1 Physiologic Mechanisms of Heart Rate Variability Harald M. Stauss, MD, PhD The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA Demonstration of the ECG to the Royal Society in London, UK by Augustus Waller s bulldog, Jimmie, in 1909.
2 Objectives Effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation on ion currents driving the slow action potentials of the sinus node. Physiologic mechanisms for the major periodicities in heart rate variability. Importance of the time delays in sympathetic and parasympathetic signal transduction for heart rate variability. Heart rate spectral analysis as indicator of cardiac autonomic balance.
3 The Conduction System of the Heart
4 Heart rate is almost constant in denervated hearts and intrinsic heart rate is ~100 bpm Control Subject Cardiac Transplant Patient 71 bpm 99 bpm Sands, KEF et al., Circulation 79:76-82, 1989
5 The slow action potential in the sino-atrial node 0 0 threshold 4 4 The slow response action potentials in the SA node, are characterized by a slow, spontaneous rise (depolarization) in the membrane potential during phase 4 of the action potential. Once a threshold level is reached, phase 0 of the next action potential is initiated. The important currents are I Ca, I f, and I K. I Ca causes the depolarization, I K causes the repolarization, I f (mainly Na + ) causes the slow depolarization in phase 4.
6 Sympathetic ß 1 -adrenergic receptor stimulation increases i f and i Ca activation ß 1 + opening Levick JR, An Introduction to Cardiovascular Physiology, 2 nd edition, 1994
7 Sympathetic activation increases heart rate by increasing i f Hutter OF and Trautwein W, J General Physiol. 39: , 1956
8 Parasympathetic M2-muscarinic receptor stimulation increases i K and decreases i f and i Ca M2 inhibition opening - closing - Levick JR, An Introduction to Cardiovascular Physiology, 2 nd edition, 1994
9 Parasympathetic activation reduces heart rate by increasing i K and decreasing i f X stimulation i K X stimulation i f Jalife J and Moe GK, Circ. Res. 45: , 1979
10 Summary: Autonomic Control of Heart Rate M2 ß 1 does not require 2 nd messenger camp requires 2 nd messenger camp Levick JR, An Introduction to Cardiovascular Physiology, 2 nd edition, 1994
11 Physiological Origin of Heart Rate Variability Day-night periodicity Respiratory sinus arrhythmia 10s rhythm and slower fluctuations
12 Physiological Origin of Heart Rate Variability Day-night periodicity Respiratory sinus arrhythmia 10s rhythm and slower fluctuations
13 Day-night Periodicity N D ND N D N Heart rate, mean blood pressure, and renal sympathetic nerve activity recorded 3 weeks after implantation of catheters and electrodes in a conscious rabbit. Note the strong day-night periodicity in heart rate and mean blood pressure that are accompanied by similar oscillations in sympathetic nerve activity. Malpas SC, Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 286: R1-R12, 2004
14 Day-night Periodicity Day-night periodicity of heart rate is related to circadian changes in autonomic nerve activity.
15 Physiological Origin of Heart Rate Variability Day-night periodicity Respiratory sinus arrhythmia 10s rhythm and slower fluctuations
16 Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Respiratory sinus arrhythmia inspiration expiration inspiration Tachycardia during inspiration Bradycardia during expiration.
17 Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia ECG respiration In Ex heart rate Young female subject with strong respiratory sinus arrhythmia
18 Inspiration Expiration P thorax Venous return P thorax Venous return
19 Venous return to the heart: respiratory pump (alternating changes in intrathoracic and abdominal pressure) Venous blood flow velocity inspiration expiration Time (s)
20 Frank-Starling Mechanism inspiration expiration During inspiration, greater venous return to the heart (preload) causes an increase in stroke volume (SV). During expiration, reduced venous return to the heart causes a decline in SV. According to: BP = SV * HR * TPR blood pressure will fluctuate with respiration.
21 Cardiopulmonary and baroreceptors detect respiratory changes in cardiac filling and arterial pressure Cardiopulmonary receptors Cardiopulmonary receptors Baroreceptors
22 Bainbridge reflex in anesthetized dogs HR saline i.v. HR SNA SNA VNA VNA Hakumäki MOK, Acta Physiol. Scand. 85: , 1972
23 Baroreflex responses to Na-NP and Phe BP BP 10µg/kg Phe i.v. 5µg/kg NaNP i.v. HR SpNA HR SpNA
24 Modulation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia by the Bainbridge and baroreceptor reflexes Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is characterized by a tachycardia during inspiration and a bradycardia during expiration. Increased cardiac filling during inspiration elicits a tachycardia via the Bainbridge reflex that promotes respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Increased cardiac filling during inspiration elicits an increase in stroke volume (Frank-Starling mechanism) and blood pressure. This activates the baroreflex that opposes the tachycardia caused by the Bainbridge reflex. Thus, the baroreceptor reflex limits respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The intensity (amplitude) of respiratory sinus arrhythmia can be seen as the balance of the Bainbridge reflex and the baroreceptor reflex.
