A matrix over a field F is a rectangular array of elements from F. The symbol

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2 Chapter MATRICES Matrix arithmetic A matrix over a field F is a rectangular array of elements from F The symbol M m n (F) denotes the collection of all m n matrices over F Matrices will usually be denoted by capital letters and the equation A [a ij means that the element in the i th row and j th column of the matrix A equals a ij It is also occasionally convenient to write a ij (A) ij For the present, all matrices will have rational entries, unless otherwise stated EXAMPLE The formula a ij /(i + j) for i, j 4 defines a 4 matrix A [a ij, namely A DEFINITION (Equality of matrices) Matrices A, B are said to be equal if A and B have the same size and corresponding elements are equal; ie, A and B M m n (F) and A [a ij, B [b ij, with a ij b ij for i m, j n DEFINITION (Addition of matrices) Let A [a ij and B [b ij be of the same size Then A + B is the matrix obtained by adding corresponding elements of A and B; that is A + B [a ij + [b ij [a ij + b ij

3 4 CHAPTER MATRICES DEFINITION (Scalar multiple of a matrix) Let A [a ij and t F (that is t is a scalar) Then ta is the matrix obtained by multiplying all elements of A by t; that is ta t[a ij [ta ij DEFINITION 4 (Additive inverse of a matrix) Let A [a ij Then A is the matrix obtained by replacing the elements of A by their additive inverses; that is A [a ij [ a ij DEFINITION 5 (Subtraction of matrices) Matrix subtraction is defined for two matrices A [a ij and B [b ij of the same size, in the usual way; that is A B [a ij [b ij [a ij b ij DEFINITION 6 (The zero matrix) For each m, n the matrix in M m n (F), all of whose elements are zero, is called the zero matrix (of size m n) and is denoted by the symbol 0 The matrix operations of addition, scalar multiplication, additive inverse and subtraction satisfy the usual laws of arithmetic (In what follows, s and t will be arbitrary scalars and A, B, C are matrices of the same size) (A + B) + C A + (B + C); A + B B + A; 0 + A A; 4 A + ( A) 0; 5 (s + t)a sa + ta, (s t)a sa ta; 6 t(a + B) ta + tb, t(a B) ta tb; 7 s(ta) (st)a; 8 A A, 0A 0, ( )A A; 9 ta 0 t 0 or A 0 Other similar properties will be used when needed

4 MATRIX ARITHMETIC 5 DEFINITION 7 (Matrix product) Let A [a ij be a matrix of size m n and B [b jk be a matrix of size n p; (that is the number of columns of A equals the number of rows of B) Then AB is the m p matrix C [c ik whose (i, k) th element is defined by the formula n c ik a ij b jk a i b k + + a in b nk EXAMPLE j [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ; [ [ [ 4 4 ; [ 4 [ [ ; [ [ [ Matrix multiplication obeys many of the familiar laws of arithmetic apart from the commutative law (AB)C A(BC) if A, B, C are m n, n p, p q, respectively; t(ab) (ta)b A(tB), A( B) ( A)B (AB); (A + B)C AC + BC if A and B are m n and C is n p; 4 D(A + B) DA + DB if A and B are m n and D is p m We prove the associative law only: First observe that (AB)C and A(BC) are both of size m q Let A [a ij, B [b jk, C [c kl Then p p n ((AB)C) il (AB) ik c kl a ij b jk c kl k p k j n a ij b jk c kl k j ;

5 6 CHAPTER MATRICES Similarly (A(BC)) il n j k p a ij b jk c kl However the double summations are equal For sums of the form n p p n and j k d jk k j represent the sum of the np elements of the rectangular array [d jk, by rows and by columns, respectively Consequently ((AB)C) il (A(BC)) il for i m, l q Hence (AB)C A(BC) d jk The system of m linear equations in n unknowns a x + a x + + a n x n b a x + a x + + a n x n b a m x + a m x + + a mn x n b m is equivalent to a single matrix equation a a a n x a a a n x a m a m a mn x n that is AX B, where A [a ij is the coefficient matrix of the system, x b x b X is the vector of unknowns and B is the vector of x n constants Another useful matrix equation equivalent to the above system of linear equations is x a a a m + x a a a m + + x n a n a n a mn b b b m b m, b b b m

