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1 REVIEW OF LI'TERATUNE In 5r!d r gton5 the accumulation of salrs in the 5oi1 p.orrle te a llniting factor for the ploductiviry of irrigared a9!lculru.e. Lo,!ainlall accomnied by h19h evapot!an6p!ra!ton the leaching of solubte saits. nhen soluble salrs accunurate in rhe soil, a palr of the calctun and nagnesiln nay precrpitate as calciun carbo.ate! calciun surpha!e and/o! magnesiun silicate, caueilg an increas. ir the N!': tca. M9,.atio or rhe soi1 3olution. Because of rhe <tynanic equitlbriun berveen solurion cations add those on the exchanqe conpl x, rore sodlun!s adsorbed by soil colloids. As a lesule, saline sotrs are converred to sal!ne_ sodic soils. rhe r!ceralure available on rhe subject of reclanallon ot these soils is fairly extensive and is reviewed to th6 extenr nee.led to highlighe Lhe various aspec!5 of Lhe process p r.inenr ro che pulposes of rhe preseot lnvgsriqations,,irh parlicula! enphasis on recent stud ies. InprovenenL of sorl lnfrltrarron/hvdlauirc conduclrvrrv Durlng $e proce6s of leclanalion o! sodic.nd saline- sodj,c soil., the ain Is to supply soluble catciun fo! reprlcins adaorbed Eodiun. However, the rat of passage ol qood-quality wate! Lhtough lhe.e soils ofren becore3 a 1ii1tlng f.ctor because of lhe presence o! a ilen.e or hard rayer In the.ubeoil. a<tequate r chenical synbots rhis dlsse!rat10n actually plesenl te have been useal lhroughout reallzed bh.l Ehe elements a.4 soii solution and on!h soil

2 5 rare of sarer Penerralion along prlne rnporrance fo. successful or the need for,ith a deep rale. Lable is of rectamtion of saline-sodic Na-Ca exchange and Na rehovai!o rd o!de! ro mailrain and ev n ro increase che hydraulic conducrlvity of sodlc so!ls, lhe use of high_.alt earels havihq high divalenr ro nonovate.r carion ratios hab been found useful lquirk and schofield, 1955; xcneat and coreen? 1966, Reeve and Doerils, 1966, and r,ruhamned 9! 9f., 1969a). These authots concluded Lhd! it should be possible ro hainrai. Lhe hydraulic conducliviry or a soil, ilrespecrive of Na-saturarion, b! usinq su!!i.!enely salr 6olurion o! by addition of gypsun to apptied irligation raler. o3te! (19321 found increased!.rrltrarion rate folto'ing soit applicalion of gyp.un wnen tne rrrlgarion water had a lo, elecrrolyre concentration. Hoeerer, van,schaik 11967) <lid not suppo.r ulese conclusion6.egardrng favourabte response to the addlcion of gypsun ro ilriqation eare! in older ro naincaln the hydraulic conductivity of nany sodic soits. Even sone gypstferous soils may have vefy lor hydraulic conducrivily when the soit ESpi is qreate! rhan lo-35. The diffelences observed nay be due to (r) diffelenr Lypes and anountb of doninanr clay nrnerals in rhe soils studi d, and t2) rne aceuar rate of disso_ lutlon oi gyp.un in applied ilrigalton of insulficient beleeen gypsu[ and 6oil sarer, usuatly only about 15 ne/l ot gypsun is dissolved conpaled to 30 re/t for sarulared solu!ione tn distitted kaler (u.s. satinr.y laboraeory staff, 19r4, a.d Quirk and schof.lerd, 1955).. See be lisr of chemical synbols and.bbreviarions

