INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE OF GEORGIA CHIATURA-ZESTAFONI-POTI INDUSTRIAL CIRCUIT

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1 sa qar Tve los in dus triu li mem kvid reo ba Wia Tu ra-zes ta fo ni-fo Tis in dus triu li wre di INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE OF GEORGIA CHIATURA-ZESTAFONI-POTI INDUSTRIAL CIRCUIT

2 avtorebi: nano zazanasvili, levan kalandarisvili redaqtori: ana mirianasvili Targmani: sofo hendersoni, ilia vaceisvili, manana lataria fotoebi da ruka: nikoloz mwedlize publikaciasi gamoyenebulia saqartvelos erovnuli arqivis, WiaTuris jorjian manganezis muzeumis, fotis kolxuri kulturis muzeumis da iura nadirazis pirad arqivsi daculi masala. dizaini da dakabadoneba: maka comaia gamomcemeli: qartvel arqiteqtorta instituti Tbilisi 2015 saqartvelos kulturuli memkvidreobis dacvis erovnuli saagento publikacia momzadebulia saqartvelos kulturuli memkvidreobis erovnuli saagentos mier dafinansebuli proeqtis `saqartvelos industriuli memkvidreobis pirveladi kvleva WiaTura-zestafoni-foTis industriuli wredis magalitze farglebsi. Authors: Nano Zazanashvili, Levan Kalandarishvili Editing: Ana Mirianashvili Translation: Sopo Henderson, Ilia Vacheishvili, Manana Lataria Photography and Map: Nikoloz Mchedlidze The publication uses materials preserved in the collections of the Georgian National Archive, Georgian Manganese Museum in Chiatura, Poti Museum of Colchian Culture and the private collection of Jura Nadiradze. Layout Design: Maka Tsomaia Editor: Institute of Georgian Architects Tbilisi 2015 National Agency for Cultural Heritage Preservation of Georgia The publication is done within a frame of the project Chiatura-Zestafoni-Poti Industrial Circuit financed by the National Agency of Cultural Heritage of Georgia ISBN

3 avtorebi gaweuli daxmarebisatvis gansakutrebul madlobas uxdian saqartvelos erovnuli arqivis TanamSromlebs: maia mindiasvils, Tamar loxisvils, anton vawarazes, nino ZanZavas, qeti sadagisvils, jorjian manganezis xelmzrvanelobas: merab lominazes, dimitri yifians, TanamSromlebs: simon axraxazes, uca kokocasvils, vasil gvelesians, dito mumlazes, amiran iobasvils, leri kekenazes, marina kobaxizes, merab bazgarazes, WiaTuris jorjian manganezis muzeumis direqtors, celina mesxs; WiaTuris municipalitetis gamgeobis sivrciti mowyobis zedamxedvelobis, arqiteqturisa da mseneblobis samsaxuris ufross, davit mawavarians; zestafonis mxaretmcodneobis muzeumis TanamSromlebs: Tamar arabizes, malxaz mawavarians; fotis kolxuri kulturis muzeumis direqtors, elene gablians da mecnier-tanamsromel izolda gvilavas; didi jixaisis niko nikolazis saxelobis saxl-muzeumis direqtors, lia bibileisvils, aseve, nino CaCxians, ana margvelasvils, gvanca nikolaisvils, mariam kapanazes, murtaz jafarizes, jaba kontrisvils, nukri turuss, eka kaxels, Temur wiwilasvils, andro robaqizes, liza mumlazes, giorgi nikolaisvils, Suqri grigalasvils, iura nadirazes. Authors extend their special thanks for the assistance provided during the project implementation to the staff members of the Georgian National Archive: Maia Mindiashvili, Tamar Lokhishvili, Anton Vacharadze, Nino Dzandzava, Keti Sadagishvili; to the executives and staff members of the Georgian Manganese: Merab Lominadze, Dimitri Kipiani, Simon Akhrakhadze, Ucha Kokochashvili, Vasil Gvelesiani, Dito Mumladze, Amiran Iobashvili, Leri Kekenadze, Marina Kobakhidze, Merab Badzgaradze, GM Museum Director Tselina Meskhi; head of Chiatura Municipality Spatial Organization Supervision and Architectural and Construction Services Unit David Machavariani; Zestafoni Local Museum staff members Tamar Arabidze, Malkhaz Machavariani; director of Poti Museume of Colchian Culture Elene Gabliani and scientific researcher Izolda Gvilava; Director of Niko Nikoladze s Memorial Museum Lia Bibileishvili and also to Nino Tchachkhiani, Ana Margvelashvili, Gvantsa Nikolaishvili, Mariam Kapanadze, Murtaz Japaridze, Jaba Kontrishvili, Nukri Tugushi, Eka Kakheli, Temur Tsitsilashvili, Andro Robakidze, Giorgi Nikolaishvili, Shukri Grigalashvili, Iura Nadiradze and Liza Mumladze. 3

4 wi na sit yvao ba Sua saukuneebsi, vawrobisa da komerciuli urtiertobebis inovaciurma ganvitarebam me- 18 saukunis miwurulistvis manufaqturuli warmoebis swrafi zrda da socialuri, teqnikuri da ekonomikuri cvlilebebi ganapiroba. industriulma revoluciam adamianta yofis yvela sferoze moaxdina gavlena da is Zireulad gardaqmna. dres am cvlilebata materialuri gamovlinebebi sayoveltao faseulobas warmoadgens da Seswavlisa da dacvis sagania. industriuli memkvidreobis mnisvneloba saertasoriso doneze fartod aris gaazrebuli. mati kvleva, movla-patronoba, adaptacia da konservacia araerti qveynis kulturuli cxovrebisa da kvleviti saqmianobis prioritets warmoadgens. saqartvelos mdidari kulturuli memkvidreoba Rrmad da safuzvlianad aris Seswavlili sxvadasxva mimartulebit, Tumca qveynis industriuli memkvidreoba jerac profesiuli interesis mirma rceba. samwuxarod, is arqiteqturuli Tu sainjinro Senoba-nagebobebi da mattan dakavsirebuli warmoebis formebi, romlebic me-19 da me-20 sakuneebis saqartvelosi industriuli danisnulebit iqmneboda, dremde Seufasebelia da sistemuri Seswavlis sagans ar warmoadgens. Tvalsawiers mirmaa darcenili mnisvnelovani obieqtebi, romlebic qveynis ekonomikuri, teqnologiuri Tu socialuri cvlilebis anareklia. winamdebare publikacia mokrzalebuli mcdelobaa WiaTura-zestafoni-foTis industriuli wredis magalitze gamokvetos saqartvelos industriuli memkvidreobis mnisvneloba, faseuloba da zogadi kvleviti mimartulebebi, im imedit, rom TandaTan gaizrdeba Temisadmi interesi da is sirrmiseuli Seswavlis sagani gaxdeba, faseuli da Rirebuli obieqtebi ki ukvalod ar gaqreba da momavali TaobebisaTvis samudamod ar daikargeba. Se sa va li me-19 saukunesi WiaTuris manganumis madnis armocenam didi gavlena iqonia imeretis regionis sivrcit da ekonomikur ganvitarebaze, bizgi misca saqartvelosi axali qalaqebis, satransporto kavsirebisa da samrewvelo dargebis Seqmnas. manganumis mrewvelobis ganvitrebis pirvelive wlebsi fotis navsadgurma mnisvnelovani satranzito funqcia SeiZina ian wlebsi zestafonis ferosenadnobta qarxnis mseneblobit ki Seikra WiaTura-zestafoni-foTis industriuli wredi, romelsac qveynis ekonomikasi ert-erti mnisvnelovani adgili dresac ukavia. 4