6 LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS 7 EXAMPLE The system is equivalent to the matrix equation and to the equation x [ [ [ + y x + y + z x y + z 0 x y z [ + z Linear transformations [ 0 [ 0 An n dimensional column vector is an n matrix over F The collection of all n dimensional column vectors is denoted by F n Every matrix is associated with an important type of function called a linear transformation DEFINITION (Linear transformation) We can associate with A M m n (F), the function T A : F n F m, defined by T A (X) AX for all X F n More explicitly, using components, the above function takes the form y y a x + a x + + a n x n a x + a x + + a n x n y m a m x + a m x + + a mn x n, where y, y,,y m are the components of the column vector T A (X) The function just defined has the property that T A (sx + ty ) st A (X) + tt A (Y ) () for all s, t F and all n dimensional column vectors X, Y For T A (sx + ty ) A(sX + ty ) s(ax) + t(ay ) st A (X) + tt A (Y )

7 8 CHAPTER MATRICES REMARK It is easy to prove that if T : F n F m is a function satisfying equation, then T T A, where A is the m n matrix whose columns are T(E ),, T(E n ), respectively, where E,,E n are the n dimensional unit vectors defined by E 0 0,, E n One well known example of a linear transformation arises from rotating the (x, y) plane in -dimensional Euclidean space, anticlockwise through θ radians Here a point (x, y) will be transformed into the point (x, y ), where x xcos θ y sinθ y xsinθ + y cos θ In dimensional Euclidean space, the equations 0 0 x xcos θ y sinθ, y xsinθ + y cos θ, z z; x x, y y cos φ z sinφ, z y sinφ + z cos φ; x xcos ψ + z sinψ, y y, z xsinψ + z cos ψ; correspond to rotations about the positive z, x and y axes, anticlockwise through θ, φ, ψ radians, respectively The product of two matrices is related to the product of the corresponding linear transformations: If A is m n and B is n p, then the function T A T B : F p F m, obtained by first performing T B, then T A is in fact equal to the linear transformation T AB For if X F p, we have T A T B (X) A(BX) (AB)X T AB (X) The following example is useful for producing rotations in dimensional animated design (See [7, pages 97 ) EXAMPLE The linear transformation resulting from successively rotating dimensional space about the positive z, x, y axes, anticlockwise through θ, φ, ψ radians respectively, is equal to T ABC, where

8 LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS (x, y) 9 l (x, y ) θ Figure : Reflection in a line C A cos θ sinθ 0 sinθ cos θ cos ψ 0 sinψ 0 0 sinψ 0 cos ψ, B The matrix ABC is quite complicated: A(BC) cos ψ 0 sin ψ 0 0 sinψ 0 cos ψ cos φ sinφ 0 sinφ cos φ cos θ sinθ 0 cos φsinθ cos φcos θ sinφ sin φsinθ sin φcos θ cos φ cos ψ cos θ+sin ψ sin φ sin θ cos ψ sin θ+sin ψ sin φcos θ sin ψ cos φ cos φsin θ cos φcos θ sin φ sin ψ cos θ+cos ψ sin φsin θ sin ψ sin θ+cos ψ sin φcos θ cos ψ cos φ EXAMPLE Another example from geometry is reflection of the plane in a line l inclined at an angle θ to the positive x axis We reduce the problem to the simpler case θ 0, where the equations of transformation are x x, y y First rotate the plane clockwise through θ radians, thereby taking l into the x axis; next reflect the plane in the x axis; then rotate the plane anticlockwise through θ radians, thereby restoring l to its original position