3 6 As an altetnattve to inproving soil perneability and.eclanation of salt-affecc d soils, subsoiling/ deep ploughing r.. horizon mixinq with and rithou! reuenlion of the Ap hdtizon at the soil surface were tesied by Rasoussen and othels under taboralory as rell.s field coddirions. Rasnussen et al. {196{ ) and Rasmusseh & I9?3), in a seties of experinenrs on the Ch!lcolt-Sebree lsimoam to cley loan) and the Nyssa-MaIheur lsilt loam) slick 3por soil conplexes,fou.d that a sibqte deep ploughtng (to cn) econonically inprowed these catcareous sodic so!ls borh physlcally and chemically. subsoitlng (to 40-I05 chj or gyplun application (I0-22 tols/acie) could not rectair these soils nuch belo, the plough layer/ an<l che conbined treatnent of sub<orlrnq plus qypsur yield.d.omparable resul;s.,rhese resulrs i.dicare rhat deep ploughing disllj,bured the soit tine and gypsum. rhich brouqht about reclanarion. For the sane sebree-chilcort solls sith silt loafr surface and silty cl5y loan B horizon (a gystferou6 slick spott. Pair and leris I19601, lnder fietd condttions, found tha! nlxtng of the A, B and C hori zone to a depth of 120 cm increased the eare! lllake rate from Lo 1.01 c[/h!. Use of 10 and 20 tons ot gypsun/acre idcleased the rat flon 0,025 ro 0.25 a.d 0.55 cn/hr, r specrively. sludies by obreianu s! el- l1rt0l indtcaled rhat deep.ub6oilin9 Lo a ilepth of cn in order to d stloy the colunnar-.tructuleil horizon of a solonetzic solr,,as vely succes.ful for incxeasinq 5oi1 aeration,,ater and crop roor pedetlation and the leaching of laptdly eo deeper soil layers. Cohbinarion of gypsun eith subsoiling sas exrremely effective/ wlth tesldusl offect of gypsuh persisting

4 ror as 1on9 as r0 years under plactlces on a valrery of soi mo<lerate soi] and crop nanagement To evaluate lhe nutritron.t effecrs of deep plouqhing and norjzon mixinq? c:ir.s t1970r 197!.& 1975) carried our laboratory and field Erudies on sitr loan/toan saline-sodic soils and concluded thar inprove rhe avaitabilit! of N, pr x, c6, zn and!o ro crops, Lh-.eDy cneli;.a' Ln9 the 3o_ls.hemrcally as ketl a6 physically. similar conctu.ions regardlnq rhe p and l( arailability duriog reclanation of soils were drawn by Ahmad lrgsjl and luhammed (1984) uniter narive conditions. - Accordins ro chaudh,y ee!1. {1:g?' r 20 cn deep li}lage failed to reclaln a sattne-6odic clay loan soll (ECe x to3, 4.4 _ r0.0r SAA for O - lo cn soit) to any consideribte exeent, though MaIcoln (1982) leporled uhar 55 cn deep ploughlnq of d varieey of salrne-sodic soits having rrme or gypsuo rayers rn the subsoil sas a successfut helhod for reclahation.nd for rncreasrng 5oi I perneabilily, alchough 6omerha! expenslve. subsoiling atone pro.luced niaed resultg, fron no effecrs to srgnificanrly ihproved infilrrarionr but good results lhen lollowett by qyupsum appticalion. In addttion,for inp.ovinq soil perreability, apptication of olganic nateiial. like tah ya!<l nanure or green franure crops has been folnd usefut t8o,er et.l., 1951, Shad and iashhi,!9?0, Mona Reclanation E:pelinentat plojecr, r972; nubahned and l(haliq, 1e75' chand 9! 9f., t9?.7; chaudhry er a l., 1932). Imorovenen- ol cherical characrer!srrc5 chotce of reclanation nethod depends upon the specific

5 8 chara!-tertstics of the aatr-affected 6o1ls, deailed rare of replacenent of exchahgeabte sodiuo, cost and avlitability of amendnenrs. The reclanation of sodic and saline-sodlc soils is no.e difficule, tine-consunibq and expensive rhan rhal of sat in; soils. the lectanation oi such solts invotved nor odly lhe reachlng of soluble sates and the reptacenent of exchangeable sodium, but atso the inprovemenr of the!! physlcat properries. The atrehpced reclam:tion of saline-sodic and sodic soils wirhou! tlle application of chenical amendnenes is a sasre of uate!, ehich already is in short supply unde! rhe prevaillng aqroclimattc conditlons o! patisean.?ro nosr difficutt facers of tne recl.nalion the plovisio. of a cheap source of soluble calcium for the leplacenent of exchangeabte sodiuf,, and movement of warer rhrough rhe 6oil ln order ro lcconplish le:chirs. bne reason rhy gypsum has become a popular amendme^l in Pakistan i3 its l.cal availabiliry. the lesource. of gypsun,ock in the counhy are esllnaeed to be abour 3.5 billiod tons tnalional Fertirlzer corporarion, To evaluare tbe inportance of gypsum as an anendnenr for sart-affecled soils, lihited kork has been done locally ubder field conditlons. Sone laboratory erperihenrs havp, horever, sho{n irs urrtrly, and consrd.rable woit has Deen -arried out!n orhe! counlrres ro deiern-ne oplrrun doses and reslleant!esporse by difaerent crops. Sha<t and Hashnr sandy cl6y loan field 47.6 and phs = reclaintng a 6alire-sodic LOI = r EsP : cn depth, found lhe descending

