Design of an Eco Friendly and Self Sufficient Cabin

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1 Design of an Eco Friendly and Self Sufficient Cabin This project is a real programme which is to develop a prototype of an eco friendly cabin. In this project, I choose two sites, Aberdeen and Brighton, between which the latitude is quite different. This report explore the way of designing two different cabin located in Aberdeen and Brighton, use Eco Tech to demonstrate and modified design in terms of daylight factor, energy consumption and thermal analysis. Weather The location of Aberdeen and Brighton is different. Aberdeen is located in eastern Scotland and Brighton is located in the southern England. Because of the different location of them, the weather could be different. Compared with Brighton, Aberdeen could be much colder. The charts below show the different temperature between eastern Scotland and Southern England in which the two cities are located. Eastern Scotland Southern England 1

2 General design Orientation Since this is a completely open design, the most efficient orientation of building is south. With windows facing the south, it could maximize the solar gains as well as minimize the consumption of heating generated from energy. Plan design Since it is a small scale cabin design, the plan of cabin should be designed as simple as possible in order to minimize the consumption of materials and energy. So I designed the plan with a shape of rectangle, with partitions divided the space into four rooms. Basically the weather of Aberdeen and Brighton is similar and there is no huge different between this two site. So generally the designs of two cabins are the same in area and plan but would be different in terms of the construction materials, the arrangement of window and the application of energy sources. Specific design Aberdeen 2

3 This is the cabin design for Aberdeen. By considering the need more solar energy for heating the interior, I decide to open a skylight on top of the main room. Also because the weather is cold in Aberdeen, solar PV panel and wind turbine were used in this design to generate more energy for heating. Brighton Compared with Aberdeen, the temperature in Brighton is higher and there is more rain as well. So ventilation of the main room is important for dropping the temperature inside in summer. No skylight as well makes the cabin not overheating. Moreover, I decide this pitch roof which is suitable for the rainy weather in Brighton. PV solar panels and wind turbines are also applied in this cabin. Daylight factor The lowest daylight factor of the interior space is 2%. In order to pursue the aim, the size of window should be big enough but also not too large. If the size is too large, it will enhance the energy consumption for cooling because of overheating. Through Eco tech we can decide the window size precisely. Figure 1 shows the daylight factor of the initial design is 1.66%, which is lower than the minimum of 2%. The window of toilet is small and plant room has no window as well. After modification of the size of the toilet window and addition of another window on the plant room, the daylight factor of the cabin rise to 2.14% which we could see from Figure 2. As we can see form Figure 3, by considering the main room needs more light for working and living, I add a skylight on top of the cabin. In that case, the daylight factor has grown up to 3.13% which is a suitable figure for the cabin. 3

4 DaylightA n a lysis D aylight Factor Contour R ange: % In Steps of: 0.50 % ECO TECT v5 % Average Value: 1.66 % Visible N odes: 320 Figure 1 Daylight factor of initial design DaylightA n a lysis D aylight Factor Contour R ange: % In Steps of: 0.50 % ECO TECT v5 % Average Value: 2.14 % Visible N odes: 320 Figure 2 DaylightA n a lysis D a ylig ht F a cto r Contour R ange: % In Steps of: 0.50 % ECOTECT v5 Daylight factor after enlarging the windows % Average Value: 3.13 % Visible N odes: 320 Figure 3 Daylight factor after applying skylight 4

5 Analysis of the Sun path Because Aberdeen and Brighton is located in different places, the latitude of two sites are different as well as the altitude. The figures below show the sun altitude both summer and winter on each site. As we can see from the diagrams, the sun altitudes at two sites are very low in winter especially in Aberdeen. Figure 4 Sun altitude at 13:00 on 7 th Jan, Brighton Figure 5 Sun altitude at 13:00 on 11 th Aug, Brighton Figure 6 Sun altitude at 13:00 on 7 th Jan, Aberdeen Figure 7 Sun altitude at 13:00 on 11 th Aug, Aberdeen Figures below show the daylight analysis of Aberdeen in summer and winter. As we can see the skylight can help to enlarge the daylight in summer when the sun altitude is high. Figure 8 Daylight analysis at 12:00 on 7 th Jan, Aberdeen Figure 9 Daylight analysis at 12:00 on 11 th Aug, Aberdeen Thermal analysis Through the thermal analysis within Eco Tech, it is easier to reach the thermal comfort which is set to range from 18 C to 26 C. As we can see from the figures below, the temperature of the cabins is acceptable in hottest day and coldest day in both Aberdeen 5