5 PREFACE The innovative development of the trade and commercial relationships in the Middle Ages set the conditions for the fast increase of the manufacturing production and caused social, technical and economic changes at the end of the 18 th century. The industrial revolution had influenced and basically transformed every aspect of life. Today, the material expressions of these changes represent universal value and are the subject of study and protection. The importance of the Industrial heritage is widely acknowledged internationally. Its research, stewardship, adaptation and conservation is a priority for many countries cultural life and scientific work. Georgia s rich cultural heritage is studied in depth and extensively, though the country s industrial heritage continues to stay beyond the professional interest. Unfortunately, this architectural or engineering structures and the related forms of production which were created with industrial purposes in the 19 th and 20 th centuries in Georgia, to this day, are not systematically studied and evaluated. These significant structures which are the reflections of the economical, technical and social changes of the country are left beyond the scope. This publication is a humble attempt to outline the significance and value of the Georgia s industrial heritage and its general research directions on the example of Chiatura-Zestafoni-Poti Industrial Circuit. We hope that interest about this theme will gradually increase and will become a subject for fundemental research, valuable and precious structures will not disappear without a trace and will not be lost forever to the future generations. INTRODUCTION The discovery of manganese ore in Chiatura in the 19 th century greatly affected the spatial and economic development of Imereti region. It gave a new stimulus to the foundation of new cities, creation of new transport links and industrial fields in Georgia. In the first few years of developing the manganese industry, the port of Poti acquired a significant transit function. By building Zestafoni s ferroalloy factory in the 1930s, the circuit of Chiatura-Zestafoni-Poti was tied, which still holds one of the most important places in country s current economy. Industrial heritage unites industrial culture s those material manifestations which contain historical, technological, social, architectural and scientific values. In our initial research, we were stinted by research of social and transport infrastructure of those sites of Chiatura-Zestafoni-Poti Industrial Circuit s which follow basic industrial directions (mining production, black metallurgy). We attempted as far as possible to detect a number of valuable sites which were connected with the 5

6 industriuli memkvidreoba aertianebs industriuli kulturis im materialur gamovlinebebs, romeltac istoriuli, teqnologiuri, socialuri, arqiteqturuli da mecnieruli Rirebuleba aqvs. 1 winaswari kvlevis farglebsi SemovifargleT WiaTura-zestafoni-foTis industriuli wredis ZiriTadi samrewvelo mimartulebebis (samtamadno warmoeba, Savi metalurgia) sawarmoebis, mati socialuri da satransporto infrastruqturis SeswavliT. SevecadeT, SeZlebisdagvarad gamogvevlina manganumis madnis mopovebastan, mis Semdgom gadamusavebasa da gadazidvas- Tan dakavsirebuli zogierti Rirebuli obieqti. Cveni interesis arealsi moeqca: mararoebi, fabrika-qarxnebi, musata sacxovrebeli ubnebi da mati momsaxurebisa da kulturis obieqtebi, satransporto sasualebebi, produqciis transportirebastan dakavsirebuli obieqtebit. kvlevis am etapze SedarebiT detalurad iqna Seswavlili manganumis mrewvelobis ganvi- Tarebis istoria, samrewvelo procesis specifika da mastan dakavsirebuli sainjinro, satransporto da samrewvelo obieqtebi. Temis Seswavlisas, vixelmzrvanelet savele samusaos Sedegad Segrovebuli masalit, saarqivo dokumentebita da dargobrivi literaturuli wyaroebit. Tumca, aqve unda arvnisnot, rom kvlevisas gamokvetili Rirebuli obieqtebis srulfasovani SeswavlisTvis unda gagrzeldes rogorc savele, ise saarqivo samusaoebi. WiaTura Chiatura The Nizhny Tagil Charter for the Industrial Heritage, TICCIH,

7 extraction, refining and transportation of the manganese ore. The area of our interest included: mines, factories, housing for workers, neighborhoods and their service and culture structures, means of transport and product transportation related structures. At this stage of the research, relatively detailed study of the history of development of manganese mining industry, the specifics of the manufacturing process and related engineering, transportation and industry structures was done. For the study of the subject, we leaned on materials collected during the field work, archive documents and sectoral literature sources. However, we should note that for comprehensive study of the outlined valuable sites the field as well as archive work should be continued. The research area is vast and combines not a single but many interesting directions and aspects. Due to limited timeframe, a lot of issues remain outside of our attention which requires further study and analysis. WiaTura me-20 saukunis dasawyissi Chia tu ra in the be gin ning of 20 th cen tury 7

8

9 Wia Tu ra CHIATURA

10 man ga nu mis sa ba dos ar mo Ce na da mrew ve lo bis gan vi Ta re ba evropelma mecnierebma qimiuri elementis _ manganumis 2 mecnieruli Seswavla me-18 saukune Si daiwyes. eqsperimentebma da kvlevebma maleve gamoaaskaraves misi Tvisebebi da sargeblianoba metalurgiul warmoebasi. me-19 saukunesi manganumis gamoyeneba feradi litonebis SemadgelobaSi, aseve foladisa da Tujis Tvisebebis gasaumjobeseblad, aqtiurad daiwyo. am garemoebam manganumze motxovnilebis zrda ganapiroba da axali sabadoebis moziebas da damusavebas Seuwyo xeli. WiaTuris manganumis sabados armocena germaneli geologis, kavkasiis cnobili mkvlevris vilhelm herman abixis ( ) saxels ukavsirdeba wels man armoacina da Seiswavla manganumis sabado WiaTura-saCxeres midamoebsi. swored abixma miawoda kavkasiis imdroindel mefisnacval mixeil voroncovs pirveli cnobebi imeretis midamoebsi marali xarisxis manganumis sabados arsebobis Sesaxeb. 3 sabados geologiuri Seswavla misi Semdgomi damusavebis- Tvis mogvianebit, me-19 saukunis samocdaatian wlebsi cnobili qartveli mwerlisa da poetis akaki weretlis ( ) usualo iniciativit gagrzelda. akaki weretlis TxovniT, geologma da mkvlevarma spiridon simonovicma ( ) wlebsi xelaxla, safuzvlianad Seiswavla sacxere-wiaturis midamoebi. am gamokvlevebis safuzvelze wlebsi akaki weretelma madnis mopoveba daiwyo soflebis _ zeda rgansa da mrvimevs Soris. 4 madnis gadazidvastan dakavsirebulma sirtuleebma poets wamowyebis warmatebit dasrulebasi xeli SeuSala, Tumca man ucxouri kompaniebisa da adgilobrivi mrewvelebis daintereseba SeZlo da qartuli manganumis madnis warmoebas gza gaukvala, romelic imxanad swrafad ikrebda Zalas. war moe bis swraf gan vi Ta re bas xels uw yob da sa ba dos da mu Sa ve bis xel say re li pi ro be bi, mo po ve bu li mad nis ma Ra li xa ris xi da da sav let ev ro pis qve ye neb sa da ame ri kis Seer Te bul Sta teb Si swra fad mzar di fo la dis war moe ba. me-19 sau ku nis mi wu ruls, ru se Tis im pe ria Si me ta lur giu li da qi miu ri war moe ba sus tad iyo gan vi Ta re bu li. man ga num ze mci red motxov nas ura li sa da ni ko po lis (uk rai na) sa ba doe bic ak ma yo fi leb dnen, qar Tu li man ga nu mi ki ume te sad saeq spor tod iyo gan kut vni li. qar Tul ma dans moix mar da in gli si, ger ma nia, safran ge Ti, bel gia, av stria-un gre Ti, ass da sxv. 5 qar Tul ma dans iye neb dnen ise Ti msxvi li me- 1. periodul presasa da literaturasi cnobilia aseve saxelwodebebit: Savi qva, qva-gunda, manganezi, marganeci. 3. vl. WaniSvili, manganumis madnis mrewvelobis ganvitareba saqartvelosi, Tbilisi, 1960, gv vl. WaniSvili, dasax. nasromi, gv WiaTura-zestafonis samrewvelo kvanzi, saqartvelos mecnierebata akademiis vaxusti bagrationis saxelobis geografiis institutis SromaTa krebuli c. ianqosvilis redaqtorobit, Tbilisi, 1973, gv