6 9 order of effectivenes6 ol v6rlous amendments Lo be gypsum>sutphulic ac:d>sulph rr>>pressnrd :>iarr yald ranure after two y.ars or r_e d experrmenrarron ehele alrernare froodj,n9 and p1ou9ir9!as pracrised, 7. d i! c-i, lt953l conpared addrllon of 5 and 2 ron6 qyp5r0 psr a..e (estimared fron sar) and 20 Lons farm yard nanure/acre with srnple leachinq tith canal waeer (Ec x ro3 = O.lO) under field co.dicions folrokirg rhe cutriva:ion of coa!se-grained rice, berseem/ whaat, coalse-qlained rlce and {hea! crops. Resutrs afrer!^) years lndrcaled Lrat nanjre wateiaecrrve as gypsuf for tt^e reclanation of a saline-sodlc.tr, a". "or, of clop yields. During eheat qlorrh there ra3 some accufrulalion or salts in the surface laye!. Horever, ir ras concluded rhar the rare of reclanatio. a.d rhe incone increased considerabry with rte use of gypsutr or of manule corpared Lo sinple leaching, *91_fsIe-r9r the nond ReclaadLion Experrnenral P.oi.ct {to72l lnprovenenr afplied 20 tons farn yard ianure/.cre and gypsum a[ rhe rale of 50 and LOoi of the gypsun requirenen! {esetnaeed flon CEC by assuninq 100i saturation eith Na) during culeival1on of a rice - berseen - rtce - wheat rotation ',hich uas illigaled rith saline tubewell waa!s IEC x lo and 1.4rSAa " 7.8 and s.7, RSC = O.O and 3.r). Thet concluded lhat this silt loah, gypsiferous, hlghly saline-sodic soil (ECe x l0-> 50,0; SAR ' ) could be reclaimed by simple leachlng o! by gloring h19h-{ater-!equirerent crofs. Irrespectlve of the t!ea!hen!6 used, decrease tn Ec and SAR r A ]raste produ.t fron suga! fa.lorieg ustng flcatlon.lt contatns abour c.rdonatlon process?oc CaCO3, 9l organic

7 10 _of the soils sa5 fast initially, but decr ased dth time and soil depth. Th y observed faln yard hanure Lo be the nosr econonlcal of all treatnents. *hich seemed Lo be due ro the gypsiferous nature of the 6oi1. OurlDg a pot-cullure study involving conparison of chemlc:l and bioloqical nerhods, iuhammed {r972) found that the time lequiied!o! reclaimlnq salihe-sodic loan a.d sandy loan soils having rce x l0- = 48.0 and 19.0, EsP = 62.5 and and phs = 3.4 and 3.!/ respecllvely, by adding gypsuh. loot of lhe sypsue lequirement (cr) follo{eal by leachins arth canal {ater IEC x 10' = 0.1) las nuch 6holter ulan for bioloqtcal rethods. there uas an inctease id hydraulic conductivity, ln xchangeable as well as soluble ca + t{9, and a decrease in exchangeable Na and I(. fre lj,fte, ph5, Ec and sar sith gypsun appli.ation. In another labolatory experinent, xuhamfred and Khaliq (1975) observed that gypeqo treaeaent at the rale of 1c0t of the 9yps-n:eqLi-enen. Eook lees rlne for p"66r19 I2O cr eater through loam and clay loah sarine-sodic soils {EsP ' 65.8 and 50.5, ECe x L0' = 22.1 and I0.?, re6pectively) tllan did sulphur treatrcna, whil r clanat.j,on efflciency of all ahendnencs decrcase<l ui!h increasing deplh, Overall, the recldoatron effic!ency of the anendmerts eas in tbe descending olater: sulphu! + faln yard Mnule> gypsun + faln yald nanule>6urphur>gypsuh>p!e.3rud ' far$ yald h5nue>farn yald nanule>pre65nud>3ihp1e leachlng., chaudhry et al. {fl3al compared orsanic and inorqanlc amendhente for reclaioing a.a11ne-.odic clay loan field (Ece x 103 = ro.or sar = 4l.o - t05.2 for o - l0 cn sorr, and

