A set is an unordered collection of objects.

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1 Section 2.1

2 Sets A set is an unordered collection of objects. the students in this class the chairs in this room The objects in a set are called the elements, or members of the set. A set is said to contain its elements. The notation a A denotes that a is an element of the set A. If a is not a member of A, write a A

3 Describing a Set: Roster Method S = {a,b,c,d} Order not important S = {a,b,c,d} = {b,c,a,d} Each distinct object is either a member or not; listing more than once does not change the set. S = {a,b,c,d} = {a,b,c,b,c,d} Elipses ( ) may be used to describe a set without listing all of the members when the pattern is clear. S = {a,b,c,d,,z }

4 Roster Method Set of all vowels in the English alphabet: V = {a,e,i,o,u} Set of all odd positive integers less than 10: O = {1,3,5,7,9} Set of all positive integers less than 100: S = {1,2,3,..,99} Set of all integers less than 0: S = {., -3,-2,-1}

5 Some Important Sets N = natural numbers = {0,1,2,3.} Z = integers = {,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3, } Z + = positive integers = {1,2,3,..} R = set of real numbers R + = set of positive real numbers C = set of complex numbers. Q = set of rational numbers

6 Set-Builder Notation Specify the property or properties that all members must satisfy: S = {x x is a positive integer less than 100} O = {x x is an odd positive integer less than 10} O = {x Z + x is odd and x < 10} A predicate may be used: S = {x P(x)} Example: S = {x Prime(x)} Positive rational numbers: Q= {x R x = p/q, for some positive integers p,q}

7 Interval Notation [a,b] = {x a x b} [a,b) = {x a x < b} (a,b] = {x a < x b} (a,b) = {x a < x < b} closed interval [a,b] open interval (a,b)

8 Universal Set and Empty Set The universal set U is the set containing everything currently under consideration. Sometimes implicit Sometimes explicitly stated. Contents depend on the context. The empty set is the set with no elements. Symbolized, but {} also used.

9 Russell s Paradox Let S be the set of all sets which are not members of themselves. A paradox results from trying to answer the question Is S a member of itself? Related Paradox: Henry is a barber who shaves all people who do not shave themselves. A paradox results from trying to answer the question Does Henry shave himself?

10 Some things to remember Sets can be elements of sets. {{1,2,3},a, {b,c}} {N, Z, Q, R} The empty set is different from a set containing the empty set. { }

11 Set Equality Definition: Two sets are equal if and only if they have the same elements. Therefore if A and B are sets, then A and B are equal if and only if. We write A = B if A and B are equal sets. {1,3,5} = {3, 5, 1} {1,5,5,5,3,3,1} = {1,3,5}

12 Venn Diagrams shows all possible logical relations between a finite collection of sets U U A B A B C

13 Subsets Definition: The set A is a subset of B, if and only if every element of A is also an element of B. The notation A B is used to indicate that A is a subset of the set B. A B holds if and only if is true. 1. Because a is always false, S,for every set S. 2. Because a S a S, S S, for every set S.

14 Showing a Set is or is not a Subset of Another Set Showing that A is a Subset of B: To show that A B, show that if x belongs to A, then x also belongs to B. Showing that A is not a Subset of B: To show that A is not a subset of B, A B, find an element x A with x B. (Such an x is a counterexample to the claim that x A implies x B.) Examples: 1. The set of all computer science majors at your school is a subset of all students at your school. 2. The set of integers with squares less than 100 is not a subset of the set of nonnegative integers.

15 Another look at Equality of Sets Recall that two sets A and B are equal, denoted by A = B, if and only if Using logical equivalences we have that A = B if and only if This is equivalent to A B and B A

16 Proper Subsets Definition: If A B, but A B, then we say A is a proper subset of B, denoted by A B. If A B, then is true. Venn Diagram B A U

17 Set Cardinality Definition: If there are exactly n distinct elements in S where n is a nonnegative integer, we say that S is finite. Otherwise it is infinite. Definition: The cardinality of a finite set A, denoted by A, is the number of (distinct) elements of A. Examples: 1. ø = 0 2. Let S be the letters of the English alphabet. Then S = {1,2,3} = 3 4. {ø} = 1 5. The set of integers is infinite.

18 Power Sets Definition: The set of all subsets of a set A, denoted P(A), is called the power set of A. Example: If A = {a,b} then P(A) = {ø, {a},{b},{a,b}} If a set has n elements, then the cardinality of the power set is 2ⁿ. (In Chapters 5 and 6, we will discuss different ways to show this.)

19 Tuples The ordered n-tuple (a 1,a 2,..,a n ) is the ordered collection that has a 1 as its first element and a 2 as its second element and so on until a n as its last element. Two n-tuples are equal if and only if their corresponding elements are equal. 2-tuples are called ordered pairs. The ordered pairs (a,b) and (c,d) are equal if and only if a = c and b = d.

20 Cartesian Product Definition: The Cartesian Product of two sets A and B, denoted by A B is the set of ordered pairs (a,b) where a A and b B. Example: A = {a,b} B = {1,2,3} A B = {(a,1),(a,2),(a,3), (b,1),(b,2),(b,3)} Definition: A subset R of the Cartesian product A B is called a relation from the set A to the set B. (Relations will be covered in depth in Chapter 9. )

21 Cartesian Product Definition: The cartesian products of the sets A 1,A 2,,A n, denoted by A 1 A 2 A n, is the set of ordered n-tuples (a 1,a 2,,a n ) where a i belongs to A i for i = 1, n. Example: What is A B C where A = {0,1}, B = {1,2} and C = {0,1,2} Solution: A B C = {(0,1,0), (0,1,1), (0,1,2),(0,2,0), (0,2,1), (0,2,2),(1,1,0), (1,1,1), (1,1,2), (1,2,0), (1,2,1), (1,1,2)}

22 Truth Sets of Quantifiers Given a predicate P and a domain D, we define the truth set of P to be the set of elements in D for which P(x) is true. The truth set of P(x) is denoted by Example: The truth set of P(x) where the domain is the integers and P(x) is x = 1 is the set {-1,1}

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