9 0 (x, y) CHAPTER MATRICES l (x, y ) θ Figure : Projection on a line In terms of matrices, we get transformation equations [ [ [ cos θ sinθ 0 cos ( θ) sin( θ) y sinθ cos θ 0 sin( θ) cos ( θ) [ [ [ cos θ sinθ cos θ sinθ x sinθ cos θ sinθ cos θ y [ [ cos θ sinθ x sinθ cosθ y [ x [ x y The more general transformation [ [ x cos θ sinθ a sinθ cos θ y [ x y [ u + v, a > 0, represents a rotation, followed by a scaling and then by a translation Such transformations are important in computer graphics See [, 4 EXAMPLE Our last example of a geometrical linear transformation arises from projecting the plane onto a line l through the origin, inclined at angle θ to the positive x axis Again we reduce that problem to the simpler case where l is the x axis and the equations of transformation are x x, y 0 In terms of matrices, we get transformation equations [ x y [ cos θ sinθ sinθ cos θ [ [ cos ( θ) sin( θ) sin ( θ) cos ( θ) [ x y

10 RECURRENCE RELATIONS [ [ [ cos θ 0 cos θ sinθ x sinθ 0 sinθ cos θ y [ cos [ θ cos θ sin θ x sin θ cos θ sin θ y Recurrence relations DEFINITION (The identity matrix) The n n matrix I n [δ ij, defined by δ ij if i j, δ ij 0 if i j, is called the n n identity matrix of order n In other words, the columns of the identity matrix of order n are the unit vectors E,,E n, respectively For example, I [ 0 0 THEOREM If A is m n, then I m A A AI n DEFINITION (k th power of a matrix) If A is an n n matrix, we define A k recursively as follows: A 0 I n and A k+ A k A for k 0 For example A A 0 A I n A A and hence A A A AA The usual index laws hold provided AB BA: A m A n A m+n, (A m ) n A mn ; (AB) n A n B n ; A m B n B n A m ; 4 (A + B) A + AB + B ; 5 (A + B) n n i0 ( n i ) A i B n i ; 6 (A + B)(A B) A B We now state a basic property of the natural numbers AXIOM (MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION) If P n denotes a mathematical statement for each n, satisfying (i) P is true,

11 CHAPTER MATRICES (ii) the truth of P n implies that of P n+ for each n, then P n is true for all n [ EXAMPLE Let A [ A n + 6n 4n 9n 6n Prove that if n Solution We use the principle of mathematical induction Take P n to be the statement [ A n + 6n 4n 9n 6n Then P asserts that A [ [ which is true Now let n and assume that P n is true We have to deduce that [ [ A n+ + 6(n + ) 4(n + ) 7 + 6n 4n + 4 9(n + ) 6(n + ) 9n 9 5 6n Now, A n+ A [ n A [ + 6n 4n 7 4 9n 6n 9 5 [ ( + 6n)7 + (4n)( 9) ( + 6n)4 + (4n)( 5) ( 9n)7 + ( 6n)( 9) ( 9n)4 + ( 6n)( 5) [ 7 + 6n 4n + 4, 9n 9 5 6n and the induction goes through The last example has an application to the solution of a system of recurrence relations:

12 4 PROBLEMS EXAMPLE The following system of recurrence relations holds for all n 0: x n+ 7x n + 4y n y n+ 9x n 5y n Solve the system for x n and y n in terms of x 0 and y 0 Solution Combine the above equations into a single matrix equation [ [ [ xn+ 7 4 xn, y n+ 9 5 y n [ [ 7 4 xn or X n+ AX n, where A and X 9 5 n y n We see that X AX 0 X AX A(AX 0 ) A X 0 X n A n X 0 (The truth of the equation X n A n X 0 for n, strictly speaking follows by mathematical induction; however for simple cases such as the above, it is customary to omit the strict proof and supply instead a few lines of motivation for the inductive statement) Hence the previous example gives [ [ [ xn + 6n 4n x0 X y n n 9n 6n y 0 [ ( + 6n)x0 + (4n)y 0, ( 9n)x 0 + ( 6n)y 0 and hence x n (+6n)x 0 +4ny 0 and y n ( 9n)x 0 +( 6n)y 0, for n 4 PROBLEMS Let A, B, C, D be matrices defined by A 0, B 5 0 4,

