A (Spring 2016) 4. Matrix inverses left and right inverse linear independence nonsingular matrices matrices with linearly independent columns matrices with linearly independent rows

### 2.5 Complex Eigenvalues

1 25 Complex Eigenvalues Real Canonical Form A semisimple matrix with complex conjugate eigenvalues can be diagonalized using the procedure previously described However, the eigenvectors corresponding

### 4. MATRICES Matrices

4. MATRICES 170 4. Matrices 4.1. Definitions. Definition 4.1.1. A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers. A matrix with m rows and n columns is said to have dimension m n and may be represented as follows:

### Interpolating Polynomials Handout March 7, 2012

Interpolating Polynomials Handout March 7, 212 Again we work over our favorite field F (such as R, Q, C or F p ) We wish to find a polynomial y = f(x) passing through n specified data points (x 1,y 1 ),

### Problems for Advanced Linear Algebra Fall 2012

Problems for Advanced Linear Algebra Fall 2012 Class will be structured around students presenting complete solutions to the problems in this handout. Please only agree to come to the board when you are

### Diagonalisation. Chapter 3. Introduction. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Reading. Definitions

Chapter 3 Diagonalisation Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalisation of a matrix, orthogonal diagonalisation fo symmetric matrices Reading As in the previous chapter, there is no specific essential

### Helpsheet. Giblin Eunson Library MATRIX ALGEBRA. library.unimelb.edu.au/libraries/bee. Use this sheet to help you:

Helpsheet Giblin Eunson Library ATRIX ALGEBRA Use this sheet to help you: Understand the basic concepts and definitions of matrix algebra Express a set of linear equations in matrix notation Evaluate determinants

### Inner Product Spaces and Orthogonality

Inner Product Spaces and Orthogonality week 3-4 Fall 2006 Dot product of R n The inner product or dot product of R n is a function, defined by u, v a b + a 2 b 2 + + a n b n for u a, a 2,, a n T, v b,

### Au = = = 3u. Aw = = = 2w. so the action of A on u and w is very easy to picture: it simply amounts to a stretching by 3 and 2, respectively.

Chapter 7 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors In this last chapter of our exploration of Linear Algebra we will revisit eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices, concepts that were already introduced in Geometry

### Direct Methods for Solving Linear Systems. Linear Systems of Equations

Direct Methods for Solving Linear Systems Linear Systems of Equations Numerical Analysis (9th Edition) R L Burden & J D Faires Beamer Presentation Slides prepared by John Carroll Dublin City University

### x 3y 2z = 6 1.2) 2x 4y 3z = 8 3x + 6y + 8z = 5 x + 3y 2z + 5t = 4 1.5) 2x + 8y z + 9t = 9 3x + 5y 12z + 17t = 7 Linear Algebra-Lab 2

Linear Algebra-Lab 1 1) Use Gaussian elimination to solve the following systems x 1 + x 2 2x 3 + 4x 4 = 5 1.1) 2x 1 + 2x 2 3x 3 + x 4 = 3 3x 1 + 3x 2 4x 3 2x 4 = 1 x + y + 2z = 4 1.4) 2x + 3y + 6z = 10

### Section 2.1. Section 2.2. Exercise 6: We have to compute the product AB in two ways, where , B =. 2 1 3 5 A =

Section 2.1 Exercise 6: We have to compute the product AB in two ways, where 4 2 A = 3 0 1 3, B =. 2 1 3 5 Solution 1. Let b 1 = (1, 2) and b 2 = (3, 1) be the columns of B. Then Ab 1 = (0, 3, 13) and

### The basic unit in matrix algebra is a matrix, generally expressed as: a 11 a 12. a 13 A = a 21 a 22 a 23

(copyright by Scott M Lynch, February 2003) Brief Matrix Algebra Review (Soc 504) Matrix algebra is a form of mathematics that allows compact notation for, and mathematical manipulation of, high-dimensional

### 2.5 Elementary Row Operations and the Determinant

2.5 Elementary Row Operations and the Determinant Recall: Let A be a 2 2 matrtix : A = a b. The determinant of A, denoted by det(a) c d or A, is the number ad bc. So for example if A = 2 4, det(a) = 2(5)

### Orthogonal Diagonalization of Symmetric Matrices

MATH10212 Linear Algebra Brief lecture notes 57 Gram Schmidt Process enables us to find an orthogonal basis of a subspace. Let u 1,..., u k be a basis of a subspace V of R n. We begin the process of finding

### Using the Singular Value Decomposition

Using the Singular Value Decomposition Emmett J. Ientilucci Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science Rochester Institute of Technology emmett@cis.rit.edu May 9, 003 Abstract This report introduces

### Recall the basic property of the transpose (for any A): v A t Aw = v w, v, w R n.

ORTHOGONAL MATRICES Informally, an orthogonal n n matrix is the n-dimensional analogue of the rotation matrices R θ in R 2. When does a linear transformation of R 3 (or R n ) deserve to be called a rotation?

