[PACKT] Cassandra High. Performance Cookbook. open source community experience distilled. Apache Cassandra deployments.

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1 Cassandra High Performance Cookbook Over 150 recipes to design and optimize large-scale Apache Cassandra deployments Edward Capriolo [PACKT] publishing"1 open source community experience distilled BIRMINGHAM - MUMBAI

2 Preface 1 Chapter 1: Getting Started 7 Introduction 7 A simple single node Cassandra installation 8 Reading and writing test data using the command-line interface 10 Running multiple instances on a single machine 11 Scripting a multiple instance installation 13 Setting up a build and test environment for tasks in this book 15 Running in the foreground with full debugging 19 Calculating ideal Initial Tokens for use with Random Partitioner 20 Choosing Initial Tokens for use with Partitioners that preserve ordering 22 Insight into Cassandra with JConsole 23 Connecting with JConsole over a SOCKS proxy 26 Connecting to Cassandra with Java and Thrift 27 Chapter 2: The Command-line Interface 29 Connecting to Cassandra with the CLI 30 Creating a keyspace from the CLI 30 Creating a column family with the CLI 31 Describing a keyspace 32 Writing data with the CLI 33 Reading data with the CLI 34 Deleting rows and columns from the CLI 35 Listing and paginating all rows in a column family 36 Dropping a keyspace or a column family 37 CLI operations with super columns 38 Using the assume keyword to decode column names or column values 39 Supplying time to live information when inserting columns 40

3 Using built-in CLI functions 41 Using column metadata and comparators for type enforcement 42 Changing the consistency level of the CLI 43 Getting help from the CLI 44 Loading CLI statements from a file 45 Chapter 3: Application Programmer Interface 47 Introduction 47 Connecting to a Cassandra server 48 Creating a keyspace and column family from the client 49 Using MultiGet to limit round trips and overhead 51 Writing unit tests with an embedded Cassandra server 53 Cleaning up data directories before unit tests 56 Generating Thrift bindings for other languages (C++, PHP, and others) 58 Using the Cassandra Storage Proxy "Fat Client" 59 Using range scans to find and remove old data 62 Iterating all the columns of a large key 66 Slicing columns in reverse 68 Batch mutations to improve insert performance and code robustness 69 Using TTL to create columns with self-deletion times 72 Working with secondary indexes 74 Chapter 4: Performance Tuning 77 Introduction 78 Choosing an operating system and distribution 78 Choosing a Java Virtual Machine 79 Using a dedicated Commit Log disk 80 Choosing a high performing RAID level 81 File system optimization for hard disk performance 83 Boosting read performance with the Key Cache 84 Boosting read performance with the Row Cache 86 Disabling Swap Memory for predictable performance 88 Stopping Cassandra from using swap without disabling it system-wide 89 Enabling Memory Mapped Disk modes 89 Tuning Memtables for write-heavy workloads 90 Saving memory on 64 bit architectures with compressed pointers 92 Tuning concurrent readers and writers for throughput 92 Setting compaction thresholds 94 Garbage collection tuning to avoid JVM pauses 95 Raising the open file limit to deal with many clients 97 Increasing performance by scaling up 98 -DO

4 Chapter 5: Consistency, Availability, and Partition Tolerance with Cassandra 101 Introduction 102 Working with the formula for strong consistency 102 Supplying the timestamp value with write requests 105 Disabling the hinted handoff mechanism 106 Adjusting read repair chance for less intensive data reads 107 Confirming schema agreement across the cluster 109 Adjusting replication factor to work with quorum 111 Using write consistency ONE, read consistency ONE for low latency operations 114 Using write consistency QUORUM, read consistency QUORUM for strong consistency 118 Mixing levels write consistency QUORUM, read consistency ONE 119 Choosing consistency over availability consistency ALL 120 Choosing availability over consistency with write consistency ANY 121 Demonstrating how consistency is not a lock or a transaction 122 Chapter 6: Schema Design 127 Introduction 127 Saving disk space by using small column names 128 Serializing data into large columns for smaller index sizes 130 Storing time series data effectively 131 Using Super Columns for nested maps 134 Using a lower Replication Factor for disk space saving and performance enhancements 137 Hybrid Random Partitioner using Order Preserving Partitioner 138 Storing large objects 142 Using Cassandra for distributed caching 145 Storing large or infrequently accessed data in a separate column family 145 Storing and searching edge graph data in Cassandra 147 Developing secondary data orderings or indexes 150 Chapter 7: Administration 155 Defining seed nodes for Gossip Communication 156 Nodetool Move: Moving a node to a specific ring location 157 Nodetool Remove: Removing a downed node 159 Nodetool Decommission: Removing a live node 160 Joining nodes quickly with auto_bootstrap set to false 161 Generating SSH keys for password-less interaction 162 Copying the data directory to new hardware 164 A node join using external data copy methods 165 GLh