6 and Brighton. Figure 10 Hourly temperature of hottest day in Brighton (Range from 19.6 C to 24.2 C inside) Figure 11 Hourly temperature of coldest day in Brighton (Keep in 18 C inside) 6

7 Figure 12 Monthly heating/cooling loads in Brighton Figure 13 Hourly temperature of hottest day in Aberdeen (Range from 18 C to 23.4 C inside) Figure 14 Hourly temperature of coldest day in Aberdeen (Keep in 18 C inside) 7

8 Figure 15 Monthly heating/cooling loads in Aberdeen Construction Because of the differences of the temperature between Aberdeen and Brighton, the materials of construction should be different, especially the external walls. In the Aberdeen s project, the ceiling is suspended concrete ceiling which is good for insulation in comparison to plaster insulation suspended ceiling in Brighton. Both the construction of window and floor are the same with concrete slab carpeted on groud (Floor) and double glazed low emission aluminum frame window. In terms of the wall construction, reverse brick veneer wall are used in Aberdeen and framed timer plaster wall are used in Brighton. Aberdeen Ceiling: suspended concrete ceiling Floor: concrete slab carpeted on ground 8

9 Window: double glazed low emission aluminum frame Wall: reverse brick veneer Brighton Ceiling: plaster insulation suspended Floor: same as Aberdeen 9

10 Window: same as Aberdeen Wall: frame timber plaster Potential energy sources Because Brighton is located in the southern England, it gets the potential of using the solar energy. Its potential hot water system could be roof solar collectors and wood pellet boiler. In terms of the heating system, I chose wood pellet boiler system using under floor heating. The roof solar collectors could be also used in cabin in Aberdeen. However, the energy of it could not be generated well. Moreover, the two sites could use PV solar panel and wind turbine to generate the energy for interior heating. Because the altitude of sun in Brighton is higher than Aberdeen, the site in Brighton get the potential to use underground heat pump for indoor heating. Figure 16 Daily energy use in Brighton 10

11 Figure 17 Daily energy use in Aberdeen 11

12 Envest report Aberdeen Building Details Building length 3 m Head Office Building width 7 m Air conditioned Plan depth N/A m Catering facilities Number of storeys 1 Percentage cellular space (0 if open plan) 10 % Storey height 3.0 m Operational life 30 yrs Ground floor 22 m 2 Roofs 22 m 2 Upper floors 0 m 2 Internal walls 7 m 2 External walls 43 m 2 Occupancy 7 m 2 /person Windows 18 m 2 Building Structure Ecopoints Whole Life Cost ( ) UValue External Wall 35 6,358 External Wall - Section 35 6, Outer Structural Skin 15 2,645 Brick 15 2,645 12

13 Inner Structural Skin 13 1,721 Block 13 1,721 Insulation Insulation Extruded Polystyrene Internal Finishes (First Layer) Internal Finishes (Second Layer) Internal Decoration Internal Wall Internal Wall - Section Wall Type Framed Standard Linings & Finishes (First Layer) 0 97 Internal Decoration 0 53 Ceilings Ceiling - Section Roof 20 2,977 Roof - Section 20 2,

14 Flat Roof 20 2,977 Building Frame ,054 Frame - Section ,054 Steel Frame ,054 Foundation Foundation - Section Deep Strip Concrete Type Window 23 6,195 Window - Section 23 6, Roof Light 0 0 Ground Floor 41 5,820 Ground Floor - Section 41 5, Structure In-situ Concrete Insulation Floor Deck Finish (First Layer) Floor Deck Finish (Second Layer) Covering 7 3,078 14