13 4 CHAPTER MATRICES C 4, D [ 4 0 Which of the following matrices are defined? Compute those matrices which are defined A + B, A + C, AB, BA, CD, DC, D [Answers: A + C, BA, CD, D ; 0 5 4, , 4 0 4, [ Let A then [ 0 0 Show that if B is a such that AB I, a b B a b a + b for suitable numbers a and b Use the associative law to show that (BA) B B If A [ a b c d, prove that A (a + d)a + (ad bc)i 0 [ 4 4 If A, use the fact A 0 4A I and mathematical induction, to prove that A n (n ) A + n I if n 5 A sequence of numbers x, x,,x n, satisfies the recurrence relation x n+ ax n +bx n for n, where a and b are constants Prove that [ xn+ x n [ xn A x n,

14 4 PROBLEMS 5 [ [ [ a b xn+ x where A and hence express in terms of 0 x n x 0 If a 4 and b, use the previous question to find a formula for x n in terms of x and x 0 [Answer: [ a a 6 Let A 0 x n n x + n x 0 (a) Prove that [ A n (n + )a n na n+ na n ( n)a n if n (b) A sequence x 0, x,,x n, satisfies x n+ ax n a x n for n Use part (a) and the previous question to prove that x n na n x + ( n)a n x 0 for n [ a b 7 Let A and suppose that λ c d and λ are the roots of the quadratic polynomial x (a+d)x+ad bc (λ and λ may be equal) Let k n be defined by k 0 0, k and for n k n n i λ n i λ i Prove that k n+ (λ + λ )k n λ λ k n, if n Also prove that { (λ n k n λ n )/(λ λ ) if λ λ, nλ n if λ λ Use mathematical induction to prove that if n, A n k n A λ λ k n I, [Hint: Use the equation A (a + d)a (ad bc)i

15 6 CHAPTER MATRICES 8 Use Question 7 to prove that if A if n A n n [ [ + ( )n, then [ 9 The Fibonacci numbers are defined by the equations F 0 0, F and F n+ F n + F n if n Prove that if n 0 F n 5 (( + ) n ( 5 ) n ) 5 0 Let r > be an integer Let a and b be arbitrary positive integers Sequences x n and y n of positive integers are defined in terms of a and b by the recurrence relations x n+ x n + ry n y n+ x n + y n, for n 0, where x 0 a and y 0 b Use Question 7 to prove that x n y n r as n 5 Non singular matrices DEFINITION 5 (Non singular matrix) A matrix A M n n (F) is called non singular or invertible if there exists a matrix B M n n (F) such that AB I n BA Any matrix B with the above property is called an inverse of A If A does not have an inverse, A is called singular THEOREM 5 (Inverses are unique) If A has inverses B and C, then B C

16 5 NON SINGULAR MATRICES 7 Proof Let B and C be inverses of A Then AB I n BA and AC I n CA Then B(AC) BI n B and (BA)C I n C C Hence because B(AC) (BA)C, we deduce that B C REMARK 5 If A has an inverse, it is denoted by A So AA I n A A Also if A is non singular, it follows that A is also non singular and (A ) A THEOREM 5 If A and B are non singular matrices of the same size, then so is AB Moreover Proof Similarly (AB) B A (AB)(B A ) A(BB )A AI n A AA I n (B A )(AB) I n REMARK 5 The above result generalizes to a product of m non singular matrices: If A,,A m are non singular n n matrices, then the product A A m is also non singular Moreover (A A m ) A m A (Thus the inverse of the product equals the product of the inverses in the reverse order) EXAMPLE 5 If A and B are n n matrices satisfying A B (AB) I n, prove that AB BA Solution Assume A B (AB) I n Then A, B, AB are non singular and A A, B B, (AB) AB But (AB) B A and hence AB BA [ [ a b EXAMPLE 5 A is singular For suppose B 4 8 c d is an inverse of A Then the equation AB I gives [ [ [ a b c d 0