5 Nodetool Repair: When to use anti-entropy repair 167 Nodetool Drain: Stable files on upgrade 168 Lowering gc_grace for faster tombstone cleanup 169 Scheduling Major Compaction 170 Using nodetool snapshot for backups 171 Clearing snapshots with nodetool clearsnapshot 173 Restoring from a snapshot 174 Exporting data to JSON with sstable2json 175 Nodetool cleanup: Removing excess data 176 Nodetool Compact: Defragment data and remove deleted data from disk 177 Chapter 8: Multiple Datacenter Deployments 179 Changing debugging to determine where read operations are being routed 180 Using IPTables to simulate complex network scenarios in a local environment 181 Choosing IP addresses to work with RacklnferringSnitch 182 Scripting a multiple datacenter installation 183 Determining natural endpoints, datacenter, and rack for a given key 185 Manually specifying Rack and Datacenter configuration with a property file snitch 187 Troubleshooting dynamic snitch using JConsole 188 Quorum operations in multi-datacenter environments 189 Using traceroute to troubleshoot latency between network devices 190 Ensuring bandwidth between switches in multiple rack environments 191 Increasing rpc_timeout for dealing with latency across datacenters 192 Changing consistency level from the CLI to test various consistency levels with multiple datacenter deployments 193 Using the consistency levels TWO and THREE 194 Calculating Ideal Initial Tokens for use with Network Topology Strategy and Random Partitioner 196 Chapter 9: Coding and Internals 199 Introduction 199 Installing common development tools 200 Building Cassandra from source 200 Creating your own type by sub classing abstract type 201 Using the validation to check data on insertion 204 Communicating with the Cassandra developers and users through IRC and 206 Generating a diff using subversion's diff feature 207 Applying a diff using the patch command 208 -DZ}

6 Using strings and od to quickly search through data files 209 Customizing the sstable2json export utility 210 Configure index interval ratio for lower memory usage 212 Increasing phi_convict_threshold for less reliable networks 213 Using the Cassandra maven plugin 214 Chapter 10: Libraries and Applications 217 Introduction 217 Building the contrlb stress tool for benchmarking 218 Inserting and reading data with the stress tool 218 Running the Yahoo! Cloud Serving Benchmark 219 Hector, a high-level client for Cassandra 221 Doing batch mutations with Hector 223 Cassandra with Java Persistence Architecture (JPA) 224 Setting up Solandra for full text indexing with a Cassandra backend 226 Setting up Zookeeper to support Cages for transactional locking 227 Using Cages to implement an atomic read and set 229 Using Groovandra as a CLI alternative 231 Searchable log storage with Logsandra 232 Chapter 11: Hadoop and Cassandra 237 Introduction 237 A pseudo-distributed Hadoop setup 238 A Map-only program that reads from Cassandra using the ColumnFamilylnputFormat 242 A Map-only program that writes to Cassandra using the CassandraOutputFormat 246 Using MapReduce to do grouping and counting with Cassandra input and output 248 Setting up Hive with Cassandra Storage Handler support 250 Defining a Hive table over a Cassandra Column Family 251 Joining two Column Families with Hive 253 Grouping and counting column values with Hive 254 Co-locating Hadoop Task Trackers on Cassandra nodes 255 Setting up a "Shadow" data center for running only MapReduce jobs 257 Setting up DataStax Brisk the combined stack of Cassandra, Hadoop, and Hive 258 Chapter 12: Collecting and Analyzing Performance Statistics 261 Finding bottlenecks with nodetool tpstats 262 Using nodetool cfstats to retrieve column family statistics 263 Monitoring CPU utilization 264 Adding read/write graphs to find active column families 266 nj-

7 Using Memtable graphs to profile when and why they flush 267 Graphing SSTable count 268 Monitoring disk utilization and having a performance baseline 269 Monitoring compaction by graphing its activity 271 Using nodetool compaction stats to check the progress of compaction 272 Graphing column family statistics to track average/max row sizes 273 Using latency graphs to profile time to seek keys 274 Tracking the physical disk size of each column family over time 275 Using nodetool cfhistograms to see the distribution of query latencies 276 Tracking open networking connections 277 Chapter 13: Monitoring Cassandra Servers 279 Introduction 279 Forwarding Log4j logs to a central sever 280 Using top to understand overall performance 282 Using iostat to monitor current disk performance 284 Using sar to review performance over time 285 Using JMXTerm to access Cassandra JMX 286 Monitoring the garbage collection events 288 Using tpstats to find bottlenecks 289 Creating a Nagios Check Script for Cassandra 290 Keep an eye out for large rows with compaction limits 292 Reviewing network traffic with IPTraf 293 Keep on the lookout for dropped messages 294 Inspecting column families for dangerous conditions 295 index 297 -[*}

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