### Additional Topics in Linear Algebra Supplementary Material for Math 540. Joseph H. Silverman

Additional Topics in Linear Algebra Supplementary Material for Math 540 Joseph H Silverman E-mail address: jhs@mathbrownedu Mathematics Department, Box 1917 Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 USA Contents

### Introduction to Matrix Algebra

Psychology 7291: Multivariate Statistics (Carey) 8/27/98 Matrix Algebra - 1 Introduction to Matrix Algebra Definitions: A matrix is a collection of numbers ordered by rows and columns. It is customary

### University of Lille I PC first year list of exercises n 7. Review

University of Lille I PC first year list of exercises n 7 Review Exercise Solve the following systems in 4 different ways (by substitution, by the Gauss method, by inverting the matrix of coefficients

### Direct Methods for Solving Linear Systems. Matrix Factorization

Direct Methods for Solving Linear Systems Matrix Factorization Numerical Analysis (9th Edition) R L Burden & J D Faires Beamer Presentation Slides prepared by John Carroll Dublin City University c 2011

### 1 Sets and Set Notation.

LINEAR ALGEBRA MATH 27.6 SPRING 23 (COHEN) LECTURE NOTES Sets and Set Notation. Definition (Naive Definition of a Set). A set is any collection of objects, called the elements of that set. We will most

### Section 5.3. Section 5.3. u m ] l jj. = l jj u j + + l mj u m. v j = [ u 1 u j. l mj

Section 5. l j v j = [ u u j u m ] l jj = l jj u j + + l mj u m. l mj Section 5. 5.. Not orthogonal, the column vectors fail to be perpendicular to each other. 5..2 his matrix is orthogonal. Check that

### Lecture 2 Matrix Operations

Lecture 2 Matrix Operations transpose, sum & difference, scalar multiplication matrix multiplication, matrix-vector product matrix inverse 2 1 Matrix transpose transpose of m n matrix A, denoted A T or

### Math 312 Homework 1 Solutions

Math 31 Homework 1 Solutions Last modified: July 15, 01 This homework is due on Thursday, July 1th, 01 at 1:10pm Please turn it in during class, or in my mailbox in the main math office (next to 4W1) Please

### EC9A0: Pre-sessional Advanced Mathematics Course

University of Warwick, EC9A0: Pre-sessional Advanced Mathematics Course Peter J. Hammond & Pablo F. Beker 1 of 55 EC9A0: Pre-sessional Advanced Mathematics Course Slides 1: Matrix Algebra Peter J. Hammond

### Section 6.1 - Inner Products and Norms

Section 6.1 - Inner Products and Norms Definition. Let V be a vector space over F {R, C}. An inner product on V is a function that assigns, to every ordered pair of vectors x and y in V, a scalar in F,

### Matrix Norms. Tom Lyche. September 28, Centre of Mathematics for Applications, Department of Informatics, University of Oslo

Matrix Norms Tom Lyche Centre of Mathematics for Applications, Department of Informatics, University of Oslo September 28, 2009 Matrix Norms We consider matrix norms on (C m,n, C). All results holds for

### 6. Cholesky factorization

6. Cholesky factorization EE103 (Fall 2011-12) triangular matrices forward and backward substitution the Cholesky factorization solving Ax = b with A positive definite inverse of a positive definite matrix

### LINEAR ALGEBRA W W L CHEN

LINEAR ALGEBRA W W L CHEN c W W L Chen, 1997, 2008 This chapter is available free to all individuals, on understanding that it is not to be used for financial gain, and may be downloaded and/or photocopied,

### A matrix over a field F is a rectangular array of elements from F. The symbol

Chapter MATRICES Matrix arithmetic A matrix over a field F is a rectangular array of elements from F The symbol M m n (F) denotes the collection of all m n matrices over F Matrices will usually be denoted

### 13 MATH FACTS 101. 2 a = 1. 7. The elements of a vector have a graphical interpretation, which is particularly easy to see in two or three dimensions.

3 MATH FACTS 0 3 MATH FACTS 3. Vectors 3.. Definition We use the overhead arrow to denote a column vector, i.e., a linear segment with a direction. For example, in three-space, we write a vector in terms

### Definition 12 An alternating bilinear form on a vector space V is a map B : V V F such that

4 Exterior algebra 4.1 Lines and 2-vectors The time has come now to develop some new linear algebra in order to handle the space of lines in a projective space P (V ). In the projective plane we have seen

### NOTES on LINEAR ALGEBRA 1

School of Economics, Management and Statistics University of Bologna Academic Year 205/6 NOTES on LINEAR ALGEBRA for the students of Stats and Maths This is a modified version of the notes by Prof Laura

### Math 315: Linear Algebra Solutions to Midterm Exam I

Math 35: Linear Algebra s to Midterm Exam I # Consider the following two systems of linear equations (I) ax + by = k cx + dy = l (II) ax + by = 0 cx + dy = 0 (a) Prove: If x = x, y = y and x = x 2, y =

### Vector and Matrix Norms

Chapter 1 Vector and Matrix Norms 11 Vector Spaces Let F be a field (such as the real numbers, R, or complex numbers, C) with elements called scalars A Vector Space, V, over the field F is a non-empty

### Undergraduate Matrix Theory. Linear Algebra

Undergraduate Matrix Theory and Linear Algebra a 11 a 12 a 1n a 21 a 22 a 2n a m1 a m2 a mn John S Alin Linfield College Colin L Starr Willamette University December 15, 2015 ii Contents 1 SYSTEMS OF LINEAR

### Solutions to Linear Algebra Practice Problems

Solutions to Linear Algebra Practice Problems. Find all solutions to the following systems of linear equations. (a) x x + x 5 x x x + x + x 5 (b) x + x + x x + x + x x + x + 8x Answer: (a) We create the

### 1 VECTOR SPACES AND SUBSPACES

1 VECTOR SPACES AND SUBSPACES What is a vector? Many are familiar with the concept of a vector as: Something which has magnitude and direction. an ordered pair or triple. a description for quantities such