11 THE DISCOVERY OF MANGANESE ORE AND INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT The European scientists started scientific study of the chemical element manganese in the beginning of the18 th century. The experiments and researches soon revealed its charachteristics and effectiveness in metallurgy. The use of manganese in enriching of ferrous metals, as well as in improving the characteristics of steel and cast iron started actively in the 19 th century. This circumstance caused the increased demand in manganese, and helped exploration and processing of new ores. The discovery of the Chiatura mine is attributed to a German geologist, a famous researcher of the Caucasus Wilhelm Hermann von Abich ( ). In 1846, he founded and studied the manganese ore in the vicinities of Chiatura and Sachkhere. Abich gave the first proofs of existence of high quality manganese ores in the Imereti to the Emperors s governor in the Caucasus Michael Vorontsov. The geological study of the ores for its further processing later, in the 1870s was continued by the direct initiative of the famous Georgian writer and poet Akaki Tsereteli ( ). Upon his request a geologist and researcher Spiridon Simonovich ( ), in the years of , profoundly studied Sachkhere-Chiatura vicinities. Based on the results of this research, in the years of , Akaki Tsereteli started ore mining between the villages of Upper Rgani and Mgvimevi. The difficulties connected with the ore transportation prevented the poet from successful completion of his initiative, however, he was able to concern foreign companies and local entrepreneurs and paved a road to the Georgian manganese exploitation which at that time was quickly gaining the strength. The fast development of production was supported by the ores convenient conditions, the high quality of the deposits and rapidly rising production of steel in west European countries and USA. In the end of 19 th century Russian Empire metallurgical and chemical industry was weak. The low demand for manganese was fully satisfied by Ural and Nikopolis (Ukraine) mines, and Georgian manganese was mainly intended for export. Georgian ore deposits were utilized by England, Germany, France, Belgium, Austria-Hungary, USA etc. The Georgian manganese were utilized by large metallurgical factories like the American company Bethlehem Steel Corporation, German Krupp, Italian ILVA etc. Despite many difficulties, from the first day of functioning of these mines, until the beginning of the World War I, the extraction of deposits and its export were stably increasing and reached its peak in In the year of 1900, 661,000 tons while in 1913, 966,000 tons of manganese were extracted from the Chiatura mine. Between the years of , 788,000 tons were being exported to the world market. In 1913, Georgia was the main exporter of manganese ore _ Georgia supplied 50% of the world s ore. World War I and the closing of the Dardanelles strait abruptly stopped the peak of industry. The world demand for ore was tangibly decreased that also lessened the extraction process. It was also accompanied with a difficult domestic political situation. As a result in 1921 the production of manganese completely stopped. The new stage of Georgian manganese production starts after the sovietization of the country. In the first year of Georgia s annexation, by the decree of the revolutionary committee, the mines were nationalized. In 1925, Chiatura production by concession agreement was transferred to the American politician and entrepreneur, W. Averell Harriman ( ) for twenty years. With this contract, Harriman monopolized the entire industry from extraction 11

12 ta lur giu li sa war mooe bi, ro go re bic iyo ame ri ku li bet lem stil kor po rei Se ni (Bethlehem Steel Corporation), ger ma nu li kru pi (Krupp), ita liu ri il va (ILVA) da sxv. 6 araerti sirtulis miuxedavad, sabados damusavebis dridan pirveli msoflio omis dawyebamde, madnis amoreba da eqsporti stabilurad izrdeboda da Tavis zenits 1913 wels miarwia wels WiaTuris sabadodan 661 atasi tona, xolo 1913 wels 966 ata si to na manganumis madani iqna mopovebuli wlebsi saertasoriso bazarze wliurad sasualod 788 tona igzavneboda wlistvis saqartvelo manganumis madnis pirveli umsxvilesi eqsportiori qveyana iyo _ madnis msoflio eqsportis 50% saqartveloze modioda. 7 pirvelma msoflio omma da dardanelis srutis gadaketvam uecrad SeaCera zenitsi myofi mrewveloba. madanze saertasoriso motxovnilebam sagrznoblad iklo, ramac TandaTanobiT madnis mopovebac Seamcira. amas Tan axlda rtuli Sidapolitikuri vitareba. Sedegad 1921 wlistvis manganumis madnis warmoeba mtlianad Sewyda. qartuli manganumis warmoebis axali etapi qveynis gasabwoebis Semdeg iwyeba. saqartvelos aneqsiis pirvelive wels, revoluciuri komitetis dadgenilebit, manganumis madnis sawarmoebi nacionalizebul iqna wels ki WiaTuris warmoeba koncesiis wesit amerikel politikossa da mrewvels, uiliam averel harimans ( ) (W. Averell Harriman) oci wlit gadaeca. am xelsekrulebit harimanma monopolia moipova rogorc madnis mopovebis, aseve misi eqsportis saqmeze, rasic manamde araerti qartveli Tu ucxoeli mrewveli da kompania iyo CarTuli. harimans fexze unda daeyenebina Cavardnili warmoeba, Tumca misi saqmianoba WiaTuraSi warumatebeli armocnda. xelsekruleba 1928 wels gauqmda da manganumis warmoeba mtlianad saxelmwifos xelsi gadavida. amave wels komunisturi partiis dadgenilebit amoqmedda pirveli xutwliani ekonomikuri ganvitarebis gegma, romelic qveynis swraf industrializacias isaxavda miznad. Zireuli cvlilebebi WiaTuris manganumis mrewvelobasac Seexo. pirvel xutwledsi ( ) daiwyo zestafonis ferosenadnobta qarxnis mseneblobac, romelic dremde WiaTuris manganumis madnis ert-erti ZiriTadi momxmarebelia. am periodidan gaizarda madnis warmoeba da Sida eqsporti, paralelurad qartuli manganumi kvlavac inarcunebda adgils saertasoriso bazarze iani wlebis politikurma da ekonomikurma gardatexam warmoeba kidev ertxel daayena rtuli gamowvevebis winase. moisala sawarmoo infrastruqtura: miwisqvesa gvirabebi, fabrikebi da mati damxmare Senoba-nagebobebi, satvirto sabagiro gzebi da a.s wlidan sabados martvas axorcielebs jorjian manganezi, romelic WiaTurmanganumis, zestafonis ferosenadnobta qarxnis da varcixis hidroeleqtro sadguris mflobelicaa. 6. vl. WaniSvili, dasax. nasromi, gv WiaTura-zestafonis samrewvelo... gv

