# Manipulator Kinematics. Prof. Matthew Spenko MMAE 540: Introduction to Robotics Illinois Institute of Technology

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1 Manipulator Kinematics Prof. Matthew Spenko MMAE 540: Introduction to Robotics Illinois Institute of Technology

2 Manipulator Kinematics Forward and Inverse Kinematics

3 2D Manipulator Forward Kinematics Forward Kinematics Given, find x The vector of end effector positions The vector of joint angles Shorthand notation

4 2D Manipulator Inverse Kinematics Inverse Kinematics = given x, find The joint angles The end effector positions Problem is more difficult!

5 2D Manipulator Inverse Kinematics Example Use the Law of Cosines: We also know that: Do some algebra to get: Again, note the notation short-hand

6 Inverse Kinematics Example Continued Now solve for c2: One possible solution: Elbow up vs elbow down May be impossible! Multiple solutions may exist! Fundamental problem in robotics!

7 Kinematics Mini-Quiz Working alone, derive the forward kinematics for the manipulator below When complete, compare your answer to the person next to you

8 Manipulator Kinematics The Jacobian

9 The Jacobian Matrix analogue of the derivative of a scalar function Allows us to relate end effector velocity to joint velocity Given The Jacobian, J, is defined as:

10 The Jacobian, a 2D 2-Link Manipulator Example The forward kinematics of a 2 link, revolute joint manipulator are given as: What is the relationship between the end effector velocity, x, and the joint velocities, θ? First step, take the time derivative of the forward kinematics equations:

11 The Jacobian, a 2D 2-Link Manipulator Example Continued Put into matrix form: We can further manipulate that to understand how the relationship of the joints comes into play: Velocity of elbow Velocity of end effector relative to elbow

12 Singular Jacobians The Jacobian is singular when its determinant is equal to 0. When the Jacobian is non-singular the following relationship holds: Question---Intuitively, when is this not the case? Hint---Think of a configuration where changing the joints does not change the end effector velocity in any arbitrary direction. Workspace boundaries Demonstrate mathematically? Determinant of the Jacobian = 0

13 Singular Jacobians Continued Find the determinant of the Jacobian: Using the following trig identities: Yields: Therefore, Does this make sense?

14 Singular Jacobians Continued The fact that implies that all possible end effector velocities are linear combinations of the following Jacobian matrix: Matrix rank = # of linearly independent columns (or rows) If the Jacobian is full rank, then the end effector can execute any arbitrary velocity Is this the case for our 2D revolute joint planar manipulator?

15 Singular Jacobians Continued Look at the Jacobian again: We can see that it is made up of: Where: The linear independence is a function of the joint angle If theta_2 = 0 or pi, the Jacobian loses rank

16 What is the physical manifestation of singularities? Configurations from which certain instantaneous motions are unachievable A bounded end effector velocity (i.e. a velocity with some finite value) may correspond to an unbounded joint velocity (i.e. one that approaches infinity) if we want the end effector to attain a certain velocity, we need to input an infinite joint velocity Not a great idea! Bounded joint torques may correspond to unbounded end effector torques and forces Good for static loading Not so good for other situations Often correspond to boundaries of the workspace

17 Summary of Manipulator Kinematics Introduction Forward kinematics is relatively simple Inverse kinematics is relatively complicated and sometimes impossible A Jacobian relates end effector velocity to joint velocity We typically want to compute the inverse of the Jacobian Typically we have a desired end effector velocity Then we need to compute the joint velocities to reach that end effector velocity This requires us to compute the inverse of the Jacobian Sometimes we can do this, sometimes we cannot A manipulator s singularities correspond to when the determinant of the Jacobian is zero.

18 Mini Quiz The Jacobian Working alone, answer the following: What is a Jacobian? Why is it important to compute a manipulator s Jacobian? Compare your answers to the person next to you

19 Manipulator Kinematics Kinematic Optimization for Redundant Manipulators

20 Redundant Manipulators

21 Redundant Manipulators A redundant manipulator is one where Jacobian represents the relationship between end effector and joint velocities: For a given end effector velocity, to find joint velocities we can invert J if it is square. With a redundant manipulator, J is non-square so not invertible There may exist different joint velocities, θ, that yield the desired end effector velocity, x Multiple solutions = opportunity to optimize! Minimal energy Minimal time

22 Redundant Manipulator Minimal Energy Minimize kinetic energy Kinetic energy is proportional to velocity squared Thus, we can minimize: Where W is a symmetric positive definite matrix Weighting function Weighs importance of each joint Makes problem more general Symmetric = n x n matrix such that A is positive definite if z T Az is positive for every non-zero column vector z of n real numbers Example: If Then

23 Redundant Manipulator Minimal Energy Continued Minimize kinetic energy Subject to the kinematic constraint: To solve this problem we need to employ Lagrange Multipliers Joseph-Louis Lagrange (born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia)