17 8 CHAPTER MATRICES and equating the corresponding elements of column of both sides gives the system which is clearly inconsistent THEOREM 5 Let A non singular Also a + c 4a + 8c 0 [ a b c d A [ and ad bc 0 Then A is d b c a REMARK 5 The expression ad bc is called the determinant of A and is denoted by the symbols deta or a b c d Proof Verify that the matrix B [ AB I BA d b c a satisfies the equation EXAMPLE 5 Let A Verify that A 5I, deduce that A is non singular and find A Solution After verifying that A 5I, we notice that ( ) ( ) A 5 A I 5 A A Hence A is non singular and A 5 A THEOREM 54 If the coefficient matrix A of a system of n equations in n unknowns is non singular, then the system AX B has the unique solution X A B Proof Assume that A exists

18 5 NON SINGULAR MATRICES 9 (Uniqueness) Assume that AX B Then (A A)X A B, (Existence) Let X A B Then I n X A B, X A B AX A(A B) (AA )B I n B B THEOREM 55 (Cramer s rule for equations in unknowns) The system ax + by e cx + dy f has a unique solution if a b c d 0, namely x, y, where e b f d and a e c f [ a b Proof Suppose 0 Then A has inverse c d [ A d b c a and we know that the system A [ x y [ e f has the unique solution [ [ x A e [ y f [ d b c a de bf ce + af [ e f [ [ / / Hence x /, y /

19 40 CHAPTER MATRICES COROLLARY 5 The homogeneous system ax + by 0 cx + dy 0 has only the trivial solution if a b c d 0 EXAMPLE 54 The system 7x + 8y 00 x 9y 0 has the unique solution x /, y /, where , , So x and y 0 79 THEOREM 56 Let A be a square matrix If A is non singular, the homogeneous system AX 0 has only the trivial solution Equivalently, if the homogenous system AX 0 has a non trivial solution, then A is singular Proof If A is non singular and AX 0, then X A 0 0 REMARK 54 If A,,A n denote the columns of A, then the equation AX x A + + x n A n holds Consequently theorem 56 tells us that if there exist x,,x n, not all zero, such that x A + + x n A n 0, that is, if the columns of A are linearly dependent, then A is singular An equivalent way of saying that the columns of A are linearly dependent is that one of the columns of A is expressible as a sum of certain scalar multiples of the remaining columns of A; that is one column is a linear combination of the remaining columns

20 5 NON SINGULAR MATRICES 4 EXAMPLE 55 A is singular For it can be verified that A has reduced row echelon form and consequently AX 0 has a non trivial solution x, y, z REMARK 55 More generally, if A is row equivalent to a matrix containing a zero row, then A is singular For then the homogeneous system AX 0 has a non trivial solution An important class of non singular matrices is that of the elementary row matrices DEFINITION 5 (Elementary row matrices) To each of the three types of elementary row operation, there corresponds an elementary row matrix, denoted by E ij, E i (t), E ij (t): E ij, (i j) is obtained from the identity matrix I n by interchanging rows i and j E i (t), (t 0) is obtained by multiplying the i th row of I n by t E ij (t), (i j) is obtained from I n by adding t times the j th row of I n to the i th row EXAMPLE 56 (n ) 0 0 E 0 0, E ( ) , E ( ) The elementary row matrices have the following distinguishing property: THEOREM 57 If a matrix A is pre multiplied by an elementary row matrix, the resulting matrix is the one obtained by performing the corresponding elementary row operation on A