13 to export which previously many Georgian and foreign entrepreneurs and companies were involved. Harriman was supposed to restore the fallen production, though his work in Chiatura was unsuccessful. The contract was terminated in 1928 and the entire production was assumed by the government. That same year, the Communist Party enacted it s first five years economic plan which was supposed to develop the country s economy quickly. Basic changes also affected the Chiatura industry. In the first five-year plan ( ) Zestafonis ferroalloy factory construction started, which up-to-date continues to be Chiatura s Manganese ore s main user. From this period on, the production of manganese and its internal export increased in paralel, the Georgian manganese still kept its place on the international market. The political and economical turmoil of the early 1990s forced the production to face difficult challenges again. The production infrastructure was deteriorated: underground tunnels, factories with utility buildings, freight pathways etc. From the year of 2006, the management of the mines is executed by Georgian Manganese Holding Limited which is the owner of Chiatura Manganese, Zestafoni s ferroalloy factory and Vartsikhe hydroelectric station. WiaTura. mararos musebi karieris win Chia tu ra. Wor kers in front of car rier 13

14 man ga nu mis sa ba dos area li da qa la qi Wia Tu ra WiaTura-saCxeres manganumis sabado zemo imeretsi, mdinare yvirilas SuawelSi mdebareobs. sabados auzis fartobi 78,5 kvadratuli kilometria, 8 romlis areali mdinare yvirilas da sxva xeobebit aris daserili. yvirilas xeobit areali or ZiriTad nawilad iyofa. Crdilo-aRmosavleT nawilsi moqceulia rganis, Tabagrebis, mrvimevis, darkvetis, zeda rganis, bunikauris, xolo samxret-armosavletit _ itxvisis, SuqruTis da perevisas zegnebi. zegnebze mararoebi da sacxovrebeli ubnebia ganlagebuli, xeobis ZirSi ki _ madnis gamamdidrebeli fabrikebi. qalaqi WiaTura am samrewvelo arealis centria, romelic mdinare yvirilas orive sanapirozea gawolili. landsaftisa da sacxovrebeli ubnebis xasiati, xeobebsa da zegnebze gabneuli samrewvelo obieqtebisa da satransporto infrastruqturis qseli did arealze gadawimul, rtul, urtiertgadajawvul ganasenianebul sistemas qmnis. tyesi Cafluli xeobebi malaven Zvel wolxvrelebs, 9 sarkinigzo gvirabebs, mamdidrebeli fabrikebis nastebs, romelebic cnobismoyvare mkvlevars jer kidev elodeba. WiaTura Chia tu ra 8. iq ve, gv wolxvreli igive Stolni _ horizontaluri an odnav daqanebuli gvirabi, romelic usualod dedamiwis zedapirze gamodis da miwisqvesa samto samusaota momsaxurebisatvis aris gankutvnili. 14

15 MANGANESE MINE AREA AND THE CITY OF CHIATURA Chiatura-Sachkhere manganese mine is located in Upper Imereti, in river Kvirila s middle stream. It s basin is 78.5 sq. km which is broken by the area of Kvirila River and other gorges. Kvirila Gorge s area is split in two main parts. In the northeastern part, there are Rgani, Tabagrebi, Mgvimevi, Darkveti, Upper Rgani, Bunikauri, while in the southeast, there are Itkhvisi, Shukruti and Perevisa highlands. The mines and living quarters are situated on the highlands, while in the gorge s bed the processing plants are located. The city of Chiatura is in the center of this industrial area stripped alongside the both banks of the river Kvirila. The character of the landscape and the living quarters, industrial structures and transport networks are stretched on gorges and highlands, it creates a difficult and mutually interconnected settled system. The canyons covered by wood hide the old mines, railway tunnels, enrichment factories remains, which are still awaiting inquisitive scholars. With manganese industry development, Chiatura village of Shorapani sub-district, in the meantime became the mining industry center. Chiatura was the first ore collection point where the loaders, mining workers, and the local residents were gathering. With the growth of the residents and the factory workers, the social and communal problems also were increasing those to be solved. The entrepreneurs partnerships, in parallel with solving the problems occurred during the ore processing, were trying with more or less success to deal with above mentioned issues. With the initiative of the Entrepreneurs Convent which was presided by Giorgi Zdanovich ( ), the Chiatura s public school, bathhouse, hospital, sunday school, theater were built and a cheap restaurant was opened etc. With the initiative of the entrepreneurs, a central electric station, water and sewage systems, electrical lighting and telephone networks were built. The more Chiatura was acquiring the image of the city, the more discussion regarding the city governance system introduction was taking the place. Finally, in the year of 1917 Chiatura was declared as a city. The settlement on the right slope of the river Kvirila is covered with twisty network of up-grades. This part of the city still accompanied with the charm of spontaneous settlements. The hillside of the left bank is more filled with European manner urban development. Here the trace of the entrepreneurs activities is still noticeable. A focused eye will not miss the two-storied former polyclinic surrounded by old trees and flora (David Aghmashenebeli str., #10). It was built by the help of Entrepreneurs Convent in 1897 and later in 1904 was altered by the second story. The square building has a Latin t form. The polygonal stonework of the facade of the first story indicates that it was built earlier. The plastered facade of the building s second story, the small iron railing of the balcony over the main entrance, and a vast vestibule with wide stairs is solved in Art Nouveau styl. On the west façade side the building is ended with two-storied semi-circled bay window. This historical building is now without a function, and without a proper maintenance is decaying. 15