24 Lagrange Multipliers In an unconstrained optimization problem, we find the extreme points of some function: These are simply where the partial derivatives are 0, or equivalently where the gradient of f is 0: where: In a constrained optimization problem, we add in another function:

25 Constrained Optimization Problem Two methods to solve a constrained optimization problem Substitution Lagrange multipliers

26 Constrained Optimization Problem: Substitution Example Optimize: Subject to: Solve for x 1 in the constraint: Plug x 1 into to yield: We have transformed the two dimensional constrained problem into a one dimensional unconstrained problem Differentiate as a function of x 2 : Solve and substitute:

27 Constrained Optimization Problem: Substitution Example Continued That was easy! Why do I have to learn about Lagrange multipliers? The example was contrived Generally difficult Generally time consuming

28 Constrained Optimization Problem: Lagrange Multipliers Example The claim: for an extremum (minimum or maximum) of f(x) to exist on g(x), the gradient of f(x) must be parallel to the gradient of g(x). Find x and y to maximize f(x, y) subject to a constraint (shown in red) g(x, y) = c. Images and text from wikipedia The red line shows the constraint g(x, y) = c. The blue lines are contours of f(x, y). The point where the red line tangentially touches a blue contour is our solution. Since d 1 > d 2, the solution is a maximization of f(x, y)

29 Constrained Optimization Problem: Lagrange Multipliers Example If the gradient of f(x) is parallel to the gradient of g(x), then the gradient of f(x) is a scalar function of the gradient of g(x): This means the magnitude of the normal vectors do not need to be the same, only the direction (the scalar, l, is termed the Lagrange multiplier) This implies that: Where:

30 Constrained Optimization Problem: Lagrange Method Example Optimize: Subject to: We know that Find the gradient

31 Constrained Optimization Problem: Lagrange Method Example Continued Plug into second equation, solve for Plug x2 into third equation, solve for Repeat for

32 Mini-break Matrix Algebra Quick Review

33 Applying Lagrange Multipliers to the Redundant Manipulator We have: Where: Subject to the constraint (the manipulator kinematics) The function (energy) we want to minimize, I substituted q for theta to represent a vector Remember that x is m x 1 and q is n x 1.

34 Example: Using Lagrange Multipliers to solve the Redundant Manipulator Problem Back to the problem: W is symmetric positive definite, thus: Find the gradient: We want solve for the joint velocity in terms of the end effector velocity, but we can't just invert J because it is not square.

35 Example: Using Lagrange Multipliers to solve the Redundant Manipulator Problem

36 Example: Using Lagrange Multipliers to solve the Redundant Manipulator Problem Set the weighting function W to I Where we can define As the generalized right-pseudo inverse of J.

37 Mini Break Pseudo Inverses What are the properties of the generalized inverse? There is also a left-pseudo inverse. As you can imagine, it has the properties of: Where:

38 Redundant Manipulators Summary Has more joint than endpoint degrees of freedom Allows us to optimize the path of the robot Use Lagrange multipliers to solve constrained optimization problem

39 Redundant Manipulators Mini-Quiz Working alone, answer the following: What is a redundant manipulator? What is a pseudo inverse matrix? What is the difference between a left and right-pseudo inverse matrix? Describe all of the terms in the following equation: Mathematically define a Lagrange Multiplier and describe why it can be used to solve optimization problems

40 Manipulator Kinematics Static Force Torque Relationships

41 Problem Statement For a given force, F, acting on a manipulator s end effector, what torques, T, must be supplied at the joints to maintain static equilibrium. 20 th Century Fox

42 Static Force/Torque Relationship Let: Generalized force acting on the end effector Let x and q represent infinitesimal displacements in the task and joint spaces (We will call these virtual displacements) such that: The virtual work of the system is given as: Remember the Jacobian is:

43 Static Force/Torque Relationship If the robot is in equilibrium, then Combining the above equation with the Jacobian yields: Transposing both sides yields:

44 Static Force/Torque Relationship Summary The joint torque required to hold a static force at a manipulator s end effector is linearly proportional to the transpose of the Jacobian

45 Static Force/Torque Mini-Quiz If you are holding a large, egg-laying, queen alien from planet LV-426 while operating a power loader, that is configured in the same manner as our standard 2-link manipulator, what configuration do you want the manipulator to be in? Show this mathematically and then consult with your neighbor

46 Manipulator Kinematics Joint Compliance

47 Problem Definition What is the relationship between endpoint displacement and an applied force at the endpoint manipulator for a given configuration of the manipulator? If I apply a force on the end effector, how much will the robot move? We know: Assume each joint i has a stiffness, k i :

48 Joint Compliance Derivation Relationship between endpoint displacement and endpoint force = C

49 Joint Compliance Mini-Quiz Working alone, describe the terms that make up the compliance matrix Compare your notes with your neighbor

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