1 10998 Langmuir 2005, 21, Viscosity Increase with Temperature in Cationic Surfactant Solutions Due to the Growth of Wormlike Micelles Gokul C. Kalur, Bradley D. Frounfelker, Bani H. Cipriano, Alexander I. Norman, and Srinivasa R. Raghavan* Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland Received July 28, In Final Form: September 14, 2005 Wormlike micellar solutions based on ionic surfactants typically show an exponential decrease in viscosity upon heating. Here, we report the unusual observation of an increasing viscosity with temperature in certain cationic wormlike micellar solutions. The solutions contain a cationic surfactant with an erucyl (C 22, mono-unsaturated) tail and an organic salt, sodium hydroxynaphthalene carboxylate (SHNC). When these solutions are heated, their zero-shear viscosity increases over a range of temperatures. In some cases, the viscosity reaches a peak at a certain temperature and then decreases with further heating. The magnitude of the viscosity increase, the onset of this increase, and the peak temperature can all be tuned by varying the SHNC concentration. Small-angle neutron scattering is used to study the origin of this unusual rheological behavior. The data reveal that the contour length of the micelles increases with temperature, in tandem with the rise in viscosity. A possible explanation for the contour length increase, based on a temperaturedependent counterion binding, is discussed. 1. Introduction Over the past several years, there has been a great deal of interest in the aqueous self-assembly of cationic surfactants into threadlike or wormlike micelles. 1,2 These micelles are long, flexible, cylindrical chains with contour lengths on the order of a few micrometers. The entanglement of these wormlike chains into a transient network imparts viscoelastic properties to the solution. Wormlike micelles are much like polymers with the important exception that the micelles are in thermal equilibrium with their monomers. 3 The average micellar length Lh is thus a thermodynamic quantity, and it responds to changes in solution composition and temperature. Typically, when a wormlike micellar solution is heated, the micellar contour length Lh decays exponentially with temperature. 3,4 The reason for this is that, at higher temperatures, surfactant unimers can hop more rapidly between the cylindrical body and the hemispherical endcap of the worm (the end-cap is energetically unfavorable over the body by a factor equal to the end-cap energy E c ). Thus, because the end-cap constraint is less severe at higher temperatures, the worms grow to a lesser extent. The reduction in micellar length, in turn, leads to an exponential decrease in rheological properties such as the zero-shear viscosity η 0 and the relaxation time t R. 4-6 Accordingly, an Arrhenius plot of ln η 0 versus 1/T (where T is the absolute temperature) falls on a straight line, the slope of which yields the flow activation energy E a. Values * To whom correspondence should be addressed. Present address: Irix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Florence, SC. (1) Hoffmann, H. Viscoelastic Surfactant Solutions. In Structure and Flow in Surfactant Solutions; Herb, C. A., Prud homme, R. K., Eds.; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1994; p 2. (2) Yang, J. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 2002, 7, 276. (3) Cates, M. E.; Candau, S. J. J. Phys.-Condens. Matter 1990, 2, (4) Raghavan, S. R.; Kaler, E. W. Langmuir 2001, 17, 300. (5) Makhloufi, R.; Cressely, R. Colloid Polym. Sci. 1992, 270, (6) Ponton, A.; Schott, C.; Quemada, D. Colloids Surf., A 1998, 145, 37. of E a ranging from 70 to 300 kj/mol have been reported for various micellar solutions. 4-6 In this paper, we report an unexpected opposite trend in rheological behavior for certain wormlike micellar solutions as a function of temperature. Instead of dropping exponentially, the zero-shear viscosity η 0 increases over a range of temperatures. We use small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to show that the increase in viscosity is associated with an increase in micellar length. The system in which we see this unusual behavior is a mixture ofac 22 -tailed cationic surfactant, erucyl bis-(hydroxyethyl)methylammonium chloride (EHAC) and an aromatic salt, sodium hydroxynaphthalene carboxylate (SHNC) (Scheme 1). The counterion in SHNC is hydrophobic due to its naphthalene ring and thus has a tendency to bind strongly with cationic micelles. 7,8 The binding of SHNC reduces the surface charge on EHAC micelles and thereby promotes the growth of long worms. While a few mm of SHNC are sufficient to induce micellar growth, the increase in viscosity with temperature is seen only at much higher SHNC concentrations. Previously, one of us had studied the same cationic surfactant, EHAC, with a different aromatic salt, sodium salicylate (NaSal). 4,9 The crucial difference between NaSal and SHNC is the presence of an extra benzene ring in SHNC (see Scheme 1). Thus, it is useful to compare the present EHAC-SHNC system with the previous EHAC- NaSal system. Both systems exhibit an unusual feature in their phase behavior, viz. the presence of cloud points (liquid-liquid phase separation upon heating) at intermediate salt concentrations. 9 We will begin this paper by reporting the phase behavior of EHAC-SHNC as a function of salt and temperature and thereafter proceed (7) Mishra, B. K.; Samant, S. D.; Pradhan, P.; Mishra, S. B.; Manohar, C. Langmuir 1993, 9, 894. (8) Horbaschek, K.; Hoffmann, H.; Thunig, C. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1998, 206, 439. (9) Raghavan, S. R.; Edlund, H.; Kaler, E. W. Langmuir 2002, 18, /la052069w CCC: $ American Chemical Society Published on Web 10/29/2005