25 Central respiratory and sympathetic oscillators BP cardiac SNA phrenic NA Anesthetized, paralyzed, vagotomized, and ventilated cats. Pneumothoracotomy to prevent BP variability caused by changes in intrathoracic pressure. Hyperventilation (right) silenced the central respiratory oscillator (phrenic nerve activity lost) but not the central sympathetic oscillator (oscillations in cardiac SNA maintained). Independent respiratory and sympathetic oscillators are normally entrained by peripheral inputs (cardiopulmonary receptors, baroreceptors etc.) to operate at the same frequency. Barman SM and Gebber GL, Am J Physiol 231: , 1976
26 Cardiac vagal motoneurons (N. ambiguus) are coupled to the respiratory oscillator Placement of recording electrodes in CVM in the N. ambiguus. Location verified by stimulation of peripheral vagal nerve fibers. Firing rate of CVM follows firing rate of the phrenic nerve. This respiratory rhythm persists even if the ventilator is switched off. Rentero N et al., Am J Physiol 283:R1327-R1334, 2002
27 Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia The exact mechanisms causing respiratory sinus arrhythmia are not fully understood. Some studies suggest the existence of independent respiratory and autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) oscillators in the brainstem. The central respiratory oscillator is linked to sympathetic and parasympathetic centers in the brainstem. The Bainbridge reflex and the baroreceptor-heart rate reflex normally entrain cardiac autonomic nerve activity to the rhythm of the central respiratory oscillator.
28 Physiological Origin of Heart Rate Variability Day-night periodicity Respiratory sinus arrhythmia 10s rhythm and slower fluctuations
29 10s oscillation in heart rate Spontaneous HR fluctuations with a period duration of ~10s.
30 Negative feedback systems have an intrinsic tendency to oscillate cold air sensor setpoint controller Radiator temperature (F) M Q time (s)
31 Feedback Oscillations in Arterial Blood Pressure BP (mmhg) time (s)
32 BP control by the baroreceptor reflex Carotid baroreceptors Vagal nerve Aortic baroreceptors Sympathetic nerve
33 Blood pressure control by the local endothelial NO system
34 Blood pressure control by the renin-angiotensin system Arterial Pressure Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure GFR Macula Densa (NaCl) Renin Angiotensin II Efferent Arteriolar Resistance Afferent Arteriolar Resistance
35 Time Delays in BP control Baroreflex Response time of baroreceptors Afferent nerve conduction Central processing Efferent nerve conduction End-organ responses (e.g., vasoconstriction) Endothelial NO system Sensing of shear stress Release of NO from endothelial cells Diffusion of NO to VSMC Formation of cgmp End-organ response (vasodilatation) Renin-Angiotensin System Reduction of sodium concentration in the distal tubulus Renin release Formation of ANG I Formation of ANG II End-organ response to ANG II (e.g., vasoconstriction) Different time delays cause regulatory oscillations at different frequencies!
36 Link between blood pressure variability and heart rate variability Cortex Cerebellum Hypothalamus N. ambiguus RVLM NTS CVLM Aortic depressor nerve Pressoreceptors Muscle receptors
37 Neural Control of the Cardiovascular System Sympathetic afferents Central Integration Sympatho-vagal balance (efferent nerve traffic) Autonomic effector organs Sensors Vagal afferents Malliani A et al., Circulation, 84: , 1991
38 Spectral analysis of RR intervals and sympathetic and vagal nerve discharges in a cat RR-interval 10s oscillations Respiratory frequency Sympathetic nerve activity 10s oscillations Respiratory frequency Vagal nerve activity 10s oscillations Respiratory frequency Lombardi F et al., J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. 30 (Suppl.):S97-S99, 1990
39 Nerve transduction to the sinus node Cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic neuronal activity contains frequency components at: The heart rate The respiratory rate The resonance frequency of the baroreceptor-heart rate reflex The resonance frequencies of slower blood pressure regulating systems Does the sinus node respond to all these frequencies with corresponding fluctuations in heart rate?
40 Periodic stimulation of the PVN in conscious rats The PVN projects to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons Stauss HM et al., Am J Physiol 273:H786-H795, 1997
41 HR responses to PVN stimulation in rats Stimulation frequencies from 0.05 Hz to 2.0 Hz elicited corresponding HR oscillations Stauss HM et al., Am J Physiol 273:H786-H795, 1997
42 HR responses to PVN stimulation in rats Sympathetic modulation of HR is limited to frequencies below the respiratory frequency. Parasympathetic modulation of HR can operate at frequencies up to the respiratory frequency. respiratory frequency range Stauss HM et al., Am J Physiol 273:H786-H795, 1997
43 Summary: Autonomic Control of Heart Rate M2 ß 1 does not require 2 nd messenger camp requires 2 nd messenger camp Parasympathetic control of heart rate is faster than sympathetic control of heart rate! Levick JR, An Introduction to Cardiovascular Physiology, 2 nd edition, 1994
44 Summary Intrinsic heart rate is almost constant and ~100 bpm. Sympathetic modulation of heart rate depends on synthesis of the second messenger camp. Parasympathetic modulation of heart rate depends on opening of K ACh -channels and inhibition of camp. The major periodicities in heart rate variability include: Day-night periodicity Respiratory sinus arrhythmia 10s rhythm and slower fluctuations Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve traffic contains frequency components at the respiratory frequency. However, only parasympathetic signal transduction is fast enough to generate respiration-related heart rate variability.