8 reported that applicatlon of gypsun. toot ot rhe gypsun requlrenenr in conbinatj,on *1rh 20 tons farm yard nanure/acre i.cleased infiltlation rate and decreaeed p8s,and thar sutphur - 50i of the gypsun r quirement along uilh 20 Lons falm yard nandre pe: acre decreased EC a.al SAR considelably, However, deep tillage (to 20 cn) and culliv.rj,on or EEI-e.g.h.!S frer.ould not reclaih the soit, They obselved 6!.pid decrease in Ec and sar in the early stages oi erpe!isenra!ion for high-rale!-requifenent crops lrke rtce and be.seen. As expecred, elfectiveness decreased riih inclea6in9 soil depth. Chenical amendnenrs have shorn difte.ene effectiveness in lsclaining sall-affecled sotls. Chand 9! q!. tr9?7) applied qypsun, sulphuric acid, nitric aci<t, aluniniuft sutphaler fer.ous sulphate, tarf yard ranu.e aod pressnld for. claiminq sandy loan saline-sodic soil ipltr.2 ' ; EsP,39-91) in. rield expe!rnent. They observed Mxinun rectanarion uirh atuminiun sulphnt. nc.rly simi lrr soi I lrprovcm!.nr,ith khen applled at equivaleni ratesrfottowed by nirric acid and fertr us,:"lphate, but little reclamalio! fron fa!n yard na!u!e and pressm!d. rrather et a]. (1973), in a tabor.to!y expe!inenr, nainrained rha! sulphulic acid {as superior ro gypeuir lor reclaining lhe A!lington sill loam (Ec. x 10- : 31.5, lsp. 72) ald the I{aukena silty clay iece x ,2r EsP - 75) saline-bodic 60lls. Cohbined appltcation of sulpluric acid and gyfsln? or of calciun chl.rlde and gypsun (in proportions of 1/4 and l/4,.espectivelyr, appreciably reduced the reaching titre needed to achieve reclanation conpaled to qypsun rrevrsed botanical nane is Leptochloa fueca {Boorh, 1931)

9 alone. Reclamtion of loan sodic 50iI. (EsP = 37,.6-95.?) 'irh clay loan subsoil las 4 tlnes hole eflective eith gypsun than aith pyrire contarninq 3l.ll sulphu! {hen nonsodic wel} warer havlng an lc of 0.63 mmhos/cm was used in rhe fietd lverha and Abrol, Ghafsor (1930) obserred that application of H2SO4, gct, HNol and qypsu ' eqr!vcten! Eo?t and IOOi of!fe CR- fol ored o/ leachins eilh 120 cn canal wa!e! lec x 1ol, o.30) reduced Ec Lo safe levels i! a pot sruaty. EsP and srr "ere.educed ro less tban 15 (ith both tbe rates of mtneral acids but {e!e stighlly hiqber than r:his linlt rith the lore! rate of gypsum applicatioh. stnple reaching fatled ro lorer rhe EsP and sar v.lues of highry salinesudjc.i.y loan soil iece x I0- = 64.6; EsP = None or lhe ane.dmeils could inprove lhe hydraulic conductivity of che soil froh to 0.10 cm/hrr the s.fe limie suggested by rhe 0-s.salinity Laboratory staff 11954t. In fact, thele was a stight decrease in the control Pols. A naxinun tine of 225 days ras leeded by the contro! to pass 1lO cn eater. This was folloued in orl!r b/ ri\ol, ovpsur drd ledsl '94 dayer by lt2so4 to pass ru0 cn of *ater through 36 cm long soil coluf,ns. He concluded tha! acids equivalenr ro 7st GR appric;tlon proved slnlrar to the 1oo3 GR application of gypsun Ior reclaiming!his saline-sodic soii. Application of gypsun by leaching with 120 and 90 reclained a highly sodic s et 91., r969b). Khosra ee g!. GA = Cypsum Requirenen..{ 75 and 1001 of the GR follored.anal rauer, respectively, to Lh saf,e extent l uhahned apptied qypsu0 (50 and loor