2 Viscosity Increase in Cationic Surfactant Solutions Langmuir, Vol. 21, No. 24, Scheme 1. Chemical Structures of the Surfactant and Salts Used to discuss the unusual viscosity results that are observed in one region of the phase diagram. 2. Experimental Section Materials. The EHAC surfactant was a commercial product from Akzo Nobel, Chicago, IL, and its chemical structure is shown below. Details on this material have been reported in our previous studies. 4,9 The same material has also been investigated by other groups SHNC (99% purity) was purchased from Aldrich. Solutions containing surfactant and salt were prepared using distilled, deionized water. Phase Behavior. Phase behavior was recorded by visual observation. The phase boundaries as a function of temperature were determined by noting the incipient formation of a second phase on heating or cooling (transitions were always determined from one-phase to two-phase states). At the cloud point, the entire sample turned cloudy on heating. The transition temperatures reported here are reproducible to (0.5 C. Rheology. Steady and dynamic rheological experiments were performed on a Rheometrics SR5 stress-controlled rheometer. A couette cell was used with a cup of 27.5 mm diameter and a bob 25 mm 37.5 mm. The cell was heated by fluid circulating from a Julabo high-temperature bath, and the temperature was controlled to (0.1 C. Samples were equilibrated at the temperature of interest for at least 20 min prior to experimentation. A solvent trap was used to minimize water evaporation. Frequency spectra were conducted in the linear viscoelastic regime of the samples, as determined from dynamic strain sweep measurements. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). SANS measurements were made on the NG-3 (30 m) beamline at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) in Gaithersburg, MD. Samples were studied in 2 mm quartz cells. The scattering spectra were corrected and placed on an absolute scale using calibration standards provided by NIST. The data are shown for the radially averaged, absolute intensity I versus the scattering vector q ) 4π sin(θ /2)/λ, where λ is the wavelength of incident neutrons and θ is the scattering angle. 3. Results Phase Behavior. We begin by describing the phase behavior of EHAC/SHNC solutions at a fixed EHAC concentration (c EHAC ) of 40 mm. Figure 1 is a plot of temperature vs salt concentration, and we compare the results for SHNC (Figure 1b) with those previously reported 9 for NaSal (Figure 1a). As mentioned earlier, (10) Croce, V.; Cosgrove, T.; Maitland, G.; Hughes, T.; Karlsson, G. Langmuir 2003, 19, (11) Couillet, I.; Hughes, T.; Maitland, G.; Candau, F.; Candau, S. J. Langmuir 2004, 20, (12) Siriwatwechakul, W.; Lafleur, T.; Prud homme, R. K.; Sullivan, P. Langmuir 2004, 20, (13) Shashkina, J. A.; Philippova, O. E.; Zaroslov, Y. D.; Khokhlov, A. R.; Pryakhina, T. A.; Blagodatskikh, I. V. Langmuir 2005, 21, (14) Croce, V.; Cosgrove, T.; Dreiss, C. A.; King, S.; Maitland, G.; Hughes, T. Langmuir 2005, 21, Figure 1. Phase behavior of 40 mm EHAC solutions as a function of temperature and salt concentration. Data are shown for two salts: (a) NaSal (replotted from ref 9) and (b) SHNC. The cloud-point curve in each case is drawn as a solid curve. this comparison is interesting because the SHNC molecule is identical to NaSal except for the presence of a second benzene ring. From Figure 1, we conclude that the SHNC phase diagram shows all the same features as the NaSal one, the difference being that each phase boundary is shifted to a lower salt concentration (along the x axis). In other words, the SHNC phase diagram is a compressed version of the NaSal one, while qualitatively remaining the same. The progression in EHAC/SHNC phase behavior, proceeding from low to high salt concentration (c SHNC ), is as follows. In the low-salt limit, the samples are one-phase and highly viscous. In fact, adding less than 10 mm of SHNC to 40 mm EHAC is enough to induce significant micellar growth. When c SHNC exceeds about 15 mm, however, the samples phase-separate into two co-existing liquid phases. Similar results are observed for NaSal, with a micellar region at low salt, followed by phase-separation around 32 mm salt. 9 For both SHNC and NaSal, the biphasic samples are converted into single-phase micellar solutions by the addition of higher concentrations of salt. At 25 C, the micellar phase is recovered around 80 mm SHNC; for comparison, the corresponding value for NaSal is around 220 mm. Remarkably, in the high-salt region of both EHAC/ SHNC and EHAC/NaSal phase diagrams, we observe the appearance of cloud-point behavior. 9 That is, these highsalt samples phase-separate into co-existing liquid phases when heated beyond their corresponding cloud-point curves (shown by solid lines in Figure 1). Cloud-point phenomena in ionic surfactant solutions are highly unusual, 9,15,16 and their origins in EHAC/salt mixtures are still a matter of speculation. Note that the cloud-point phenomenon is seen over a wider range of salt concentrations for NaSal compared to SHNC (reiterating our earlier point that the SHNC phase diagram is a compressed version of the NaSal one). In the case of SHNC, cloud (15) Warr, G. G.; Zemb, T. N.; Drifford, M. J. Phys. Chem. 1990, 94, (16) Kalur, G. C.; Raghavan, S. R. J. Phys. Chem. B 2005, 109, 8599.