16 man ga nu mis mrew ve lo bis gan vi Ta re bis kval dak val, So rap nis maz ris so fe li Wia Tu ra dro- Ta gan mav lo ba Si sam Ta mad no mrew ve lo bis cen trad iq ca. Wia Tu ra iyo mo po ve bu li mad nis pir ve li Sem kre bi pun qti, sa dac Tavs iy rid nen mad nis mtvir Ta ve bi, ma Ra ros mu Se bi, mkvidri mo sax leo ba. mo sax leo bi sa da war moe ba Si da saq me bu li mu Se bis rao de no bis zrdas Tan er Tad iz rde bo da ko mu na lu ri Tu sa yo fac xov re bo prob le me bi, rom le bic mog va re bas sa- Wi roeb dnen. mrew vel Ta am xa na go be bi da gaer Tia ne be bi, war moe bis pro ces Si Seq mni li siz nelee bis mog va re bis pa ra le lu rad, met-nak le bi war ma te bit ar nis nu li sa kit xe bis ga daw ras cdi lob dnen. mrew vel Ta yri lo bis ini cia ti vit, ro mel sac wle bis gan mav lo ba Si gior gi zda no vi Ci ( ) Tav mjdo ma reob da, asen da Wia Tu ris sa qa la qo sas wav leb lis Se no ba, aba no, saa vad myo fo, sak vi rao sko la, Teat ri, gaix sna iaf fa sia ni sa sa di lo mu Se bi sat vis da sxv. 10 mrew vel Ta ini cia ti vit asen da cen tra lu ri eleq tro sad gu ri, gaiy va nes wyal sa de ni da ka na li za cia, eleq troga na Te bi sa da sa te le fo no qse li. 11 rac uf ro me tad em sgav se boda Wia Tu ra qa la qur da sax le bas, mit uf ro xsi rad ga ni xi le bo da Wia Tu ra Si qa la qis ti pis mmar Tve lo bi Ti sis te mis Se mo Re bis sa kit xi. sa bo lood Wia Tu ra qa la qad 1917 wels ga mocxad da. mdi na re yvi ri las mar jve na sa na pi ros fer dob ze Se fe ni li ga na Se nia ne ba dak lak ni li armar Te bi Taa daq se li li. qa la qis am na wils spon ta nu ri ga na Se nia ne bis xib li drem de moh yveba. mar cxe na sa na pi ros fer do bi ev ro pu li yai dis Se no ba-na ge bo be bit me ta daa ga je re buli. aq mrew vel Ta saq mia no bis kva li je rac ikit xe ba. dak vir ve bul Tvals ar ga moe pa re ba par kit gar Se mor tymu li, mra val wlo van uc xo xe-mce na reeb Si Caf lu li yo fi li po lik li nikis or sar Tu lia ni Se no ba (da vit ar ma Se neb lis qu Ca #10), ro me lic mrew vel Ta yri lo bis dax ma re bit 1897 wels au giat, mog via ne bit _ 1904 wels gau far Toe biat da meo re sar Tu li dau Se ne biat. 12 swor kut xa Se no bas la Ti nu ri t-s for ma aqvs. pir ve li sar Tu lis fa sa dis po li go na lu ri qvis wyo ba mis ad reul pe riod ze mia nis nebs. Se no bis meo re sar Tu lis na le si fa sa di, Zir- Ta di Se sas vle lis Tav ze gan la ge bu li mci re zo mis aiv nis We du ri moa ji ri da vrce li vesti biu li far To ki bis uj re dit iu gen dstil Sia (Jugendstil) ga daw yve ti li. da sav let fa sa dis mxa res Se no ba ori ve sar Tu lis si mar le ze na xe var wriu li er ke rit bo lov de ba. es is to riuli Se no ba dres ufun qciod, mov la-pat ro no bis ga re Se dar Ce ni li nad gur de ba. 10. vl. Wa nis vi li, da sax. nas ro mi, gv iq ve, gv Sa vi oq ros qa la qi, Tbilisi, 1979, gv

17 WiaTura. yofili poliklinikis Senoba Chia tu ra. For mer pol ycli nic buil ding

18 mad nis mo po ve ba man ga nu mis mad nis sa bo loo sa sa qon lo pro duq tis mi sa Re bad sa Wi ro sa war moo pro cesi ur Tier Tda kav Si re bul, Tum ca, teq no lo giu ri Tval saz ri sit, gan sxva ve bul sa mu Saoebs moi cavs. igi aer Tia nebs sa ba dos da mu Sa ve bis, mad nis amo Re bi sa da mi si gam did re bis etapebs. Tav da pir ve lad ma dans Ria ka rie ru li we sit moi po veb dnen, mag ram ara ren ta be lu ro bis ga mo is ma le ve Seic va la mo po ve bis mi wis qve Sa me To de bit. Ria ka rie ru li we sit mo po ve ba mxo lod 1952 wels ga nax lda 13 da dreis Tvis uf ro far Tod aris gav rce le bu li. Tav da pir ve lad mad nis mo po ve ba pri mi tiu li me To de bit xde bo da. es exe ba ro gorc ma- Ra ros mow yo ba sa da mad nis mo po ve bis me To debs, ase ve ga mo ye ne bul sa mu Sao ia ra Reb sa da mad nis mi wis ze da pir ze zid vis pro cess. Ta vi dan mad nis Sem cvel qans we raq ve bit an grevdnen, nic be bis dax ma re bit uri keb ze tvir Tav dnen da xe lit ezi de bod nen mi wis ze da pir ze. ma dans fu Wi qan is gan iq ve acal ke veb dnen da Semdeg sa pal nee bi Ta da sa Wap no tran spor tit meur meeb sa da Cal vad rebs (wylis mzi da vebs) rki nig zis sad gu ram de ga dah qon dat. warmoebis ganvitarebis kvaldakval TandaTan vitardeboda madnis mopovebis, zidvisa da gamdidrebis teqnologiebi. sawarmoo procesis swori meqanizacia madnis mopovebis temps zrdida da saboloo sasaqonlo produqtis fasis Semcirebas uwyobda xels, rac aucilebeli iyo saertasoriso bazarze konkurentunarianobis SesanarCuneblad. ukve me-19 saukunis miwuruls zogiert mararosi madans urikebis nacvlad relsebze mozravi vagonetebit ezidebodnen, romlis gamwev Zalad cxenebs iyenebdnen. 14 cnobili mrewveli da sazogado morvawe niko RoRoberiZe ( ) pir ve li iyo, vinc 1886 wels rganis mararosi 120 metriani rkinis relsebi daago da mongreul madans rkinis vagonetebis mesveobit ezidebodnen. 15 mad nis Zi ri Tad sat vir To gzam de da mam did re bel fab ri keb Tan Ca sa zi dad me qa ni ku ri CasaS ve bi mow yo bi lo be bi ga moi ye ne bo da. ma ga li Tad, dar kve Tis ma Ra ro Si, ro mel sac frang mrew vel Ta gaer Tia ne ba dar kve Ti uwev da eq splua ta cias, mow yo bi li iyo 270 met ris sigrzis brem sber gi wlis Tvis or lia nda gia ni brem sber gi fun qcio ni reb da mrvi me vis ma Ra ro Sic, rom lis sig rze 350 metrs Sead gen da da a.s. mad nis sa zi dad ga moi ye ne bo da primi tiu li Ra re bic wlis Tvis Wia Tu ra Si 24 me qa ni ku ri Ca mo sas ve bi yo fi la mow yo bi li vl. WaniSvili, dasax. nasromi, gv iq ve, gv iq ve, gv mowyobiloba, romelic tvirtis daxril zedapirze gadasazidad gamoiyeneba. 17. iq ve, gv