10 !3 of rhe Gn) and nixed rirh 10, 20, l0 cfr depths of soil, followed by cultivation o! barley,.ice and eheat in succession o! a st.ongly.aline-sodlc soil havinq Eandy loan sulface, sllt loan at 1t-30 ch and clcy loan Deto, rec. x lo' nd I0.lr SAF = 3o a.d 226 respective I y. tof che 0 - t5 and ls - l0 cfr soil depths). The resulrs proved thalr for shallow-rooted clops, nixing of gvpeun uith a 10 cn surface t.y r was betier in improving Ehe soil Phyeicochenically, Irrespective of initial soii tteathent, the rice clop shored a siqniticane eflect flon lorerinq the ph and Ec of Ehis soil. sinil.rly Pa!et 9! qf. (1930) found LhaL.ice - wh ar -!lce rolalion of crops improved!h oniar satine-5odic soir (Ece 103-2l-lor EsP = wlihin I seasons,,hereas gyp5un increased lhe yietd of only the 3rd crop (ricel,!rh little effecr on earlie! crops of rtce and eheat. They also found bette! perrorf,ance of qypsun application al 50 and T5rof Lhe GR rhrn,t 35 and r0ooi the cr for reclainjng a strongly calcareous (4-l0t caco3l fredlun-teitured soil. Allora and singh (1981) conducted a labolatory study on the satine-sodlc Jaqjitpur loan soil (ph. 10.0, EsP , Ece x lol - 9.4'. That soil rhich passed Ehrougb a 2 0n sieve ra6 Packed!n 32 cfr lodg by 5.7.n dianeter coluons to a height of 30 c[, at a unifoln bulk density of 1.35 g/cc, they spread a slug of CaCl2 on ihe soll surface (cacl2' equivalent to exchanqeable Na 1n the,hole lo-cn long,soil colum, was diesolved,a!er). A6 soon as the slu9 disappeared into th soil, the coluhns {ere }erched {ith t0 nl of distilled wate! by elthet: (al wat6r ponded at th surface eith heait of 2 cn,. or (b) water apptied at the rate of 0.57 and 0.08 cm/br i. ord, r Io

11 lej.h tlrc col!ftns under unsatur.red condirions. '0nc sarc qua.r.rry of CaCl2 ea dis3olved in a qu.nrily of w!te! qu.l to ro cn and applied ar the col!nn surface lsoiueio. apelicario.)by: la) ponding al rbe surface ehil Mlntaining a head oa 2 cn. or (b) applied ai rale3 0f either r 0.Il cm/hr. rhe resulrs lndicaled rhat carer appllcaelon a! Ioder rares transporued the sodlui deeper regardless of Lhe hethod of ca apglicaeior. the deprh ro rhich soil,as leclaired lith the ca-slug increased fron 13.0 co Is.5 cfr v:1en rhe l achrng laee {as leduced from 2,2M O.os cn/hr. solutlon noved only to II.0 ro 14.o cfi rhen tne leachlhq rare,a5 r duced from 1.29 to 0.11 cn/h!, to cof vich Lhe problem3 of salr-affecled soils Rhoades l1982l lecotrn nded the use of gypsun havingarange in particle size lthough rilh all passed through a 6 no 3ievel in order Eo.k-hi.v su3rained di.solulion ahd to avoid dissolurio. redu.irior due to formation ol caco3 coatins3 o. the sulaaces of gypsun 9rains. oeep rillage/plolghins nay be ueeful for scralified gypsiferous saline- odic soils in order to increase or maintain rheir perrcabiliey and quicken reclaratlon. Theoreiical evaluatlon of sodic soil reclahdtion {oster and FlenkeIrI9S0,, aseuning equilibriun chehistry and piston movemenr of sotl solurion. indlcated rhac the effeceive olubilicy of gypsun uhe. nixed rilb 6odic aoil tncreased becau6e Ehe exchanger pha.e acts as sinl tor calciun until boeh the gypeue dissolution and exchanqe reactiotr6 leach equtlibrlut. the electric.i conductivity o! the soil Eolutlon in equilibrtun uith both qyp3uo and an ex.banqeable sodiur fraction oa 0.00 and 0.43 was 2.3 and