3 11000 Langmuir, Vol. 21, No. 24, 2005 Kalur et al. Figure 2. Zero-shear viscosity η 0 of EHAC/SHNC solutions at 25 C as a function of SHNC concentration. The EHAC concentration is 40 mm. points are observed only for c SHNC between ca. 70 and 180 mm; at higher c SHNC, the samples remain one-phase over the range of temperatures studied. Rheology. Figure 2 shows the zero-shear viscosity η 0 at 25 C of 40 mm EHAC solutions as a function of c SHNC. Our focus is on the higher SHNC concentrations where the samples are one-phase at all temperaturessthus, the starting point on the abscissa of Figure 2 is 200 mm SHNC. Figure 2 shows that, as c SHNC is increased from 200 to 450 mm, η 0 decreases monotonically by about 6 orders of magnitude. Thus, while the 450 mm sample has a viscosity similar to that of water, the 200 mm sample is highly viscoelastic and exhibits a very long relaxation time. In fact, some samples in the range mm SHNC are almost gel-like in their behavior. A full discussion of EHAC/ SHNC rheology over the entire range of salt concentrations will be reported in a separate publication. We now describe the rheology of typical EHAC/SHNC samples as a function of temperature. In Figure 3, data are presented for the zero-shear viscosity η 0 as a function of temperature for three samples with c EHAC ) 40 mm and c SHNC ) 240, 260, and 280 mm, respectively. For the 240 mm sample, η 0 drops monotonically over the entire range of temperatures (Figure 3a). This is the expected trend in viscosity vs temperature for wormlike micellar fluids, 4 and similar behavior is seen for all samples below 260 mm salt. On the other hand, the 260 and 280 mm samples show a qualitatively different behavior. For the 260 mm sample (Figure 3b), η 0 increases from 25 C up to around 35 C and decreases at higher temperatures. Last, for the 280 mm sample (Figure 3c), η 0 increases in the temperature range between 25 to around 45 C and then decreases at higher temperatures. The increase in η 0 in Figure 3c is fairly substantialsfrom ca. 2 Pa s at 25 C to its peak value ca. 15 Pa s around 45 C (factor of about seven increase). Figure 3 thus reveals an unusual increase in viscosity with temperature in some EHAC/SHNC samples. This viscosity increase is completely reversible, i.e., when a sample is cooled, it returns to its original viscosity. We will now focus on the 280 mm sample and describe in more detail its rheological properties over the range of temperatures. Dynamic rheological spectra for this sample at different temperatures are presented in Figure 4. The plots show the elastic modulus G and the viscous modulus G as functions of frequency ω. We note that the sample exhibits the viscoelastic response expected of wormlike micelles, with elastic behavior at high ω or short time scales (G dominating over G ) and viscous behavior at low ω or long time scales (G exceeding G ). The (longest) relaxation time t R of the sample can be estimated as 1/ω c, where ω c is the frequency at which G and G cross over. Figure 4a shows data at 25 and 45 C, and we note that the relaxation time t R from the crossover point increases from ca. 0.3 s at 25 C to ca. 2.5 s at 45 C. Data at 50 and Figure 3. Zero-shear viscosity η 0 as a function of temperature for three different EHAC/SHNC solutions. The solutions each contain 40 mm EHAC. Figure 4. Dynamic rheology of a 40 mm EHAC mm SHNC sample at various temperatures. Data are shown for the elastic modulus G (filled circles) and the viscous modulus G (unfilled diamonds) as functions of frequency. For clarity, the data are split into two plots: (a) 25 and 40 C and (b) 50 and 60 C. The arrows indicate the frequency at which G and G intersectsthe inverse of this frequency corresponds to the longest relaxation time of the sample.
4 Viscosity Increase in Cationic Surfactant Solutions Langmuir, Vol. 21, No. 24, Figure 5. Steady-shear rheology (viscosity as a function of shear rate) for a 40 mm EHAC mm SHNC sample at various temperatures. For clarity, the data are split into two plots: (a) C and (b) C. Figure 6. Zero-shear viscosity η 0 as a function of temperature for three different EHAC/SHNC solutions. The solutions each contain 40 mm EHAC. 60 C are plotted in Figure 4b, and we observe here that the relaxation time drops from ca. 2sat50 Ctoca.0.5 s at 60 C. Dynamic rheology thus reveals an increase in relaxation time up to 45 C and a subsequent decrease at higher temperatures. Figure 5 shows the corresponding steady-shear rheological data at various temperatures for the 280 mm SHNC sample. In all cases, the viscosity exhibits a Newtonian plateau at low shear rates followed by shear-thinning at high shear rates. The zero-shear viscosity η 0 increases in the range from 25 to 45 C (Figure 5a), whereas η 0 decreases beyond 50 C (Figure 5b). The increase in lowshear viscosity mirrors the increase in relaxation time observed in Figure 4. The viscosity at high shear rates, on the other hand, is much less sensitive to temperature, a feature that has been seen in other studies on wormlike micellar solutions. 4 We now return to examining the temperature dependence of EHAC/SHNC sample rheology for other SHNC concentrations. As c SHNC is increased beyond 280 mm, the viscosity increase occurs over a wider range of temperatures. The sample starts at a lower viscosity, but the ratio of peak viscosity to initial viscosity is greater. This is shown by the data in Figure 6, where the zero-shear viscosity η 0 as a function of temperature is reported for three more samples with c SHNC ) 360, 400, and 450 mm, respectively. Note that the y axis for these data is in mpa s, reflecting the lower viscosities of these samples compared to those in Figure 3. The sample with 360 mm SHNC exhibits a viscosity increase over the entire range of temperatures studied (Figure 6a). η 0 for this sample increases from ca. 2 to 50 mpa s, which is a factor of 25 increase. The 400 mm sample shows an increase in η 0 from ca. 1.5 to 6 mpa s at 70 C (factor of 4 increase), followed by a decrease in η 0 at higher temperatures (Figure Figure 7. Steady-shear rheology (viscosity vs shear rate) for a 40 mm EHAC mm SHNC sample at various temperatures. 