Ribbon tectonics: Ordovician and Silurian evolution of North Queensland

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1 School of Geosciences Ribbon tectonics: Ordovician and Silurian evolution of North Queensland Peter Betts, Robin Armit, John Stewart Monash University Paul Donchak, Ian Withnall, Laurie Hutton Geological Survey of Queensland (DEEDI) Bob Henderson Chris Fergusson Bob Bultitude

2 TAKE HOME MESSAGE Following the Cambrian Delamerian Orogeny several continental ribbons rifted from the East Gondwana Margin (north QLD). Ribbons re-accreted during the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian. Model comparable to tectonics for similar rocks in the Lachlan Fold Belt. Ribbon tectonics common in external subduction zones following supercontinent amalgamation.

3 TASMANIDES Adelaide Fold Belt (Neoproterozoic-Ordovician). Lachlan Fold Belt (Neoproterozoic-Carboniferous). New England Fold Belt (Cambrian-Triassic). North Queensland North Queensland (Neoproterozoic-Triassic). (Mossman) Thomson Fold Belt New England Fold Belt Cambrian-Early Silurian evolution telescoped smaller region How do they compare? Lachlan Fold Belt Turbidites Granite rocks Mafic-Ultramafic belts Cambrian Turbidites Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Rift and Cambrian back arc Cambrian Rift and passive margin

4 TASMANIDES N. QLD New England Fold Belt Ca Dv Si Or Cb Lachlan Fold Belt

5 North Queensland Neoproterozoic to Triassic evolution Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic basement terranes to the west. Dominated by volcanic arc and back arc successions. Unusual geometry orocline in Cambrian and Ordovician successions. Devonian Overprint + New England Fold Belt overprint. Focus on the Cambrian to Silurian evolution.

6 North Queensland Etheridge Hodgkinson Charters Towers Orocline Broken River Charters Towers Anakie Inlier

7 TECTONIC MODELS Lachlan Fold Belt North Queensland Andean Margin After Henderson et al., SW Pacific Margin After Aitchison and Buckman (2012)

8 Continental Crust After Korsch et al., 2012.

9 Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Evolution Anakie Metamorphics (Anakie Inlier) Lower Argentine Metamorphics (Charters Towers) Lower Cape River Metamorphics (Charters Towers) ca 600 Ma magma-poor passive margin successions (Fergusson et al., 2007). Barnard Metamorphics - Babalangee Amphibolite (ca 642 Ma). Once part of a continuous terrane passive margin to back arc region. Cowley Ophiolite Cambrian? Or Ordovician Hodgkinson Barnard Greenvale Broken River Charters Towers Anakie 9

10 North QLD Section location Late Neoproterozoic volcanic passive margin (Lachlan Fold Belt) Late Neoproterozoic magma-poor passive margin (e.g., Anakie Inlier) Cambrian continental back arc basin (Thomson Fold Belt) Neoproterozoic Warraweena arc Tasmania evolving outboard of the Cambrian Gondwana margin) Deposition of Tongari Group on continental ribbon

11 Section location Continental back arc inversion and crustal shortening (TFB and western LFB). Continental back arc inversion and crustal shortening (Glenelg Metamorphic Complex; Adelaide Fold Belt). Fold and thrust belt in the Adelaide Fold Belt Tyennan orogeny. Intra-oceanic arc (New England Fold Belt)

12 Ordovician Extension Back arc basin formation Cambrian Ordovician Hodgkinson Barnard Greenvale Graveyard Creek Camel Creek Cambrian Ordovician Camel Creek ARC Charters Towers Anakie East-side-down extensional detachments (Anakie) Extensional normal faults in Seventy Mile Range. Turbidites on oceanic crust Extensive extensionalrelated magmatism in the Greenvale and Charters Towers Province. BACK ARC BASIN Also Cowley Ophiolite!

13 Ordovician Extension Back arc basin formation Back arc extension and development of continental ribbons comprising of basement deformed during the Delamerian Orogeny: Basement to the Hodgkinson Province Barnard Province Back arc oceanic crust comprising formed separating continental ribbons. Donaldson Well Volcanic Member Cowley Ophiolite Complex Eruption of the felsic Balcooma meta-volcanics at the Gondwanan margin. Passive margin to back arc sedimentation.

14 Ma Ma Continental ribbons (North Queensland). Oceanic back arc basin (North Queensland). Initiation of east dipping subduction - Lucky Springs arc (North Queensland). Macquarie arc Radial roll back of the Thomson Fold Belt.

15 Camel Creek and Graveyard Creek subprovinces boundary Henderson et al., 2011

16 Lucky Springs Arc Lucky Springs Volcanic arc Carriers Well Formation Everetts Creek Volcanics ca 454 Ma (Carriers Well Formation) ca Ma (Wairuna Formation) Henderson et al., 2011

17 Lucky Springs Arc Back arc basin inversion along east-dipping subduction. Lucky Springs Island arc (Carriers Well Formation, Everetts Volcanics, sedimentation proximal to Proterozoic basement source. Emplacement of the I- and S-type granites into the Barnard Metamorphics on a distal extending continental ribbon.

18 Ribbon accretion Island arc accretion (Lucky Springs arc). Collision between Gondwana - Hodgkinson collision - Benambran Orogeny. Crustal shortening and accretion of the Lucky Springs equivalents (Fork Lagoon Beds) to the eastern margin of the Anakie Inlier. Oblique sinistral accretion of the Barnard Province along the Russell-Mulgrave Shear Zone (suture).

19 Cowley Ophiolite

20

21 Ribbon Accretion Oroclinal bending of the Charters Towers Province Benambran Orogeny (Lachlan Fold Belt). Macquarie Arc accretion. Accretion of the Selwyn Block onto the western Lachlan Fold Belt.

22 Silurian Devonian roll back Continental back arc basins (North Queensland). Back arc magmatism (North Queensland). Continental back arc basins - LFB (Newell Basin, Darling Basin) Bindian Orogeny (LFB) Continental back arc magmatism (East LFB).

23 E. GONDWANA NUNA Betts et al., (2008) Betts et al., (2011)

24 Following the Cambrian Delamerian Orogeny several continental ribbons rifted from the East Gondwana Margin during the Ordovician Ribbons stranded in continental back arc basin. Tasman Fold Belt arcuate continental back arc region. Lucky Springs arc back arc inversion Ribbons re-accreted during the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian. Late Silurian Devonian continental back arc (Hodgkinson Province) Model comparable to tectonics for similar rocks in the Lachlan Fold Belt. Ribbon tectonics common in external subduction zones following supercontinent amalgamation.

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