21 4 CHAPTER MATRICES EXAMPLE 57 a b E c d e f a b c d e f a b e f c d COROLLARY 5 Elementary row matrices are non singular Indeed E ij E ij ; E i (t) E i (t ); (E ij (t)) E ij ( t) Proof Taking A I n in the above theorem, we deduce the following equations: E ij E ij I n E i (t)e i (t ) I n E i (t )E i (t) if t 0 E ij (t)e ij ( t) I n E ij ( t)e ij (t) EXAMPLE 58 Find the matrix A E (5)E ()E explicitly Also find A Solution A E (5)E () To find A, we have E (5) A (E (5)E ()E ) E (E ()) (E (5)) E E ( )E (5 ) E E ( ) E

22 5 NON SINGULAR MATRICES 4 REMARK 56 Recall that A and B are row equivalent if B is obtained from A by a sequence of elementary row operations If E,,E r are the respective corresponding elementary row matrices, then B E r ( (E (E A))) (E r E )A PA, where P E r E is non singular Conversely if B PA, where P is non singular, then A is row equivalent to B For as we shall now see, P is in fact a product of elementary row matrices THEOREM 58 Let A be non singular n n matrix Then (i) A is row equivalent to I n, (ii) A is a product of elementary row matrices Proof Assume that A is non singular and let B be the reduced row echelon form of A Then B has no zero rows, for otherwise the equation AX 0 would have a non trivial solution Consequently B I n It follows that there exist elementary row matrices E,,E r such that E r ( (E A)) B I n and hence A E Er, a product of elementary row matrices THEOREM 59 Let A be n n and suppose that A is row equivalent to I n Then A is non singular and A can be found by performing the same sequence of elementary row operations on I n as were used to convert A to I n Proof Suppose that E r E A I n In other words BA I n, where B E r E is non singular Then B (BA) B I n and so A B, which is non singular Also A ( B ) B Er (( (E I n )), which shows that A is obtained from I n by performing the same sequence of elementary row operations as were used to convert A to I n REMARK 57 It follows from theorem 59 that if A is singular, then A is row equivalent to a matrix whose last row is zero [ EXAMPLE 59 Show that A is non singular, find A and express A as a product of elementary row matrices

23 44 CHAPTER MATRICES Solution We form the partitioned matrix [A I which consists of A followed by I Then any sequence of elementary row operations which reduces A to I will reduce I to A Here [ 0 [A I 0 Hence R R R [ 0 0 R ( )R [ 0 0 R R R [ 0 0 Hence A is row equivalent to I and A is non singular Also [ A We also observe that E ( )E ( )E ( )A I A E ( )E ( )E ( ) A E ()E ( )E () The next result is the converse of Theorem 56 and is useful for proving the non singularity of certain types of matrices THEOREM 50 Let A be an n n matrix with the property that the homogeneous system AX 0 has only the trivial solution Then A is non singular Equivalently, if A is singular, then the homogeneous system AX 0 has a non trivial solution Proof If A is n n and the homogeneous system AX 0 has only the trivial solution, then it follows that the reduced row echelon form B of A cannot have zero rows and must therefore be I n Hence A is non singular COROLLARY 5 Suppose that A and B are n n and AB I n Then BA I n

24 5 NON SINGULAR MATRICES 45 Proof Let AB I n, where A and B are n n We first show that B is non singular Assume BX 0 Then A(BX) A0 0, so (AB)X 0, I n X 0 and hence X 0 Then from AB I n we deduce (AB)B I n B and hence A B The equation BB I n then gives BA I n Before we give the next example of the above criterion for non-singularity, we introduce an important matrix operation DEFINITION 5 (The transpose of a matrix) Let A be an m n matrix Then A t, the transpose of A, is the matrix obtained by interchanging the rows and columns of A In other words if A [a ij, then ( A t) ji a ij Consequently A t is n m The transpose operation has the following properties: ( A t) t A; (A ± B) t A t ± B t if A and B are m n; (sa) t sa t if s is a scalar; 4 (AB) t B t A t if A is m n and B is n p; 5 If A is non singular, then A t is also non singular and ( A t ) ( A ) t ; 6 X t X x + + x n if X [x,,x n t is a column vector We prove only the fourth property First check that both (AB) t and B t A t have the same size (p m) Moreover, corresponding elements of both matrices are equal For if A [a ij and B [b jk, we have ( (AB) t ) ki (AB) ik n a ij b jk j n ( B t ) ( kj A t ) ji j ( B t A t) ki There are two important classes of matrices that can be defined concisely in terms of the transpose operation