6b). Finally, the 450 mm sample has a very low viscosity at room temperature (ca. 1.5 mpa s) and there is a slight decrease in this viscosity upon heating (Figure 6c). Thus, a viscosity increase is only observed over a finite range of SHNC concentrationssfor an EHAC concentration of 40 mm, it occurs between ca. 260 and 420 mm SHNC. We now revisit the 360 mm sample and probe its rheology in some more detail. The steady-shear rheology of this sample over a range of temperatures is presented in Figure 7. At room temperature (25 C), this sample is a Newtonian fluid with a viscosity of ca. 2 mpa s (i.e., approximately twice that of water). Upon heating, the viscosity increases, while the sample continues to remain a Newtonian fluid. Around 60 C, however, the rheology becomes non-newtonian, with a shear-thinning response at high shear rates. The zero-shear viscosity continues to increase with temperature, and a similar response is seen at 70 C as well (η 0 at 70 C is ca. 50 mpa s). The sample
5 11002 Langmuir, Vol. 21, No. 24, 2005 Kalur et al. Figure 8. SANS scattering from a 40 mm EHAC mm SHNC sample at various temperatures. Figure 9. SANS scattering from a 40 mm EHAC mm SHNC sample at various temperatures. thus changes from a Newtonian fluid at low temperatures to a viscous, non-newtonian fluid at high temperatures. This is in direct contrast to the behavior of typical rodlike or wormlike micellar fluids, which usually transform from a highly viscous and non-newtonian fluid at low temperatures to a Newtonian, low-viscosity fluid at high temperatures. SANS. To understand the microstructural origins of the observed rheological changes, we turned to SANS. For these experiments, samples were made using D 2 O instead of H 2 O. We verified that the rheology of EHAC/ SHNC samples in D 2 O matched closely to that of the corresponding compositions in H 2 O. Figure 8 shows SANS spectra (I vs q) at various temperatures from a sample containing 40 mm EHAC and 360 mm SHNC. Recall from Figure 6 that the viscosity of this sample monotonically increased with temperature. In turn, the SANS spectra show a monotonic rise in low-q intensity for this sample as the temperature is increased from 25 to 65 C. The intensity at high q, on the other hand, remains practically unchanged with temperature. Note that these SANS spectra resemble those from long cylindrical micelles over the entire range of temperatures (e.g., the data asymptote to a slope close to -1atlowq). 17 The rise in low-q intensity thus signifies the growth of the cylindrical (wormlike) micelles, i.e., an increase in the micellar contour length, with increasing temperature. The constancy of the high-q data suggests that the micellar radius remains practically unchanged with temperature. The value of this radius can be obtained from a cross-sectional Guinier plot, i.e., a plot of ln(iq) versus q 2 (not shown) and is found to be ca. 26 Å. For comparison, the length of a fully extended 22-carbon saturated alkyl tail is estimated to be ca. 29 Å from the Tanford formula. 18 Similar upturns in low-q intensity are seen for other EHAC/SHNC samples that exhibit a viscosity increase with temperature. Of particular interest is a sample containing 40 mm EHAC mm SHNC, data for which are shown in Figure 9. Rheological measurements for this composition in H 2 O (Figure 6) showed a monotonic rise in viscosity between 25 and 65 C, but the low viscosities (1.5-6 mpa s) suggested that the micelles present must be rather small (and thereby more amenable to analysis within the length scales probed by SANS). Indeed, the SANS data in Figure 9 show significant changes between 25 and 65 C. At low temperatures (25 and 35 C), there is a plateau in the low-q intensity, and the scattering curve is suggestive of small spherical or ellipsoidal micelles. With increasing temperature, there is a dramatic increase in the low-q intensity and the spectra begin to resemble that of cylindrical or long ellipsoidal micelles. Thus, a systematic growth of micelles with increasing temperature is qualitatively evident from the SANS data. For a more quantitative analysis of the data in Figure 9, we use the indirect Fourier transform (IFT) method, which enables analysis of SANS data without assuming any a priori knowledge about the scatterers. 19 In this analysis, a Fourier transformation of the scattering intensity I(q) yields the pair distance distribution function p(r) in real space. The two are related by the following equation: 19 I(q) ) 4π 0 p(r) sin (qr) qr The p(r) function provides structural information about the scatterers in the sample. In particular, the maximum dimension of the scattering entities can be estimated. Note that, in the simplest form of the IFT technique, it is assumed that the scatterers do not interact. 19 Before implementing the IFT methodology, it is useful to first subtract the incoherent background from the scattering data. This background was estimated from the asymptotic slope of a Porod plot (I(q)q 4 vs q 4 ). The IFT calculation was then performed on the reduced data using the commercially available PCG software package. Figure 10 shows the resulting p(r) functions for each of the scattering curves in Figure 9 without considering any interparticle interactions. At 25 and 35 C, the p(r) functions are symmetrical, which here is indicative of spherical micelles. The maximum in p(r), which is akin to a most probable distance between adjacent scatterers, corresponds to the radius of the spheres, and p(r) f 0at a value of r corresponding to the micellar diameter, i.e., twice the radius. 19 The value of this micellar diameter is around 60 Å at 25 C and 70 Å at 30 C. At 45 C, the p(r) becomes asymmetrical and exhibits a shallow second peak. In this case, p(r) f 0 at a much larger value of r ( 400 Å), which gives an upper limit on the size of the structures (17) Neutron, X-Ray and Light Scattering: Introduction to an Investigative Tool for Colloidal and Polymeric Systems; Zemb, T.; Lindner, P., Eds.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, (18) Tanford, C. The Hydrophobic Effect, 2nd ed.; Wiley: New York, (19) Glatter, O. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 1977, 10, 415. dr (1)