12 I5 1.1,0 JS/'n (nmhos/cml. Thus, mixinq gypsum into soil hastene reclaratio. and provrdes a hrgher solution """"".,r"ar.^r"..'.. nnintenance or if,provenent of soil hydraulic conductivity. of gypsun dissolved, exp! ssed in equivalenes of chalqe,,as a lioear func!lon of!h equivalen6of exchangeable sodiun repraced, qlrh r'valres (ypica.1 exceedlaq 0.o3. The slope of rna reqlession tine decreased!i.th increasing final exchangeable sodium fraclion. Typical values rele 1,40, r.27 and r.20 moles of chaige of gypsum di6eolved per note of erchangeable sodium replaced at iinal exchangeable sodiun fractlons of 0.05, 0.10 and The iiclusion of line equiltbriur reduced these slopes by 3, 6 and 9i for P.n values of 1.4 and 10 (Pa 11, 4 and rot co2)- Hebce, thev concluded that gyupsun requirements for calcareous sodic sotls based on quantitative replacenent of e*chanseable sodiun should be increased by laceors of 1.1 to 1 3, depe.dinq on the deslred final Ievels of exchangeable sodium. similarlv, as a general rule, rl was 5ugge6ted earrierw lhe 0.s.sa1inity laboratorv staff (1954t Ehat ihe rate of gypsum and sulphur applicaeion be hultiplied bv lhe factor 1.25 in order to conpensaee fo! the lack of quanlitai.ive replaceflent of ldsorbed sodiun by calclur nade avartable through lhe dissotution of gvpsum. l. 6un rn s.1t-affected soils!xpe.inental resutts fron the leclanation of saline-sodic soils (Ablol, 1902) have 6horn tlel lhe n thod of schoonover ove!-estimates the cr of 5oils. For acceptable lice abd eheat ylelds onty th o - L5 cn 6oit Iavet needs to be reclained' fo!,hich H2so4r gypsur and Al2lso4)l all,ork satislactorilv ehen

13 rtirrlie'l equivarenr to 50i of rhe gypsum requiremenr for a va.iely of soils. This vieq of rhe effecliveness of gypsum equivalent to 50r or lrre cr 'as dlso supporred bt redtcy e! at. (j9s0), Hira l5 9! el ) and singh et al. (t9gr). They observed up ro a 1o-fold increase in the digsolurio. of 9yp6uh rilh increasing soit ESP, SAR and Na contene6, compared co tha! in disti]ted water. Elgabaly li9?0) dld.ot agree {!rh rhis hyporhesi5, report d, on the basis of res arch results in East countlies, rhat qyp6um solubility is leduced in rhe p of soita due to plecipieation of CaCOJ and get filns on lhe surface of gypsun pareicles.0nder subnerged 6ditiorc gyps be reduced to sulphj& as Dell.Anaerobic reductton of SO4 enphasized by starkey (19661 and by 9rhttlig and Janitzky anount of fornation of col was obser fidld conditions- trlgab.ly (19701 postutated thal rhe gyps effect nay last indefihitely lf no uprard movehe.t of mine *at r in soil takes ptace. In the case of upwald movenent o quallty qround{ater, howeve!, as 1s rhe case in alid/semi legions, addition of gypsum may becohe.ecessary aqain art approxinately f ive years. (rncreasing of Lhe EsP flom 0 uo 94 sisnifica.ely in qypsun dis6olution per unlr of {aler applied to 10 cm long of 5 cn dianetei having a bulk denet!y of 1.50 g/cc (Hira 1930). SolubiliLy of applied gypsun increased fron 0.4 Eo wrth incleasing fineness of gypsui lf.oo 2.0 to 0-1 En, an Lhe sane tine precipilation of gypsur.s Cacot increased. 14 cn of eaeer dissolweit all gypstrn of Iess than 0.26 m s