25 46 CHAPTER MATRICES DEFINITION 54 (Symmetric matrix) A matrix A is symmetric if A t A In other words A is square (n n say) and a ji a ij for all i n, j n Hence A is a general symmetric matrix [ a b b c DEFINITION 55 (Skew symmetric matrix) A matrix A is called skew symmetric if A t A In other words A is square (n n say) and a ji a ij for all i n, j n REMARK 58 Taking i j in the definition of skew symmetric matrix gives a ii a ii and so a ii 0 Hence [ A 0 b b 0 is a general skew symmetric matrix We can now state a second application of the above criterion for non singularity COROLLARY 54 Let B be an n n skew symmetric matrix Then A I n B is non singular Proof Let A I n B, where B t B By Theorem 50 it suffices to show that AX 0 implies X 0 We have (I n B)X 0, so X BX Hence X t X X t BX Taking transposes of both sides gives (X t BX) t (X t X) t X t B t (X t ) t X t (X t ) t X t ( B)X X t X X t BX X t X X t BX Hence X t X X t X and X t X 0 But if X [x,,x n t, then X t X x + + x n 0 and hence x 0,,x n 0

26 6 LEAST SQUARES SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS 47 6 Least squares solution of equations Suppose AX B represents a system of linear equations with real coefficients which may be inconsistent, because of the possibility of experimental errors in determining A or B For example, the system x y x + y 00 is inconsistent It can be proved that the associated system A t AX A t B is always consistent and that any solution of this system minimizes the sum r + + rm, where r,,r m (the residuals) are defined by r i a i x + + a in x n b i, for i,,m The equations represented by A t AX A t B are called the normal equations corresponding to the system AX B and any solution of the system of normal equations is called a least squares solution of the original system EXAMPLE 6 Find a least squares solution of the above inconsistent system 0 [ Solution Here A x 0, X, B y 00 Then A t A Also A t B [ 0 0 [ 0 0 So the normal equations are which have the unique solution [ [ x + y 400 x + y 500 x 00, y 600

27 48 CHAPTER MATRICES EXAMPLE 6 Points (x, y ),,(x n, y n ) are experimentally determined and should lie on a line y mx + c Find a least squares solution to the problem Solution The points have to satisfy mx + c y mx n + c y n, or Ax B, where A x x n, X [ m c, B y y n The normal equations are given by (A t A)X A t B Here [ x [ A t x x A n x + + x n x + + x n x + + x n n x n Also A t B [ x x n y y n [ x y + + x n y n y + + y n It is not difficult to prove that det (A t A) i<j n (x i x j ), which is positive unless x x n Hence if not all of x,,x n are equal, A t A is non singular and the normal equations have a unique solution This can be shown to be m i<j n (x i x j )(y i y j ), c i<j n REMARK 6 The matrix A t A is symmetric (x i y j x j y i )(x i x j )

28 7 PROBLEMS 49 7 PROBLEMS [ 4 Let A Prove that A is non singular, find A and express A as a product of elementary row matrices [ [Answer: A 4 A E ( )E ()E (4) is one such decomposition, A square matrix D [d ij is called diagonal if d ij 0 for i j (That is the off diagonal elements are zero) Prove that pre multiplication of a matrix A by a diagonal matrix D results in matrix DA whose rows are the rows of A multiplied by the respective diagonal elements of D State and prove a similar result for post multiplication by a diagonal matrix Let diag (a,,a n ) denote the diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements d ii are a,,a n, respectively Show that diag (a,,a n )diag (b,,b n ) diag (a b,,a n b n ) and deduce that if a a n 0, then diag (a,,a n ) is non singular and (diag (a,,a n )) diag (a,,a n ) Also prove that diag (a,,a n ) is singular if a i 0 for some i 0 0 Let A 6 Prove that A is non singular, find A and 7 9 express A as a product of elementary row matrices 7 [Answers: A 9, 0 0 A E E ()E E ()E ()E (4)E ( 9) is one such decomposition