6 Viscosity Increase in Cationic Surfactant Solutions Langmuir, Vol. 21, No. 24, Figure 10. Pair distance distribution functions p(r) corresponding to the SANS data in Figure 9 obtained at various temperatures for a 40 mm EHAC mm SHNC sample. The p(r) curves were obtained by an indirect Fourier transformation (IFT) of the data without considering any interparticle interactions (see text for details). present. A shoulder or second peak in p(r) is often indicative of interactions between the scatterers, which complicates the interpretation of p(r) Nevertheless, it is clear that the structures at 45 C are larger than at the lower temperatures. Finally, at 65 C, the p(r) becomes strongly asymmetrical and exhibits an inflection point followed by an approximately linear decrease. Such a linear decrease is characteristic of cylindrical micelles. 20,21 In this case, the p(r) tends to zero around 600 Å, which provides an estimate for the maximum length of the cylinders. Our analysis of the SANS data by the IFT method thus reveals a growth of micelles from compact spheres at 25 C to elongated cylinders at 65 C. 4. Discussion We have demonstrated an increase in viscosity with temperature in solutions of 40 mm EHAC over a range of SHNC concentrations ( mm). Using rheology and SANS, we have shown that the increase in viscosity is due to the growth of cylindrical micelles with increasing temperature. The viscosity increase is quite substantialsmore than an order of magnitude for many samples. It is worth reiterating that such an increase in viscosity is very unusual in the case of cationic wormlike micellar solutions. Specifically, in the case of micelles formed by the EHAC cationic surfactant, a viscosity increase has not been previously reported to our knowledge. Note that EHAC has been studied in conjunction with a range of salts, including simple salts such as NaCl and KCl, as well as binding counterions such as NaSal and sodium tosylate. 4,9 None of these samples, however, showed an increase in viscosity with temperature. The question then is why we see the viscosity increase with SHNC and not with other salts. In particular, why does SHNC behave differently compared to NaSal, despite the two counterions being closely related (Figure 1)? A further intriguing question is, why do we see the viscosity increase only over a limited range of SHNC concentrations? These questions are related, and we will try to tackle them together. The significant difference between SHNC (20) Glatter, O.; Fritz, G.; Lindner, H.; Brunner-Popela, J.; Mittelbach, R.; Strey, R.; Egelhaaf, S. U. Langmuir 2000, 16, (21) Raghavan, S. R.; Fritz, G.; Kaler, E. W. Langmuir 2002, 18, (22) Hassan, P. A.; Fritz, G.; Kaler, E. W. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2003, 257, 154. Figure 11. Schematic of the micellar structure in a 40 mm EHAC mm SHNC solution at low and high temperatures. At low temperatures (left), the micelles are depicted to be short cylinders or ellipsoids. In this case, most of the HNC - counterions are shown bound to the micelle, due to which the micelle bears a strong negative charge. At high temperatures (right), the micelles have grown into longer, flexible cylinders (wormlike micelles). This growth is attributed to the desorption of some of the bound HNC - counterions and the consequent reduction in micellar surface charge. and NaSal is that the hydrophobic moiety is bulkier in SHNC. In turn, this causes SHNC to have a lower solubility in water compared to NaSal. 23 Thus, when added to water in the presence of cationic micelles, the HNC - counterions will partition almost entirely to the micelles, with their aromatic portion submerged within the hydrophobic interior of the micelles (see Figure 11). Even when there is an excess of HNC - over surfactant molecules, the strongly hydrophobic nature of the counterions will induce the vast majority of them to segregate toward the micelles. (For simplicity, we assume that the counterions tend to become uniformly distributed over the entire micelle. Although naphthalene derivatives can π-stack, it is not clear if this will impact the distribution of HNC - at the micellar interface.). To illustrate the consequences of counterion binding, take the specific example of a particular EHAC/SHNC composition, say 40 mm EHAC mm SHNC. In this case, there are nine times as many SHNC molecules as EHAC, and all of the HNC - counterions are likely to be bound to the micelles. Because of the large excess of counterions, not all these ions may be bound strongly, i.e., some HNC - ions may only be partially inserted into the micelles. This is the scenario we expect at low temperatures, and it is depicted schematically on thelefthand side of Figure 11. Note that, because of the large fraction of bound anions, the micellar interface is expected to bear a strong negative charge. Due to this unscreened charge, the micelles existing in solution are likely to be highly curved structures, i.e., mostly spherical or slightly elongated micelles. Now consider what happens upon increasing temperature. The solubility of SHNC in water is expected to increase with temperature, which means a reduction in the tendency of HNC - counterions to bind onto the micelles. 23 This may cause some of the weakly bound counterions to desorb from the micelles and release into solution (the resulting micellar interface is depicted schematically on the right-hand side of Figure 11). In turn, we suggest that the micellar surface charge is reduced, thereby leading to a growth of cylindrical micelles with increasing temperature. The above mechanism is the simplest one that can account for our results. It can be used to explain why the (23) Hassan, P. A.; Valaulikar, B. S.; Manohar, C.; Kern, F.; Bourdieu, L.; Candau, S. J. Langmuir 1996, 12, 4350.