14 L1 applied at a rate of 12.4 tons/ha (tor GRl. rbev obselved a hiqbly eignificant correlattor l! = 0.93) and regression equatton of the fo!fr: per cent gypsun sotubllltv ' O.ls + O.0!36 ESP. cou.se gr.des blought qrcate. lnprovenenl in the su.face It cn layer unde! field conditions fo! the Haiboral silt loan sodic sorl having Ec!.2 x dnd esp ' sinilcrly stngh 9l.l tr93l) Ioubd!ha! cn waler applied to saline_sodic fields dissolved 9.0-1i,.2 tons gypsum/ha wh n 85t of Lhe porder wes of :bout loo nesh s!ze- Hoveve!, I - 30 fresh gvpsum applicallon al the rate of 25-50! of the GR ju6t prior uo rice ltansplantlnq wag vely efllc!en!.tnclusion of S!:Edg aculeala sre n nanurins in cropping sequenc; for qvpsun receiving fields not onlv expedited rbe reclahstlon Process bue also substitut d 50 _ 30 kg nterogen per heceale ror rice crop. ) eith adequale Ac.ordinq to Hoffman and rever {1982) ' dlainage, about Tor of the inieial 65lus presene in fineterrured solls courd be removed by continuoue pondi.q if the depth ol waler leaching thtough tne plofile equals the depth of soil ro be reclaimed. one Lhi.d lees Hat.r would be lequlled for the3e soils il application vas oad by intetmittene Ponding o! sprinkltng. sinilar viers have been expressed by Rhoade ) and Biesler g! el. t19s2'. Eco^onlcs nornaltt dictates theose of an inexpenslve amendnent in conjunction wi!h leachinc and posslble deep titlaqe t.o reclaim sodic!0115, or a conblnation of anendeents for other soils to suit the slte-6peciftc needs' In general, salioe-3odlc soli3 for the iapid and cononical rcclaratlon of, application of a suihbre conlalning

15 .al.iun or the one that rould rele.se the nafive soil calciun is necpssa,y. sj-n arcndnents alone or rf conbrnatron ur-n or9.n,. rfl'.ndnents (e.q. prcssmud, larm yard man!re, 9r.ren mdnurel, physical soil treatments {e.9. subsoil!nq, deep ploughing/ horizon, mixrngl or along with high-salr {afer lhavinq high iatio of divalenr to monovalenr cationsl should Frovid sufficlert calciun in the soil solutron not only to facilitaee lhe Na-ca exchang arso for the naintenance of a good pelheabiliey/infillration. iivpsum apprtcat!on has been fou.d economical for reclaininq..a.r..r...unoncalcareoussodiun-affected ehenapprled rnd ntxed into a shallo{ soil depth (r0 cn) at tates less than 1001 of rhe GR, follosed by lhe direct rlce cultivation, i.e. a highr.ter-requllenent crop. But on the basis ol the chenislrv of calcareous saline-sodic soi15 during leclanation, it has been suqqested!ha! rhe rate of gypsun applicalion Lo a soil be t.creased by a facror cf 1.1!o L.l of the GR dependinq upon tbe desired level of the flnal EsP,Relatively lower!a!es of soneuhat coalser qlades of gypsum application (though tlth a rang in particle sl?el may *ork salisfaclorily in most of lhe cases. Thrs mav be true parllcularty,ith rice cultule {he! flooded condllions {biqh?co2 and leaching of salrs), and ambien! high EehPelature will increase the dissolotion of sypsum and soil lif,e. In addition, the nineral wearhertoq may help maintaln uhe 6oil lnllltration throuqh!eleasinq Lhe carions in soil solullon. However, the efflclencv of rate!- applied gypstn fot an lioraeing ihe saline-sodtc soils aod iaters renains inconcrusrve- II I