19 THE EXTRACTION OF MINERALS In order to get the final product of manganese ore, it is necessary to have a interconnected production process, since, in the technological point of view, there is differentiated working process. It combines the method of treatment of deposit, extraction process and its enrichment stage. In the beginning the open-pit mining method was used but due to the lack of profitability, it was soon changed to ore exploitation by underground methods. The open-pit mining method was reconsidered again in 1952, and is more widely used today. In the beginning, the ore extraction was done by primitive methods. This concerns as well as to the setting of mines and methods of extraction, as well as tools used and the process of ore transportation on the surface of the land. In the beginning, the layers containing the ores were hit with pick axes with the help of shovels and were then put on wheelbarrows and transported by hand to the earth surface. The output was there cleaned from bad ores and thereafter transported by saddle bags and carts to the railway stations. WiaTura. mararos musa madnit savse urikastan Chia tu ra. Mi ner at ore-char ged wa gon WiaTura. manganumis madnis gamozidva mararodan Chia tu ra. Man ga ne se ore ex port from mi ne

20 am pe rio dis sain Jin ro na ge bo bebs Wia Tu ris mi da moeb Si dre sac vxvde bit. ert-ert xeoba Si drem dea Se mor Ce ni li sar ki nig zo gvi ra bis rus ti re bu li por ta li kut vni le bis armnisvneli inicialebit, romelic 1911 wels augiat. gadmocemis Tanaxmad, gvirabi gamoiyeneboda madnis ZiriTad sarkinigzo xaztan gadasazidad. sa hae ro sa ba gi ro gze bi WiaTuraSi sabagiro gzebis mowyobis sakitxi jer kidev me-19 saukunis miwuruls daisva. 18 Tumca ideam farto gasaqani mxolod gasuli saukunis 50-iani wlebidan miiro. adgilobrivma specialistebma mravali satvirto da samgzavro sabagiro gza aages. madani mamdidrebel fabrikebs satvirto sabagiroebit uwyvetad miewodeba, samgzavro sabagiro gzebi ki uzrunvelyofen kavsirs sxvadasxva zegnebze ganlagebul soflebsa da mararoebs, aseve qalaq WiaTuris sxvadasxva ubnebs Soris. sabagiro sistemis ganvitarebas xeli Seuwyo rtulma reliefma da sabagiro maleve gadaiqca mosaxerxebel da swraf transportad. swored WiaTuraSi aigo sabwota kavsirsi pirveli sahaero sabagiro gza. asetad saxeldeba 1953 wels agebuli WiaTura-perevisas ( ocdaxutis ) saxalxo sabagiro, romelsac mogvianebit kidev erti xazi _ sasevardno daemata. WiaTuris bagir-gzebis ganvitareba injiner giorgi fanculaias ( ) saxeltan mwidrod aris dakavsirebuli. misi TaosnobiT aigo araerti sahaero sabagiro gza saqartvelosi da sabwota kavsirsi. samgzavro sabagiro gzebis sadgurebi gabneulia WiaTura-saCxeres gzaze, zegnebze ganlagebul dasaxlebebsa da soflebsi, qalaqis sxvadasxva nawilsi. yuradrebas iqcevs sabagiro gzebis sainjinro gadawyveta da sadgurebis stilisturi mravalferovneba. aq SexvdebiT rogorc mcire zomis fardulis tipis Senobebs, aseve sabwota arqiteqturis sxvadasxva etapistvis damaxasitebel tipur Tu saavtoro proeqtebit Seqmnil nagebobebs. qalaqis landsaftsi aqcentebad ikitxeba sabagiro sadgurebis monumenturi, stalinuri arqiteqturistvis damaxasiatebeli moculobebi, gviani sabwota modernizmistvis saxasiato sada sworxazovani da plastiuri formebi, litonis marlivi konstruqciebi, brutalisturi arqiteqturistvis damaxasiatebeli uxesi betonit damusavebuli monolituri formebi. sahaero sabagiro gzebis kargad ganvitarebuli sistema da sadgurebis daxvewili da mravalferovani arqiteqturuli iersaxe gansakutrebul xibls szens qalaqs da misi ert-erti savizito baratia. 18. iq ve, gv

21 Along with industry development the ore extraction, transportation and enrichment technologies were also improving. The proper mechanization of the production process was increasing the ore extraction time and also was promoting the lowering of the prices, which was necessary to keep the competitiveness on the world market. In the end of the 19 th century in some mines, the ores were already transported by horse-powered wagons instead of formerly used ropes. The well-known entrepreneur and a statesman, Niko Gogoberidze ( ) was the first who in 1886 in the Rgani mines, laid down 120 meters of metal rails and the demolished ore was transported by wagons. The mechanical downloading equipment was used for ores delivery to the main roads and processing plants. For example, in Darkveti mine, which was managed by a French entrepreneurs association Darkveti, there was arranged a 270 meter long rail track. For the year 1900 two-wheeled rail track functioned at the Mgvimevi mine, which was 350 meters long ect. The primitive trenches also were used for the ore transportation. However, by 1913, 24 mechanical landing stations were set-up in Chiatura. We still find the engineering utilities of this period in Chiatura s vicinities. In one of the canyons the remains of the rusticated portal of the railway tunnel with an engraved initials of the owners who built it in 1911 is still there. According to the legend the tunnel was used for ore transportation to the main railway line. ROPE ROADS The issue of rope roads installation in Chiatura was alrady raised at the end of the 19 th century. However, this idea was widely initiated only since the 1950 s of the last century. Local specialists constructed a lot of freight and passenger ropeways. The freight ropeways provided non-stop delivery of ore to the processing plants, passenger ropeways provide a link between the different towns and mines situated on various uplands, as well as between the different districts of the city of Chiatura. Complex terrain contributed to ropeways system development and it soon became the shortest and convenient transport. It is believed that the the first ropeway throughout the Soviet Union was built in Chiatura. Such one is named to be the public ropeway Chiatura-Perevisa ( Twenty-five ) built in 1953, to which another line _ Sashevardno was added. Georgian ropeways business for the development is closely associated with the name of the engineer George Pantsulaia ( ). Under his leadership a number of ropeways were built in Chiatura, as well as in several other parts of Georgia. Passenger ropeways stations are scattered on Chiatura-Sachkhere road, settlements and villages located on uplands, in various parts of the town. Engineering solution of the ropeways and stylistic diversity of the stations attract attention. Here you will see the small-size shed-like facilities, as well as the typical structures or the structures characteristic to the Soviet architecture constructed under the author s design. 21