7 11004 Langmuir, Vol. 21, No. 24, 2005 Kalur et al. viscosity increase occurs only over a certain range of SHNC concentrations. The key point is that, if the micelles are already very long at room temperature, any desorption of counterions will have a negligible effect on the micelle curvature. It should be noted that temperature exerts a competing effect, which is to exponentially decrease the micelle contour length (this is ultimately the reason the viscosity goes through a maximum for many samples). Thus, it is only for micelles that are quite short to begin with (as indicated by a low viscosity at room temperature) that we see the effects related to counterion desorption. This can explain why the viscosity increase only occurs for c SHNC > 260 mm. On the other hand, the effect is masked for c SHNC > 450 mm because in these cases the micelles are so swamped with HNC - counterions that the desorption of a few ions has a negligible effect on micelle charge, and hence curvature. A similar series of arguments was advanced by Manohar et al to describe a temperature-induced transition from multilamellar vesicles to wormlike micelles in solutions of the surfactant cetyl trimethylammonium hydroxynaphthoate (CTA-HNC). In this case, the HNC - formed the counterions for the surfactant, and at low temperatures, these counterions remained bound to the surfactant. The resulting low surface charge lead to the formation of vesicular aggregates. However, at high temperatures, the authors postulated a desorption of some HNC - counterions from the aggregates, resulting in an increased charge and thereby a transition from vesicles to wormlike micelles. 24,25 Note that, in the case of CTA- HNC, there was always an equimolar concentration of surfactant molecules and counterions, whereas in our samples, we have a large excess of HNC - counterions over surfactant molecules. Therefore, the desorption of counterions has a different consequence in our case than in that studied by Manohar et al. (24) Menon, S. V. G.; Manohar, C.; Lequeux, F. Chem. Phys. Lett. 1996, 263, 727. (25) Narayanan, J.; Mendes, E.; Manohar, C. Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 2002, 16, 375. One final question is whether the viscosity increase in EHAC/SHNC samples is connected with the cloud-point phenomenon observed at lower SHNC compositions (Figure 1). To reiterate, the EHAC/SHNC solutions that show a viscosity increase do not show cloud points over the accessible range of temperatures. Also, the solutions that have cloud points do not show a viscosity increasestheir viscosity decreases monotonically with temperature until their cloud point (much like for the 240 mm sample in Figure 3a). Similar trends in viscosity have been reported for EHAC/NaSal samples that had cloud points. 9 In this earlier study, the cloud point was attributed either to attractive interactions between micelles or to a transition from linear to branched micelles with increasing temperature. 9 Thus, the viscosity increase observed here appears to have a different origin compared to the cloudpoint phenomenon. Conclusions In this paper, we have reported unusual rheological behavior in micellar solutions of the cationic surfactant EHAC and the binding salt, SHNC. Over a range of SHNC concentrations corresponding to a large excess of counterions over surfactant, these solutions show an increase in viscosity with temperature. The viscosity increase can be fairly substantial, often exceeding an order of magnitude. For some samples, the viscosity rises to a peak and thereafter decreases. Using SANS, we have shown that the increase in viscosity is caused by an increase in the contour length of cylindrical micelles. We attribute this micellar growth to a desorption of weakly bound HNC - counterions from the micelle at elevated temperatures. Such a desorption is believed to reduce the charge density at the micellar interface and thereby promote the growth of cylindrical structures. Acknowledgment. We would like to acknowledge NIST for facilitating the SANS experiments performed as part of this work. This work was partially funded by a grant from NSF-CTS. LA052069W
PHASE TRANSITIONS IN POLYMERIC AND MICELLAR SYSTEMS Summer School on Neutron Scattering and Reflectometry NG3 SANS Team NIST Center for Neutron Research June 3-7, 008 ABSTRACT Small-Angle Neutron Scattering
Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 2 Lecture - 2 Part 2 of 2 Review of Atomic Bonding II We will continue
HW 10 Problem 15.1 Elastic modulus and tensile strength of poly(methyl methacrylate) at room temperature [20 C (68 F)]. Compare these with the corresponding values in Table 15.1. Figure 15.3 is accurate;
Insight Into Chain Dimensions in PEO/Water Solutions BOUALEM HAMMOUDA, DEREK L. HO Center for Neutron Research and Polymers Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg,
5s Solubility & Conductivity OBJECTIVES To explore the relationship between the structures of common household substances and the kinds of solvents in which they dissolve. To demonstrate the ionic nature
Differential Relations for Fluid Flow In this approach, we apply our four basic conservation laws to an infinitesimally small control volume. The differential approach provides point by point details of
3.5 Show that the atomic packing factor for BCC is 0.68. The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C Since there are two spheres associated
1 Why is rheology important? Examples of its importance Summary of important variables Description of the flow equations Flow regimes - laminar vs. turbulent - Reynolds number - definition of viscosity
The Physics and Chemistry of Water 1 The water molecule and hydrogen bonds in water Stoichiometric composition H 2 O the average lifetime of a molecule is 1 ms due to proton exchange (catalysed by acids
Global Seasonal Phase Lag between Solar Heating and Surface Temperature Summer REU Program Professor Tom Witten By Abstract There is a seasonal phase lag between solar heating from the sun and the surface
1.0 Introduction Long term performance of polymers Polymer materials exhibit time dependent behavior. The stress and strain induced when a load is applied are a function of time. In the most general form
CBE 6333, R. Levicky Part I. Theoretical Background. Potential Flow Potential Flow. Potential flow is irrotational flow. Irrotational flows are often characterized by negligible viscosity effects. Viscous
Rheology of polymer systems/ Reologia dos sistemas poliméricos 1. Viscosity/Viscosidade Jorge Morgado, IST Polymers Molecular materials in nature COMPLEX behaviour Viscosity of concentrated solu1ons and
Lecture 24 - Surface tension, viscous flow, thermodynamics Surface tension, surface energy The atoms at the surface of a solid or liquid are not happy. Their bonding is less ideal than the bonding of atoms
EPJ Web of Conferences 67, 212 (214) DOI: 1.11/ epjconf/ 21467212 C Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 214 Collision of a small bubble with a large falling particle Jiri Vejrazka 1,a, Martin
Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression Freezing point depression is a kind of colligative properties as treated in high school chemistry course. Normally used alcohol or mercury
TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS INVESTIGATION OF VISCOELASTICITY AND CURE SHRINKAGE IN AN EPOXY RESIN DURING PROCESSING T. Shimizu *, H. Koinuma, K. Nagai Mitsubishi Heavy Industries,
Viscoelasticity of Polymer Fluids. Main Properties of Polymer Fluids. Entangled polymer fluids are polymer melts and concentrated or semidilute (above the concentration c) solutions. In these systems polymer
Chapter 1 Dissolved Oxygen in the Blood Say we have a volume of blood, which we ll represent as a beaker of fluid. Now let s include oxygen in the gas above the blood (represented by the green circles).
