# ENGINE CHARACTERISTICS

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1 Internal Combustion Engines ENGINE CHARACTERISTICS Prof.Dr. Cem Soruşbay Istanbul Technical University Engine performance parameters are power, torque and specific fuel consumption. Brake torque is normally measured with a dynamometer engine is mounted on a test bed and the shaft is connected to the dynamometer rotor. The rotor is coupled electromagnetically, hydraulically or by mechanical friction to a stator, which is supported in low friction bearings. Torque exerted on the stator with the rotor turning is measured by balancing the stator with weights, springs or pneumatic means. The torque exerted by the engine is, T Fb The power delivered by engine is, product of torque and angular speed, P 2NT Brake power is P b 1

2 2

3 3

4 Indicated work per cycle Cylinder pressure data is used to calculate the work transfer from the gas to the piston cylinder pressure vs cylinder volume throughout the cycle gives p~v diagram. Indicated work per cycle W c,i is obtained by integrating around the curve to obtain the area enclosed on the diagram W c, i p dv Pumping work during gas exchange is substracted to obtain net indicated work per cycle. Mechanical efficiency Part of the gross indicated work per cycle or power is used to expel exhaust gases and to induct fresh charge. An additional portion is used to overcome the friction of bearings, pistons, and other mechanical components of the engine and to drive engine accessories. All these power req are called friction power, P f P ig P P b f Mechanical efficiency, P b m 1 Pig Pf P ig 4

5 Road load power P r 1 CRM vg 2 acd Av Sv Sv 2 C R Coefficient of rolling resistance, ( ) 3 M v Mass of vehicle g Accn due to gravity C D Drag coefficient ( ) 3 A v S v Frontal area of vehicle Vehicle speed Mean effective pressure P n work per cycle N R Where n R is the number of crank rev for each power stroke per cylinder Mean eff pressure is, pme P nr V N d For naturally aspirated SI-engines, kpa at engine speed for max torque ( around 3000 rpm), turbocharged SI engines, kpa. For CI-engines, kpa 5

6 6

8 Indicated power Forces acting on the piston, 2 Work done is D W pmi. S 4 P p mi D 4 2 Indicated power, for n [rpm] and 4-stroke engine 2 D Power z S 4 i p mi n 2 x 60 Power i zv h p mi n 2 x 60 8

9 Effective power P p me V H n 1 2 x 60 Power can be increased by incresing stroke volume (increasing cylinder diameter or stroke, number of cylinders), engine speed or mean effective pressure. Stroke volume increasing the stroke, inc mean piston speed, inc wear and reduces volumetric efficiency inc bore, inc cylinder temperatures inc number of cylinders, easy start up, better balacing, inc weight, inc engine length and vibrations 9

10 Engine speed reduces volumetric efficiency, inc inertia forces valves, inc cylinder temperatures, reduces time available for combustion (Diesel engines) Mean effective pressure advance technology required, inc of compression ratio requires wider wall thickness turbocharging Specific fuel consumption m f sfc P Low values of sfc are desirable, for SI-engines g/kw.h and for CI-engines, 200 g/kw.h 10

11 11

12 Engine map with lines of constant fuel consumption 12

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