22 WiaTura. sabagiro gzebis centraluri sadguri Chia tu ra. Roapways cen tral sta tion 22

23 WiaTura. sabagiro gza `centri-muxazis quca Chia tu ra. Roapway `Cen tre-muk had ze Street Monumental sizes of the ropeway stations typical to Stalinistic architecture, are read as an accents in the city landscape, characteristic to the late soviet modernism, plain, linear and plastic molds, metal high-rise structures, rough monolithic molds processed with concrete characteristic to brutalist architecture. Well-developed system of ropeways and sophisticated and diverse architectural appearance add more charm to the town being one of its visit cards. Nowadays, modernization of the passenger ropeways network is planned in Chiatura. In our opinion, during the process of reconstruction, the ropeway stations and original carriages should be preserved in their original form. In Chiatura a number of freight ropeways are still functioning, however, the tendency of transportation of the ore by trucks is more and more noticeable. Carrying the ore by the trucks worsens the road conditions and enhances the dust accumulation. From today s overview the advantages of ore transportation by air transport are becoming clearer and the impression is made, that the problems prevailing one century ago, are re-appearing in contemporary Chiatura in a changed form. 23

24 dres WiaTuraSi dagegmilia samgzavro sabagiroebis qselis modernizacia. vfiqrobt, rekonstruqciis processi sabagiro sadgurebi da originaluri vagonetebi pirvandeli saxit unda SenarCundes. WiaTuraSi satvirto sabagiro gzebis nawili dresac funqcionirebs, Tumca satvirto manqanebit madnis gadazidvis tendencia sul ufro metad SeimCneva. samanqano transportit madnis zidva gzebis mdgomareobas auaresebs da mtveris dagrovebas uwyobs xels. drevandeli gadmosaxedidan kidev ufro mkafiod ikveteba madnis sahaero transportit zidvis upiratesobebi da rceba STabeWdileba, rom erti saukunis winandeli problemebi saxecvlili formit Tanamedrove WiaTuraSi xelaxla icens Tavs. WiaTura. sabagiro gza `WiaTura-perevisa Chia tu ra. Roap way sta tion Chia tu ra-pe re vi sa 24

25 25

26 mad nis gam did re ba me-20 sau ku nis da saw yis Si, mad nis mo po ve bis teq no lo gie bis ganvi Ta re bis kval dak val, dris wes rig Si mi si gam did re bis au ci leblo bac dad ga. wi na wleb Tan Se da re bit, 1900 wlis Tvis, mad nis mo pove ba or jer gai zar da. mo po ve bu li mad nis xa ris xi ki ua res de bo da, rac mis sa baz ro Ri re bu le ba ze ax den da gav le nas. ma Ra li xa ris xis Se sa nar Cu neb lad mrew ve leb ma mad nis ga mam did re be li fab ri ke bis mse neb lo ba daiw yes. pir ve lad ase Ti fab ri ka dar kve Tis ze gan ze fran gul ma kom pa niam aa Se na wlis Tvis ki sam rew ve lo areal- Si mam did re be li fab ri ke bis rao de no bam 30-s miar wia. ga mam didre bel fab ri kebs flob dnen Zme bi Ci lin ga ro ve bi, gel zen kir xe nis sam To-sam rew ve lo sa zo ga de ba da sxve bi. 20 Zve li mam did re be li qar xne bis nan gre ve bi sa ba dos te ri to riaze dre sac gvxvde ba. isi ni droul Ses wav la sa da iden ti fi ci re bas sa Wi roe ben, rac ma Ti Sem dgo mi praq ti ku li ga mo ye ne bis sa fuz ve li SeiZ le ba gax des. mrew ve lo bis gan vi Ta re bis ad reul etap ze ma dans pri mi tiu li me To dit am did reb dnen (xe lit an pri mi tiu li sa rec xi Ra re bis sa- Sua le bit). dres es pro ce si kom pleq sur teq no lo giur sqe mebs efuz ne ba. mad nis gam did re ba mis mo po ve ba sa da sa bo loo ga mo ye ne bas Soris Sua le dur rgols war moad gens da aer Tia nebs sxva das xva process mad nis fu Wi da Ri re bu li, ase ve sxva das xva sa xis Ri re bu li mi ne ra le bis er Tma ne Ti sa gan gan sa cal ke veb lad. zo ga di sqe mis mixed vit, mam did re bel fab ri keb Si xde ba mad nis dam tvre va, mo recxva da fraq cie bad da leq va. gam did re bis me To debs mad nis fi zi kuri Tvi se be bis Se sa ba mi sad ar Ce ven. ga nar Ce ven gra vi ta ciul, mag nitur da eleq tro se pa ra ciis, flo ta ciur, 21 kom bi ni re bul da a.s me To debs. vi nai dan man ga nu mi bu ne ba Si rki na sa da sxva ele men teb- Tan er Tob lio ba Si gvxvde ba da Ta vi su fa li sa xit ar moi po ve ba, 19. iq ve, gv iq ve, gv flotacia _ wvrili myari nawilebis gamocalkevebis procesi wylovan suspenziasi. 26

27 WiaTura. madnis mamdidrebeli fabrikebi cmf 1 da cmf Chia tu ra. Ore pro ces sing plants CMP 1 and CMP

28 WiaTura. pirveli gamamdidrebeli fabrika Chia tu ra. First pro ces sing plant mi si gam did re bis Tvis xsi rad kom bi ni re bul me Tods iye ne ben. zo giert Sem Txve va Si sa bo loo kon centra tis mi sa Re bad mad nis gam did re bis er Ti sta dia ar aris sak ma ri si. gam did re bis pirve li sta diis Sem deg mi Re bu li pro duq ti cen tra lur mam did re bel fab ri ka Si ig zavne ba, sa dac gam did re bis Sem de gom etaps gadis. sa sar geb lo wia Ri seu lis gam did re bis Se de gad sag rznob lad iz rde ba sa sar geb lo kom po nen te bis kon cen tra cia. 22 Se de gad mi- Re bu li kon cen tra ti me ta lur giul qarxnebs Sem dgo mi ga mo ye ne bis Tvis mie wo de ba. mam did re bel fab ri kebs sa ba dos Tan mi si mde ba reo bi sa da gam did re bis teq no lo giis mi xed vit ga nas xva ve ben. mad nis gam did re bis teq no lo gia zea da mo ki de bu li Se no ba-na gebo be bis siv rcit-mo cu lo bi Ti da ar qi teqtu ru li ga daw yve ta. is sru lad eq vem deba re ba teq no lo giur pro cess da mkac rad fun qcio na lur xa siats ata rebs. sa ba dos Tan fab ri kis mde ba reo bis mi xedvit Wia Tu ra Si vxvde bit ro gorc in di vidua lur mam did re bel fab ri kebs, ro m lebic ert msxvil ma Ra ros Ta naa da kav Si re bu li, ase ve fab ri kebs, rom le bic te ri to riu lad ert kon kre tul ma Ra ros Tan ar arian dakav Si re bu li. aq Tavs iy ris yve la fab ri kis Sua le du ri pro duq ti Sem dgo mi gam did rebis Tvis. WiaTura. madnis mamdidrebeli fabrika wirqvalis xeobasi Chia tu ra. Ore pro ces sing plant in Tsir kva li can yon 22. Горная эциклопедия, Обогащение полезных ископаемых, gadamowmebulia: seqtemberi,