Designed Monomers and Polymers, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 453 462 (2005) VSP 2005. Also available online - www.vsppub.com Shake gels based on Laponite PEO mixtures: effect of polymer molecular weight VOLKAN CAN
INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Sixth Edition by Charles H. Corwin Chapter 13 Liquids and Solids by Christopher Hamaker 1 Chapter 13 Properties of Liquids Unlike gases, liquids do
Internet Journal of Chemistry, 2000, 3, 14 [ISSN: 1099-8292]. Article 14 Some generalization of Langmuir adsorption isotherm Leszek Czepirski, Mieczyslaw R. Balys, Ewa Komorowska-Czepirska University of
Solutions Thermodynamics DCI Name Section 1. The three attractive interactions which are important in solution formation are; solute-solute interactions, solvent-solvent interactions, and solute-solvent
Roulette, T., J. Roulette, and S. Pons. Results of ICARUS 9 Experiments Run at IMRA Europe. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido,
Chapter 37 - SANS FROM OLYMER SOLUTIONS Soluility is a determining factor in the synthesis, mixing aility and end-use of polymers. A general model for descriing soluility (Flory, 1953) is discussed here
Chapter 27 Solutions PSS 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge Description: Knight Problem-Solving Strategy 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge is illustrated.
ENSC 283 Introduction and Properties of Fluids Spring 2009 Prepared by: M. Bahrami Mechatronics System Engineering, School of Engineering and Sciences, SFU 1 Pressure Pressure is the (compression) force
ABSTRACT Paraffin in Water Emulsion as heat transfer and storage medium Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety, and Energy Technology UMSICHT Osterfelder Strasse 3, 46047 Oberhausen, Germany Phone:
Detailed simulation of mass spectra for quadrupole mass spectrometer systems J. R. Gibson, a) S. Taylor, and J. H. Leck Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool,
CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Concepts of Stress and Strain 6.1 Using mechanics of materials principles (i.e., equations of mechanical equilibrium applied to a free-body diagram),
Vapor Pressure Diagrams and Boiling Diagrams We are now ready to begin talking about phase diagrams involving two components. Our first few phase diagrams will involve only the liquid and gas (or vapor)
3.3. Rheological Behavior of Vinyl Ester Resins 3.3.1. Introduction Rheology is the study of the deformation and flow of matter 1. There has been significant appreciation of the importance of the rheological
SAS data reduction and primary analysis Al Kikhney Outline SAS experiment setup 3D 2D 1D Background subtraction High vs. low concentration R g, MM Volume Distance distribution function p(r) Small Angle
5 The interaction of Cu(100)-Fe surfaces with oxygen studied with photoelectron spectroscopy. I Mg Kα excited photoemission. Abstract The oxidation of Cu(100)-Fe surfaces was studied using XPS. Surfaces
Micelle Formation Lecture: Colloidal Phenomena Arne Thomas, MPI of Colloids and Interfaces, Golm firstname.lastname@example.org 0331-567 9509 What is a Colloid? Colloid science is the study of systems involving small
Available online www.jocpr.com Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(5):112-117 Research Article ISSN : 0975-7384 CODEN(USA) : JCPRC5 Flow characteristics of microchannel melts during
Small-Angle Scattering and Data Analysis. Introduction Small-angle scattering (SAS is a powerful technique to study structure and interactions of systems with the size on the order of to Å. SAS includes
RHEOLOGY RHEOLOGY Science describing the flow and deformation of matter under stress. Rheo = the flow Viscosity (η) is the resistance of a fluid material to flow under stress. The higher the viscosity,
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL 2 SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENTS IN BEAMS This is the second tutorial on bending of beams. You should judge your progress by completing the self assessment exercises.
CE 204 FLUID MECHANICS Onur AKAY Assistant Professor Okan University Department of Civil Engineering Akfırat Campus 34959 Tuzla-Istanbul/TURKEY Phone: +90-216-677-1630 ext.1974 Fax: +90-216-677-1486 E-mail:
CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy
Thermodynamics vs Kinetics Overview A general Reaction Coordinate Diagram relating the energy of a system to its geometry along one possible reaction pathway is given in the figure below. In the figure
RHEOTEST Messgeräte Medingen Series RHEOTEST RN Traditions Rheometers with the mark name RHEOTEST are in use in many countries for more than 40 years and represent constancy of Medingen's traditions in
.1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations
FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS System: Quantity of matter (constant mass) or region in space (constant volume) chosen for study. Closed system: Can exchange energy but not mass; mass is constant
22.1 ntroduction We have seen in chapter 21 that determining the electric field of a continuous charge distribution can become very complicated for some charge distributions. t would be desirable if we
Boltzmann Distribution Law The motion of molecules is extremely chaotic Any individual molecule is colliding with others at an enormous rate Typically at a rate of a billion times per second We introduce
Electrical resistivity measurements were carried out by the four probe method. The samples were cut into rectangular pieces. Electrical contacts were made by pressing the copper wires onto the sample surface.
14:440:407 Ch6 Question 6.3: A specimen of aluminum having a rectangular cross section 10 mm 12.7 mm (0.4 in. 0.5 in.) is pulled in tension with 35,500 N (8000 lb f ) force, producing only elastic deformation.
