I. The word Islam means. a. Members of the religion are known as. a. Arabs are a people. Arabic language shares many. b. Largely a society of

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1 8 th grade note skeleton III: The Muslim Empires Origins of Islam I. The word Islam means. a. Members of the religion are known as. Founded by the. a. Arabs are a people. Arabic language shares many characteristics with Hebrew. b. Largely a society of i. Definition: c. Each tribe ruled by a, chosen from leading families d. Arabs were a society i. Definition: ii. Society recognized a supreme God known as. e. Wealthiest Arabs were experts in. i. Used caravans of to cross the desert ii. Had to know routes to and how to survive dangers like. The center of Arab culture was. a. City was a major stop on the. With a large population of Jewish, Arab, and other residents. b. Home to the, as well as alters and icons to several gods and goddesses. Mohammed 1

2 a. Born into a powerful family, Mohammad began as a. b. Worries of Mohammed: i. c. Claimed Revelation from Allah, while meditating and praying in a cave. V. First attempts a. Mohammed s new religion calls for sole worship of complete rejection of. b. Mohammed returned to but failed to convince ruling class. c. Rulers attempt to carry out threat to kill him for speaking out d. Fled to city of, a journey known as the. Won support from, nomads who lived in the deserts of the Arabian peninsula. e. Mohammed also fled to where he experienced another vision, and supposedly ascended to heaven, the spot where this happened is now known as. f. In 630, Mohammed returned to Mecca with a force of 10,000 men, city surrendered and converted to Islam. g. Mohammed set up a i. Defintion: VI. Islamic Society a. The 5 Pillars: i. ii. 2

3 1. Carried out times a day 2. Always facing toward iii. iv. 1. From during. v. b. Islamic law is known as. c. Dietary Requirements: d. Forbidden behaviors: e. Houses of worship known as f. Mohammed s teachings were eventually collected into a book known as the, which is the chief book of Islam. A second book about his life, known as the was also put together as an example of proper Muslim living. g. Death of Mohammed i. Mohammed did not leave a upon his death. This led to a split in Islam between two factions. ii. The believed that the leader should be. Their name derives from an Arab word meaning. Currently the largest branch of Islam. 3

4 iii. The believe that the leader should be. Islamic Empire I. After Mohammed s death, the elects as of the Empire. The do not have the strength to resist. The new Caliph proved to be a brilliant general, taking from the and the whole of the. The expansion was based on the concept of a. Definition 1: b. Definition 2: Islamic conquerors were known to be tolerant to and referring to them as. a. Definition: V. Abu Bakr s was, and replaced with who was the. He was also after only five years of rule, this left the Empire without a ruler. The Umayyads I. General governor of, defeated his rivals in 661 to become Caliph. Moved to make the Caliphate a. a. Definition: 4

5 The Umayyads conquered the and the groups of people in and converted them to Islam. a. Using a united army, they conquered, setting up as the provincial capital. Despite these conquests, Umayyad law continued to favor over other ethnic groups. The Abbasid Dynasty I. Resentment concerning the pro-arab, pro-sunni stance of the Ummayids led to a led by. Set up the Abbasid dynasty and moved capital to. a. Reason 1: b. Reason 2: Height of Empire was under known as the. a. Recovery of knowledge from b. Development of advanced math known as named after. i. Major advances in. Rediscovered, accurate predictions of. 5

6 ii. Led to advances in, such as the which allowed sailors to calculate. c. Mastery of art known as i. Definition: ii. Reason: d. Writing and poetry Government controlled by a parliament of advisors led by a. V. Collapse a. Major problem was b. Corruption spread due to c. Empire fell after and declared independence. The Seljuk Turks I. Nomadic warrior people who converted to Islam Captured Baghdad in 1055, leader declared himself a. Definition: Defeated the Byzantine Empire at two major battles Crusades: a. Initial power of crusades threw Muslim leaders on the defensive b. Empire taken over by genius tactician named who pushed crusaders out of Jerusalem. Crusades had little effect on Muslim culture save to breed distrust of. 6

7 V. Collapse a. Seljuk Turks fall due to invasion by the from. i. This aggressive tribe adopts Seljuk dress, language and religion. Ottoman Turks I. Conquered Byzantine Empire and much of. Captured in 1453 Embraced use of traded from the a. Developed the first made out of. The elite of the Turkish forces were known as the a. Taken from: b. Education and training: V. The Fall a. The Ottoman dynasty collapsed after an invasion from the led by general, the personal agent of. b. Burnt cities, destroyed mosques, universities and libraries. c. Conquest from within: i. Eventually converted to Islam, and restored old Islamic Empire. 7

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