29 ORE ENRICHMENT In addition to the development of ore mining technology, in the beginning of the 20 th century the urgency of its enrichment was on the agenda. By the year 1900 ore mining increased twice compared with the previous years. The quality of the mined ore was becoming worse, which had an impact on its market value. In order to maintain the high quality, the entrepreneurs started to construct the ore processing plants. For the first time, such a plant was built by a French company on the Darkveti upland. By the year 1912 the number of processing WiaTura. madnis mamdidrebeli fabrika 25-bis. Chia tu ra. Ore pro ces sing plant 25-bis. 29

30 WiaTura. darkvetis karbonatuli madnis mamdidrebeli fabrika Chia tu ra. Dar kve ti car bo nic ore pro ces sing plant

31 plants in the industrial area amounted to 30. Processing plants were owned by Brothers Chilingarovs, Gelzenskirkhen Mining-Industrial Society etc. We can find the ruins of the old processing plants even today on the, ore deposits territory, which require to be researched and identified in a timely manner, that might become the basis for their further practical use. At the early stage of the industry development the ore was enriched through the primitive methods. Nowadays this process is based on the complex technological schemes. Ore enrichment is an interim segment between its mining and ultimate use and incorporates various processes for separation from each other of the unwanted and valuable minerals of the ore. According to the general scheme, ore breaking, washing and classifying take place in the processing plants. Enrichment method is selected in accordance with the physical properties of the ore. Different methods are used, such as: the gravity separation, magnetic separation and electric separation, flotation, combined and other methods. Since we find manganese in the nature in conjunction with iron and other elements and it cannot be mined in a free form, combined method is often used for its enrichment. In some cases, in order to get the final concentrate, one stage of ore enrichment is not sufficient. The product generated after the first stage of enrichment, is sent to the central processing plant, where it passes through the next stages of enrichment. As a result of enrichment of the minerals, concentration of the useful components concentration is considerably increased. The generated concentrate is supplied to the metallurgical plans for further use. Processing plants are distinguished from the ore deposit by its location and processing technologies. Architectural solution of the premises depends upon the mineral processing. It is fully subordinated to the technological process and has a strictly functional character. In accordance with the plant location with the ore deposit, in Chiatura we can find the individual processing plants, which are related to the large mine, as well as the plants, which are territorially related to one concrete mine. Here the intermediate products of all the plants are concentrated for further enrichment. Processing plants are distinguished in accordance with the internal production relocation system (vertical, horizontal and gradual) and its allocation on the industrial site (scattered and united). Nowadays there are individual plants operating in Chiatura: Mghvime Mine Processing Plant #29, CMP 1 (Shukruti mine) and CMP 2 (Itkhvisi Mine), as well as Peroxide ore processing plant Peropi (Rgani Mine). Perevisa Mine Processing Plant 25 and new processing plant of Darkveti were quite recently destroyed. Central Processing Plant of Chiatura and floating complex are located far away from the mines and are not directly connected to them. At this stage we will abstain from detailed review of the architectural solvation of Chiatura processing plants and their features. Due to specifics of the topic, many aspects require to be specified, in-depth research and analysis. Here we will only generally touch upon some of them. The first large ore processing plant of the soviet period was built under the design of the above mentioned 31

32 mam did re bel fab ri kebs ase ve ga nar Ce ven Si da sa war moo ga daad gi le bis sis te mi sa (ver tika lu ri, ho ri zon ta lu ri da sa fe xu reb ri vi) da Se no ba-na ge bo be bis sam rew ve lo moe dan ze gan Tav se bis mi xed vit (ga fan tu li da gaer Tia ne bu li). 23 drei sat vis Wia Tu ra Si moq me di in di vi dua lu ri fab ri ke bia: mrvi me vis ma Ra ros mam did rebe li fab ri ka #29, cmf 1 (Suq ru Tis ma Ra ro) da cmf 2 (it xvi sis ma Ra ro), ase ve pe roq si duli mad nis mam did re be li fab ri ka pe ro fi (rga nis ma Ra ro). pe re vi sas ma Ra ros mam di re beli fab ri ka 25-bis da `axa li dar kve Tis~ mam did re be li fab ri ka sul ax la xans daan gries. Wia Tu ris cen tra lu ri mam did re be li fab ri ka da saf lo ta cio kom pleq si ma Ra roe bis gan mo So re bit mde ba reobs da mat Tan usua lo kav Si ri ar aqvt. am etap ze Wia Tu ris mam did re be li fab ri ke bis ar qi teq tu ru li ga daw yve ti sa da ma Ti Tavi se bu re be bis de ta lu ri gan xil vi sa gan Tavs Se vi ka vebt. Te mis spe ci fi ki dan ga mom di na re mra va li as peq ti sa Wi roebs da zus te bas, sir rmi seul Ses wav la sa da ana lizs. aq mxo lod zo ga dad Se ve xe bit zo giert mat gans. sab Wo Ta pe rio dis pir ve li msxvi li mad nis ga mam did re be li fab ri ka 1935 wels ze mot nax se ne bi ger ma nu li fir ma kru pis proeq tit asen da da drem de cno bi lia #25 bis-is sa xelit. 24 is pe re vi sas ma Ra ros eq vem de ba re bo da. saar qi vo fo toeb ze kar gad ikit xe ba mar li vi Se no bis si lue ti, ro me lic kldo van lan dsaf tsia Ca we ri li. ga da xur vis cal qa no bia ni siste ma ga moar Cevs mas sxva, mog via ne bit ase ne bu li fab ri ke bis gan. dres mis ad gi las nan greve bi Raa dar Ce ni li wels asen da pe roq si du li mad nis mam did re be li fab ri ka pe ro fi, rom lis wliu ri war ma do ba we li wad Si to nas Sead gen da. 25 is rga nis ma Ra ros eq vem de ba re ba. ga moir- Ce va mka fio, swor kut xa ver ti ka lu ri mo cu lo bi Ta da fa sad ze sxva das xva zo mis mar TkuT xa Rio be bis sain te re so gan la ge bit. mam did re be li fab ri ke bi cmf 1 (1950 w.) da cmf 2 (1957 w.) wliu ri war ma do bis mxriv erter Ti yve la ze msxvi li sa war moe bia, rac mat si di de sa da ur Tier Tda kav Si re bu li Se no ba-nage bo be bis sim rav le zec ai sa xe ba. ori ve fab ri ka er Tian sam rew ve lo moe dan zea gan la ge buli. fab ri ke bis Zi ri Ta di kor pu se bi er Tma nets ga le ree bit ukav Sir de ba. fab ri ke bis Se no be bi, ro gorc we si, de ko ri re bu li ar aris. am mxriv ga mo nak liss warmoad gens cmf 1. fab ri kis Zi ri Ta di kor pu sis say rde ni xi min je bis Tav sze da Sub li na xe var- 23. Горная ециклопедия, Обогатительная фабрика, gadamowmebulia: seqtemberi, vl. WaniSvili, dasax. nasromi, gv А. Чантурия, Капитальное строительство Грузии и перспективы его развития, Тбилиси, 1975, ст

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