45 Part II Perturbations of the sympathetic nervous system Autonomic blockades Autonomic balance (LF/HF ratio)
46 Summary: Autonomic Control of Heart Rate M2 ß 1 does not require 2 nd messenger camp requires 2 nd messenger camp Parasympathetic control of heart rate is faster than sympathetic control of heart rate! Levick JR, An Introduction to Cardiovascular Physiology, 2 nd edition, 1994
47 Power Spectral Analysis: The HPLC approach BP (mmhg) time (s) HPLC: Separation of chemical compounds based on physical or chemical characteristics. BP Power (mmhg * mmhg / Hz) Power spectral analysis: Separation of BP variability based on time delays of BP control systems. LF HF HR frequency (Hz)
48 Interventions that increase sympathetic nerve activity increase LF spectral power of HR Upright tilt Application of the vasodilator nitroglycerin Coronary artery occlusion Exercise Mental arithmetic stress
49 Effect of 90 tilt in a young human subject LF LF HF Pagani M et al., Circ. Res. 59: , 1986
50 Application of nitroglycerin before and after cardiac sympathectomy in a dog control nitroglycerin HF LF HF HF HF Pagani M et al., Circ. Res. 59: , 1986
51 HR and BP variability responses to coronary artery occlusion and exercise in dogs RRintervals HF LF HF LF Sys BP LF HF LF HF LF HF Malliani A et al., Circulation, 84: , 1991
52 HR and BP variability responses to mental arithmetic stress control LF mental stress LF HF HF control LF mental stress LF HF HF Malliani A et al., Circulation, 84: , 1991
53 Perturbations of the SNS All interventions that enhance sympathetic nervous system activity also increase LF spectral power of heart rate (or RR interval).
55 Ganglionic blockade Blockade of signal transduction from the first to the second autonomic neuron. Affects sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Drugs: trimethaphan, hexamethonium, etc. Source: Gray s Anatomy, 1918
56 Effect of ganglionic blockade on LF and HF heart rate variability Ganglionic blockade (trimethaphan) dosedependently reduced LF and HF spectral power of RR intervals. Diedrich A et al., Circulation 106: , 2002
57 Cardiac Autonomic Receptor Blockades X X M2 ß 1 does not require 2 nd messenger camp requires 2 nd messenger camp Levick JR, An Introduction to Cardiovascular Physiology, 2 nd edition, 1994
58 BP and HR response to atropine in a human subject Atropine increases HR and reduces HR variability Médigue C et al., Pflügers Arch. Europ. J. Physiol. 441: , 2001
59 control atropine Spectral analysis of pulse intervals during atropine infusion in a human subject HF recording time (min) frequency (Hz) Elghozi JL et al., Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 90: , 2001
60 The effect of autonomic receptor blockers depends on baseline conditions Pomeranz B. et al., Am. J. Physiology: Heart Circ. Physiol. 248:H151-H153, 1985
61 Atropine Propranolol LF HF LF HF 0 80 % change in spectral power supine standing % change in spectral power supine standing Atropine plus Propranolol Propranolol plus Atropine LF HF LF HF 0 0 % change in spectral power supine standing % change in spectral power supine standing Pomeranz B. et al., Am. J. Physiology: Heart Circ. Physiol. 248:H151-H153, 1985
62 Cardiac Autonomic Receptor Blockades Parasympathetic (muscarinic) receptor blockade reduces LF and HF spectral power of heart rate. Sympathetic ß 1 -adrenergic receptor blockade causes an increase or decrease in LF spectral power of heart rate, depending on baseline levels of cardiac sympathetic tone. Sympathetic ß 1 -adrenergic receptor blockade does not affect HF spectral power of heart rate.
63 HR Spectral Analysis in High-Altitude Trained Marathon Runners Cerro de Pasco, Peru, elevation 13,000 feet Cornolo J, et al. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 37:2148, 2005
64 Autonomic Balance LF/HF ratio Low Frequency PNS SNS LF High Frequency PNS HF Low Frequency: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic High Frequency: Only parasympathetic LF/HF ratio: Greater values reflect sympathetic dominance. Smaller values reflect parasympathetic dominance.
65 Summary Part II Perturbations of the sympathetic nervous system are reflected in changes in LF (~0.1 Hz) spectral power of heart rate. Cardiac autonomic blockade experiments demonstrated that: LF spectral power of heart rate is modulated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. HF spectral power of heart rate is modulated by the parasympathetic nervous system only. The ratio of LF/HF spectral power of heart rate reflects cardiac autonomic balance.
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