29 50 CHAPTER MATRICES 4 Find the rational number k for which the matrix A is singular [Answer: k k 5 5 [ 5 Prove that A is singular and find a non singular matrix 4 P such that PA has last row zero [ 4 6 If A, verify that A A + I 0 and deduce that A (A I ) 7 Let A 0 0 (i) Verify that A A A + I (ii) Express A 4 in terms of A, A and I and hence calculate A 4 explicitly (iii) Use (i) to prove that A is non singular and find A explicitly [Answers: (ii) A 4 6A 8A + I (iii) A A A + I (i) Let B be an n n matrix such that B 0 If A I n B, prove that A is non singular and A I n + B + B Show that the system of linear equations AX b has the solution (ii) If B 0 r s 0 0 t (I B) explicitly X b + Bb + B b, verify that B 0 and use (i) to determine ;

30 7 PROBLEMS 5 [Answer: r s + rt 0 t Let A be n n (i) If A 0, prove that A is singular (ii) If A A and A I n, prove that A is singular 0 Use Question 7 to solve the system of equations x + y z a z b x + y + z c where a, b, c are given rationals Check your answer using the Gauss Jordan algorithm [Answer: x a b + c, y a + 4b c, z b Determine explicitly the following products of elementary row matrices (i) E E (ii) E (5)E (iii) E ()E ( ) (iv) (E (00)) (v) E (vi) (E (7)) (vii) (E (7)E ()) [Answers: (i) (iv) 4 / (v) 5 (ii) (vi) 5 (iii) (vii) Let A be the following product of 4 4 elementary row matrices: Find A and A explicitly [Answers: A A E ()E 4 E 4 () 7 5, A /

31 5 CHAPTER MATRICES Determine which of the following matrices over Z are non singular and find the inverse, where possible (a) (b) [Answer: (a) Determine which of the following matrices are non singular and find the inverse, where possible (a) (b) (c) (d) [Answers: (a) (e) (e) / 0 / / (b) 7 5 (f) / 0 0 / 5 5 (d) 4 / / /7 5 5 Let A be a non singular n n matrix Prove that A t is non singular and that (A t ) (A ) t 6 Prove that A [ a b c d has no inverse if ad bc 0 [Hint: Use the equation A (a + d)a + (ad bc)i 0 7 Prove that the real matrix A 5 is non singular by proving that A is row equivalent to I 4 a b a c b c 8 If P AP B, prove that P A n P B n for n

32 7 PROBLEMS 5 [ [ / /4 9 Let A, P / /4 [ 5/ 0 and deduce that 0 [ Let A [ a b c d A n ( ) 5 n [ 7 Verify that P AP 4 4 be a Markov matrix; that is a matrix whose elements [ b c are non negative and satisfy a+c b+d Also let P Prove that if A I then [ 0 (i) P is non singular and P AP 0 a + d (ii) A n [ [ b b 0 as n, if A b + c c c 0 If X [Answers: and Y , 4 [ ,, find XX t, X t X, Y Y t, Y t Y, Prove that the system of linear equations x + y 4 x + y 5 x + 5y , 6 is inconsistent and find a least squares solution of the system [Answer: x 6, y 7/6 The points (0, 0), (, 0), (, ), (, 4), (4, 8) are required to lie on a parabola y a + bx + cx Find a least squares solution for a, b, c Also prove that no parabola passes through these points [Answer: a 5, b, c

33 54 CHAPTER MATRICES 4 If A is a symmetric n n real matrix and B is n m, prove that B t AB is a symmetric m m matrix 5 If A is m n and B is n m, prove that AB is singular if m > n 6 Let A and B be n n If A or B is singular, prove that AB is also singular

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