1 Why? Chapter 1 Intermolecular Forces and Liquids Why is water usually a liquid and not a gas? Why does liquid water boil at such a high temperature for such a small molecule? Why does ice float on water?
Solutions to Exercise 3-Amphiphilic Polymers, KJM5530. 1) The EHEC polymer is mainly hydrophilic, but it contains randomly distributed hydrophobic microdomains. The hydrophobically modified analogue ()
CHAPTER 3 PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GASES The behavior of natural gas, whether pure methane or a mixture of volatile hydrocarbons and the nonhydrocarbons nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, must
11 Vectors and the Geometry of Space 11.1 Vectors in the Plane Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 Objectives! Write the component form of
REVISED GCSE Scheme of Work Mathematics Higher Unit 6 For First Teaching September 2010 For First Examination Summer 2011 This Unit Summer 2012 Version 1: 28 April 10 Version 1: 28 April 10 Unit T6 Unit
Thermoplastic Material Testing for Use in Sigmasoft + technical center for materials a DatapointLabs affiliate Materials Testing Data Infrastructure Productivity Software Plastic Rubber Film Metal Foam
4. Thermodynamics of Polymer Blends Polymeric materials find growing applications in various fields of everyday life because they offer a wide range of application relevant properties. Blending of polymers
Elastic Properties of Polymer Melts Filled with Nanoparticles Helmut Münstedt and Christian Triebel Citation: AIP Conf. Proc. 1375, 21 (211); doi: 1.163/1.364479 View online: http://dx.doi.org/1.163/1.364479
Calorimetry: Heat of Vaporization OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION - Learn what is meant by the heat of vaporization of a liquid or solid. - Discuss the connection between heat of vaporization and intermolecular
Strength of Materials Prof S. K. Bhattacharya Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture -15 Application of Stress by Strain Thin-walled Pressure Vessels - I Welcome
Review of Chemical Equilibrium 7.51 September 1999 Equilibrium experiments study how the concentration of reaction products change as a function of reactant concentrations and/or reaction conditions. For
Modern Methods in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research TDS Dirk Rosenthal Department of Inorganic Chemistry Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG Faradayweg 4-6, DE 14195 Berlin email@example.com TDS = TPD
CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,
Primary data reduction and analysis Al Kikhney, EMBL Hamburg Outline 3D 2D 1D Experiment design and data reduction Exposure time Background subtraction Dilution series Overall parameters: Guinier analysis:
SURFACE TENSION Definition In the fall a fisherman s boat is often surrounded by fallen leaves that are lying on the water. The boat floats, because it is partially immersed in the water and the resulting
1 Lecture 5 Hemodynamics Description of fluid flow Hydrodynamics is the part of physics, which studies the motion of fluids. It is based on the laws of mechanics. Hemodynamics studies the motion of blood
hemical Bonds and Groups - Part 1 ARB SKELETS arbon has a unique role in the cell because of its ability to form strong covalent bonds with other carbon atoms. Thus carbon atoms can join to form chains.
Influence of the functionalization pattern of ethyl cellulose on the interactions with polystyrene latex particles in aqueous mixtures Alexandra Wennerstrandª,#, Martin Olssonª, and Lars Järnström a Andreas
Chemistry 212 VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER LEARNING OBJECTIVES The learning objectives of this experiment are to explore the relationship between the temperature and vapor pressure of water. determine the molar
Physics 3 Summer 1989 Lab 7 - Elasticity Theory All materials deform to some extent when subjected to a stress (a force per unit area). Elastic materials have internal forces which restore the size and
A cart full of water travels horizontally on a frictionless track with initial velocity v. As shown in the diagram, in the back wall of the cart there is a small opening near the bottom of the wall that
The 10 th International Conference of the Slovenian Society for Non-Destructive Testing»Application of Contemporary Non-Destructive Testing in Engineering«September 1-3, 2009, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 415-421
Viscosity It is the property of a liquid due to which it flows in the form of layers and each layer opposes the motion of its adjacent layer. Cause of viscosity Consider two neighboring liquid layers A
Basic Fluid Mechanics MEM 220 Prof. Young I Cho Summer 2009 Chapter 1 Introduction What is fluid? Give some examples of fluids. Examples of gases: Examples of liquids: What is fluid mechanics? Mechanics
CHEM1102 2014-J-7 June 2014 Solid sulfur can exist in two forms, rhombic sulfur and monoclinic sulfur. A portion of the phase diagram for sulfur is reproduced schematically below. The pressure and temperature
ENGINEERING SCIENCE H1 OUTCOME 1 - TUTORIAL 3 BENDING MOMENTS EDEXCEL HNC/D ENGINEERING SCIENCE LEVEL 4 H1 FORMERLY UNIT 21718P This material is duplicated in the Mechanical Principles module H2 and those
EXPERIMENT 15 FREEZING POINT: A COLLIGATIVE PROPERTY OF SOLUTIONS INTRODUCTION Scientists seldom work alone today. Instead they work in teams on projects, sharing the labor of carrying out the experiments
A r t i c l e p r e s e n t e d i n T E S T Vo l. 2 6 ( J a n u a r y 1 5, 2 0 1 3, i s s u e d b y J a p a n Te s t i n g M a c h i n e r y A s s o c i a t i o n Title Vibration Rheometer RV-10000 Sub-title
Dispersion diagrams of a water-loaded cylindrical shell obtained from the structural and acoustic responses of the sensor array along the shell B.K. Jung ; J. Ryue ; C.S. Hong 3 ; W.B. Jeong ; K.K. Shin
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.