15 Upper Floor 0 0 Brighton Building Details Building length 3 m Head Office Building width 7 m Air conditioned Plan depth N/A m Catering facilities Number of storeys 1 Percentage cellular space (0 if open plan) 10 % Storey height 3.0 m Operational life 30 yrs Ground floor 22 m 2 Roofs 22 m 2 Upper floors 0 m 2 Internal walls 7 m 2 External walls 43 m 2 Occupancy 7 m 2 /person Windows 18 m 2 Building Structure Ecopoints Whole Life Cost ( ) UValue External Wall 12 5,643 External Wall - Section 12 5, Outer Structural Skin 3 1,286 15

16 Timber Stud 3 1,286 Boise BCI-Joist 3 1,286 Inner Structural Skin 5 2,571 Timber Stud 5 2,571 Insulation Insulation Glass Wool Internal Finishes (First Layer) Internal Finishes (Second Layer) Internal Decoration Internal Wall Internal Wall - Section Wall Type Framed Standard Linings & Finishes (First Layer) 0 97 Internal Decoration 0 53 Ceilings Ceiling - Section

17 Roof 20 2,977 Roof - Section 20 2, Flat Roof 20 2,977 Building Frame ,054 Frame - Section ,054 Steel Frame ,054 Foundation Foundation - Section Deep Strip Concrete Type Window 23 6,195 Window - Section 23 6, PVCu 23 6,195 Roof Light 0 0 Ground Floor 41 5,820 Ground Floor - Section 41 5, Covering 7 3,078 Structure In-situ Concrete

18 Insulation Floor Deck Finish (First Layer) Floor Deck Finish (Second Layer) Upper Floor 0 0 Comparison Embodied Vs Operational Embodied Vs Operational Whole Life Costs 18

19 Embodied Elemental Breakdown Embodied WLC Elemental Breakdown 19

20 Operational Elemental Breakdown Operational WLC Elemental Breakdown 20

21 Embodied Environmental Breakdown Aberdeen Brighton Climate Change (tonnes CO 2 eq. (100yr)) Acid Deposition (tonnes SO 2 eq.) Ozone Depletion (kg CFC 11 eq.) Human Toxicity Air (kg tox.) Ozone Creation (kg ethene eq.) Human Toxicity Water (kg tox.) Eco Toxicity Water (m 3 tox.) Eutrophication (kg PO 4 eq.) Fossil Fuel Depletion (tonnes of oil eq.) Minerals Extraction (tonnes) Water Extraction (m 3 ) Waste Disposal (tonnes)

22 Operational Environmental Breakdown Aberdeen Brighton Climate Change (tonnes CO 2 eq. (100yr)) Acid Deposition (tonnes SO 2 eq.) Ozone Depletion (kg CFC 11 eq.) Human Toxicity Air (kg tox.) Ozone Creation (kg ethene eq.) Human Toxicity Water (kg tox.) Eco Toxicity Water (m 3 tox.) Eutrophication (kg PO 4 eq.) Fossil Fuel Depletion (tonnes of oil eq.) Minerals Extraction (tonnes) Water Extraction (m 3 ) Waste Disposal (tonnes)

23 Ecopoints Environmental Breakdown Aberdeen Brighton Climate Change (tonnes CO 2 eq. (100yr)) Acid Deposition (tonnes SO 2 eq.) Ozone Depletion (kg CFC 11 eq.) Human Toxicity Air (kg tox.) Ozone Creation (kg ethene eq.) Human Toxicity Water (kg tox.) Eco Toxicity Water (m 3 tox.) Eutrophication (kg PO 4 eq.) Fossil Fuel Depletion (tonnes of oil eq.) Minerals Extraction (tonnes) Water Extraction (m 3 ) Waste Disposal (tonnes)

24 Services - Embodied & Operational Services WLC - Embodied & Operational 24

25 Services - Embodied Services WLC - Embodied 25

26 Services - Operational Services WLC - Operational 26

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