Welcome to Quantum Mechanics

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1 Welcome to Quantum Mechanics The most important fundamental laws and facts have all been discovered, and these are so firmly established that the possibility of their ever being supplanted in consequence of new discoveries is exceedingly remote.... Our future discoveries must be looked for in the sixth place of decimals. Albert A. Michelson (1894) p.1/1

2 Welcome to Quantum Mechanics The most important fundamental laws and facts have all been discovered, and these are so firmly established that the possibility of their ever being supplanted in consequence of new discoveries is exceedingly remote.... Our future discoveries must be looked for in the sixth place of decimals. Albert A. Michelson (1894) I cannot seriously believe in the quantum theory... Albert Einstein p.1/1

3 Welcome to Quantum Mechanics The most important fundamental laws and facts have all been discovered, and these are so firmly established that the possibility of their ever being supplanted in consequence of new discoveries is exceedingly remote.... Our future discoveries must be looked for in the sixth place of decimals. Albert A. Michelson (1894) I cannot seriously believe in the quantum theory... Albert Einstein The more success the quantum theory has the sillier it looks. Albert Einstein p.1/1

4 Welcome to Quantum Mechanics The most important fundamental laws and facts have all been discovered, and these are so firmly established that the possibility of their ever being supplanted in consequence of new discoveries is exceedingly remote.... Our future discoveries must be looked for in the sixth place of decimals. Albert A. Michelson (1894) I cannot seriously believe in the quantum theory... Albert Einstein The more success the quantum theory has the sillier it looks. Albert Einstein p.1/1

5 The Physics 309 Approach 1. Start with a detector and take some data. 2. Develop the quantum program. 3. Apply the quantum program. 4. What are the classical alternatives? My detector. p.2/1

6 The Physics 309 Approach 1. Start with a detector and take some data. 2. Develop the quantum program. 3. Apply the quantum program. 4. What are the classical alternatives? A LT My detector. CLAS, 2.6 GeV 2 H(e,e p)n Helicity asymmetry My data p (GeV/c) :59:24 m p.2/1

7 The Spectral Lines Problem A toy atom. p.3/1

8 The Spectral Lines Problem A toy atom. p.3/1

9 The Specific Heat Freezeout 1. The Specific Heat Q = mc T = nc V T for gas in a fixed volume. 2. The Kinetic Model of Ideal Gases (a) The gas consists of a large number of small, mobile particles and their average separation is large. (b) The particles obey Newton s Laws, but their motion can be described statistically. (c) The particles collisions are elastic. (d) The inter-particle forces are small until they collide. (e) The gas is pure. (f) The gas is in thermal equilibrium with the container walls. p.4/1

10 The Data p.5/1

11 The Specific Heat Freeze-out of H 2 p.6/1

12 Blackbody Radiation A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence. In thermal equilibrium (at a constant temperature) it emits electromagnetic radiation called black-body radiation with two notable properties. 1. It is an ideal emitter: it emits as much or more energy at every frequency than any other body at the same temperature. 2. It is a diffuse emitter: the energy is radiated isotropically, independent of direction. p.7/1

13 Measuring The Blackbody Radiation Visible light λ nm Frequency Measured by Lummer and Pringsheim (1899). R T (ν)dν = energy time-area in the range ν ν + dν p.8/1

14 The Ultraviolet Catastrophe Rayleigh-Jeans Law u(ν)dν = 8π c 3 k BTν 2 dν in the range ν ν + dν T - temperature. k B - Boltzmann constant. p.9/1

15 Planck s Guess - the Boltzmann Distribution ΕP Ε Ε p.10/1

16 Planck s Guess - Do a Riemannian Sum ΕP Ε Ε p.11/1

17 Planck s Guess - Do a Riemannian Sum (low ν) ΕP Ε Ε p.12/1

18 Planck s Guess - Do a Riemannian Sum (high ν) ΕP Ε Ε p.13/1

19 Planck s Guess - Do a Riemannian Sum (high ν) ΕP Ε Ε p.14/1

20 Planck s Guess - Do a Riemannian Sum (higher ν) ΕP Ε Ε p.15/1

21 The Ultraviolet Catastrophe Rayleigh-Jeans Law u(ν)dν = 8π c 3 ktν2 dν T - temperature. in the range ν ν + dν k - Boltzmann constant. p.16/1

22 The Blackbody Radiation Scan of first showing of the COBE measurement of cosmic microwave background radiation at the American Astronomical Society meeting in January, p.17/1

23 The Blackbody Radiation COBE measurement of the cosmic microwave background radiation from J.C Mather et al., Astrophysical Journal 354, L37-40 (1990). p.18/1

- the total energy of the system is found by summing up (integrating) over all particles n(ε) at different energies ε

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