Chapter 15- The Muslim Empires

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1 Chapter 15- The Muslim Empires

2 Ottoman Empire Turks- groups from central Asia, spread west 9 th -11 th centuries Seljuk Turks took over Abbasid caliphate, enemies of Byzantines Ottoman Turks- Osman rewarded with land after fighting Mongols, Anatolian Peninsula Geographic advantage- Byzantines, Muslims Expansion- Balkans, Slavs

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4 Ottoman Empire Janissaries- elite troops, allegiance to sultan Use of new weapons, firearms Mehmet II Constantinople 1453 Continued expansion- Safavids, Mamluks (Meso and Egypt) North Africa Emperor Selim claimed caliph Locals allowed to govern, trade, piracy

5 Ottoman Empire Suleyman the Magnificent- advancement into Europe (Danube, Hungary, Austria), control of western Med Sea Europeans could not ignore and treated Turks like other countries- alliances, trade New try to advance met by alliance of Europeans, defeat (Vienna) Slow decline of Ottoman power

6 Ottoman Rule Sultan- supreme authority Learned/adapted Byzantine and Persian customs Problems with succession Topkapi Palace- Istanbul, center of power Harem- elite group, queen mother Not all about sex, political power

7 Ottoman Rule Imperial council- vizier Bureaucracy- merit Similar to fief holdings, feudalism Sunni Muslims- generally tolerant of others unless seen as a threat Non- Muslims paid head tax, conversions Millet- religious group, responsible for behavior, taxation, education, justice, welfare

8 Ottoman Rule Women- more freedoms than elsewhere, divorce, property Decline came after Suleyman- son Selim II ( drunken sultan ) Internal dissention, corruption, constant war decreased treasury Influence of Western culture, materialism

9 Ottoman Art Pottery, rugs, silk, arms, jewelry Architecture most important Open floor plan (Hagia Sophia), domes, minarets, windows Decorations- mosaics, bright colors, geometric designs Rugs, silks

10 Safavids After Tamerlane (Mongol) decline- chaos Founded by Shah Ismail- ancestor to Ali Controlled Iraq, Iran, Baghdad Conflict with Ottoman Turks Copied Janissaries, military from Ottomans Abbas the Great- strengthen, stabilize dynasty

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12 Safavids Internal problems- increase in power of Shi ias, decrease in religious orthodoxy Women lost rights, behind the veil Others took advantage of weaknesses and attacked, rulers fled Brief restoration- battle with Mughals in India Mixed population of people, used religion to unify

13 Safavids Shah- political and religious leader, Shi a power Used foreigners in gov t to avoid competition Directly involved in economy- check up on locals, no direct contact with Europe, limited trade Capital- Isfahan, architecture, blue tiles Silk, painting

14 Mughals Unification of subcontinent of India- under Islamic foreigners Influence of Europeans- decline Founder was Babul (Mongol descendent) Weapons, cavalry- northern India Son chased out but aided by Safavids to return to power Akbar- peak of power, gunpowder empire

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16 Mughals Akbar- took steps to reconcile different religions, tolerance Married to Hindu, learned of Christianity, classical Indian ideas, hostility to Islam Divine Faith- combination of religions with control by emperor Not embraced by many people, Hindus given more power/jobs

17 Mughals Tolerance in legal system- Hindus not made to pay head tax, follow own laws Overall time of peace and prosperity Strong father- weak son Brief resurgance- Shah Jahan Taj Mahal- built in memory of wife, expensive Aurangzeb- controversial (ex. elimination of sati)

18 Mughals Reversed religious tolerance, revolts Portuguese monopoly of trade England- remained present as Mughal power declined, able to exert influence- Ft William Dutch/French attracted to trade in area Power of British East India company- conflict with gov t, major step in English dominance

19 Mughals Money made was sent back to England and weakened local trade British slowly took over and enforced own rules and laws Locals unable to mount significant challenge to British Real influence of Mughals on life of Indians is hard to tell- women, Hindus

20 Mughals Time of synthesis- Islamic, Persian, native Indian art and culture- architecture Taj Mahal, Red Fort Painting- now on paper Imitation of European art Printing not available until end of Mughals Persian- poetry, language

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