North Dakota Department of Mineral Resources. 600 East Boulevard Ave. - Dept 405 Bismarck, ND (701) (701)

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1 North Dakota Department of Mineral Resources East Boulevard Ave. - Dept 405 Bismarck, ND (701) (701)

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3 LEASING One to three independent contract land firms and a contract law firm are typically involved in securing leases, surface use agreements, and title opinions Leases are acquired by landmen whose primary duty is to secure leasehold interest from the mineral owners. County records are searched to determine ownership in a particular area. Not only must a landman determine who owns the land, but who owns the mineral rights as well. After ownership has been determined, a landman will negotiate the necessary leases with the landowners. Compensation in the form of a bonus, a delay rental payment, and royalty are typically offered the landowner in return for leasing the area of interest. Leases for gas and oil are legal contracts, which for specified compensation give the company the right to explore for and to extract oil and gas. Each lease is negotiated and agreed upon individually. A drilling title opinion is prepared to tabulate all mineral, surface, and working interest ownership for the drilling company

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5 Drilling Units NDAC DRILLING UNITS - WELL LOCATIONS The Industrial Commission establishes drilling units Statewide drilling unit rules are established for well known formations and depths The Industrial Commission issues orders setting drilling and spacing units for less known and unconventional pools Four independent contractors are typically involved in preparing the exhibits and presenting testimony to the Industrial Commission - an attorney, landman, geologist, and engineer.

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7 North Dakota Spacing Units and well pads are designed for multiple wells 8 20 wells per 1,280 acres proposed = 4 wells per layer X 2 5 layers NDIC issued order for standard spacing = N-S 1,280 Multi-well pads preffered v area vv area vvv area

8 100 years ago wells were drilled wherever they would fit (rule of capture), and were not spaced on the basis of geology and engineering as is currently done by the North Dakota Industrial Commission. This wasted a great deal of the oil and gas.

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11 Vern Whitten Photography

12 DRILLING An independent contractor conducts the land survey and prepares the plat Many operators us a contractor to prepare the drilling permit and attachments for submission to the Industrial Commission NDAC APPLICATION FOR PERMIT TO DRILL Before any person shall begin any well-site preparation for the drilling of any well other than surveying and staking, such person shall file an application for permit to drill (form 1) with the director, together with a permit fee of one hundred dollars. The application must be accompanied by the bond pursuant to section or the applicant must have previously filed such bond with the commission... The application for permit to drill shall be accompanied by an accurate plat certified by a registered surveyor showing the location of the proposed well with reference to the nearest lines of a governmental section. The plat shall also include latitude and longitude of the proposed well location to the nearest tenth of a second. Information to be included in such application shall be the proposed depth to which the well will be drilled, estimated depth to the top of important markers, estimated depth to the top of objective horizons, the proposed mud program, the proposed casing program, including size and weight thereof, the depth at which each casing string is to be set, the proposed pad layout, including cut and fill diagrams, and the proposed amount of cement to be used, including the estimated top of cement.

13 Oil and gas well locations are built (stockpiling top soil and lining reserve pits) to make reclamation easier.

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15 A 6½ minute horizontal drilling/hydraulic fracturing video is available to download for free from this web site (you will need Real Player to view it).

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17 A liner with external packers is run to into the producing formation to divide the bore hole in sections for hydraulic fracturing

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20 Sedimentary Rocks of Western North Dakota Fresh Water Zone Shallow Gas Zone Dakota Group Piper Formation: Dunham Salt Spearfish Formation: Pine Salt Opeche Formation: Salt A A Salt Charles Formation: D Salt F Salt Prairie Formation: Prairie Salt Spearfish Formation Tyler Formation Madison Group Bakken-Three Forks Prairie Formation Red River Formation Precambrian Basement

21 The producing formation is fractured by pumping water at thousands of pounds per square inch. Millions of pounds of sand or ceramic beads are pumped to hold fractures open.

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23 Compound Purpose Common application Fresh Water 80.5% Proppant 19.0% Allows the fractures to remain open so the oil and gas can escape Drinking water filtration, play ground sand Acids % Help dissolve minerals and initiate fractures in rock (pre-fracture) Swimming pool cleaner Petroleum distillates 0.088% Dissolve polymers and minimize friction Make-up remover, laxatives, and candy Isopropanol 0.081% Increases the viscosity of the fracture fluid Glass cleaner, antiperspirant, and hair color Potassium chloride 0.06% Creates a brine carrier fluid Low-sodium table salt substitute Guar gum 0.056% Thickens the water to suspend the sand Thickener used in cosmetics, baked goods, ice cream, toothpaste, sauces, and salad dressing Ethylene glycol 0.043% Prevents scale deposits in the pipe Automotive antifreeze, household cleansers, deicing, and caulk

24 Sodium or potassium carbonate 0.011% Improves the effectiveness of other components, such as cross-linkers Washing soda, detergents, soap, water softeners, glass and ceramics Sodium Chloride 0.01% Delays break down of the gel polymer chains Table Salt Polyacrylamide 0.009% Minimizes friction between fluid and pipe Water treatment, soil conditioner Ammonium bisulfite 0.008% Removes oxygen from the water to protect the pipe from corrosion Cosmetics, food and beverage processing, water treatment Borate salts 0.007% Maintain fluid viscosity as temperature increases Used in laundry detergents, hand soaps and cosmetics Citric Acid 0.004% Prevents precipitation of metal oxides Food additive; food and beverages; lemon juice N, n-dimethyl formamide 0.002% Prevents the corrosion of the pipe Used in pharmaceuticals, acrylic fibers and plastics Glutaraldehyde 0.001% Eliminates bacteria in the water Disinfectant; Sterilizer for medical and dental equipment

25 In North Dakota frac chemicals must be posted within 60 days of pumping

26 In North Dakota frac chemicals must be posted within 60 days of pumping

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28 Oil and gas well drilling and completion is funded by company capital, but this work is performed by dozens of contractors and their supply companies.

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30 FLOW OIL/ WATER/ GAS UNTIL RESERVOIR PRESSURE IS DEPLETED Pr oduced Oil

31 Well head Tanks Treater

32 Typical Bakken Well Production Barrels of Oil per Day Year

33 What Does Every New Bakken Well Mean to North Dakota A typical North Dakota Bakken well will produce for 45 years If economic, enhanced oil recovery efforts can extend the life of the well In those 45 years the average Bakken well: Produces approximately 600,000 barrels of oil Generates about $20 million net profit Pays approximately $4,925,000 in taxes $2,200,000 gross production taxes $2,300,000 extraction tax $425,000 sales tax Pays royalties of $7,600,000 to mineral owners Pays salaries and wages of $2,100,000 Pays operating expenses of $2,400,000 Cost $8,700,000 to drill and complete

34 USING ARTIFICIAL LIFT AND ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY TO PRODUCE OIL UNTIL WELL IS NO LONGER ECONOMICAL Pumping Unit Pr oduced Oi l

35 PUMPING UNIT

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37 WATER INJECTION PROCESS PROD WATER OIL Using water to boost pressure and move oil can recover 30% - 50% the oil in the reservoir.

38 AIR INJECTION PROCESS PROD BURNING FRONT HOT WTR & CO 2 OIL

39 Modern EOR can recover 55-65% of the oil in the reservoir.

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42 PLUG AND ABANDON Cmt. Plug Cmt Plug Cmt. Plug Cmt. Plug

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47 Well was plugged in 07/1998 Reclamation work in 09/1998 Seeded in Spring of 1999

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