16 /\r'rriclrton or rhe.n ndrenrs lit cacl2,..id6 or acid rormere, al relarively lower rates lhan gypsun,could be nore efficienl lhah gypsun for inprovinq hydrautlc conducrlvity, and t!:us recl.ini.g the calc6!.ous.aline-3odic.oit.. Bur their availabiliey, co3l,.nd hanalidg of aciite ae Helt a6 equiprenr. lor thetr application are the n.jor constraints Io! rheir u6e tor soil conbln6d applicalion of gyp.on and a readity sollble cllctuh soulc. My provide ellective r.clrmtion ar rhe loeesr cost. 19 N vertheless, becauge of the div6lse nrrure of the physicochetricsl ploperlles ol Ehe s.lr-affected eoil., il <loes noe seen feaslbl. to re.omend a sitgl leclamtlon proc.dure udite. all che eituatiotre but slte-speci!tc cohbidelations ar6.3senttat!o! the tuse econontc resutes. B. Cror OrriE rhe R.cl.naEion of s.lipe-sodlc soil3 The Judlc1ou6 s lectl,on of crope that cad proiluce slttsf.ctoly yrelds under unho6pirable soil conditions dullng tir. iditial scages ol i5 vltal. sorl Ealinity trry reduce clop yj,elds by up3etting the uate! and nuerilionll baladce of plante.,hile sodiclty aftect. planr q!o{!h by ileleriorating the physic.r condition of the soil nainty or by up6etrin9 rhe nutlttlonal balance. rn general, loeeling the eoil ph toralds 7.0 inclease6. ihe solubiliry/ avallabillry of P, F. cu. 2n ldd r{n orlginally preaenr ln th 5oi1.s rell.3 that applied through fe!tlllz6!., How ver, the elfecls ot ph and perc.nt.ge ol soll rtrc on the uptate ol the3e el.nents and ctop growth al6o ilepend od!a!e antl Ethod of leltilizet appliclrlonr soil properltee and crop specl s groh.

17 20 ). crop q'osrn dnd phvsrcal amelioralion crowi.g oi high-'ater-requirfrent crops is helpfut for reclaimrng soljn,-sodrc soil5, Alfdlfa interseede; {irh small gtarn crops such as vheat and balley produced compatable vaelds oo deep plolqhed (to cm). subsoited (crosstise 40_70 cm deep and 55 cm apart) and subsoiled Plus qypsum 13_16 tons/ha) treat d prots (Rashussen!! al..l964 e 1912t RasnuEsen' 1971J. Pteciston rand levelling Iollo{ed by rice cullivallon proved to be the mosl effeclite farn-leve1 approach. DeeP row chisellins (elfecls of whlch f,ay last for 4 cropping years) and deep Ploughing/sul'soiling t40 co deepl along rilh gypsun applica.ion at the rare of 100r of the GR nay have residual effects an ctop Production for about 10 years (obrejanu:! 41., 1970). Lav.do and cairns (1931) got best yields of iheat, barlev and oats by nixinq Lhe A, ; and C soil horizo.s in cohbination vrtf gypsun application equivalent to t00l ol the GR for solonotizlc sorls ndvlrg 2J." ro 47.6r cld) in Ehe Ap 0nL 'nd cek horizons' A single deep ploughing Produced conparable vields of these ctops fo! ma.y years. ln fi ld xpe!inenrs or alfalfa, cairns li97l) observed bette. availabilirv of N, P, l(, ca,c!, zn and t'{9, and thus increased c.op production on lhe Daugh silt loam and the (avanagn to.n soloneazi. soils fotloving! single deep plouqhing Lo a deprh 'r qate! and so!i salinitv/so'lrcrl get the betefits ot dilution, Hiqh-Hater-requrrement crope uh!ie sart-tolerant crops enlov tne facilicy ot their naeurar nechalisms as vell as lhe adaplive rechanis. of satt toterance

18 ZT lhen Pranted in a saline edtironfrent. rlowever, sone nanagehent prdcti.es.ar help lhe crops to Perfo.n even nore sarr<ra.rorily,hen iffigated eith saline-sodtc waeers.uuhanned and Rauf (r9t3) concluded, from a lysinete{ic study on salinity_free loam so!l llrigated sith sallne-sodic saler6, lhat tbe adverse effects of wate! salinity on the gro{th of n6lze, berseem and sorghum were genelally more promin n! tilh eaee!s conlaininq carbonate (Rsc I than those congaining Rsc. waters with Rsc genelally ptoduced lovet soil salinily, as lhete eas generartv mole PrecipiEaLion of salt3 fron eater3 conrainlng,ate!3 eithout Rsc. Ho,ever, Lhe adverse effe.bs of Hater sodr'lt7 {Rsc, sarl,ere appalent oo soiis but not on ctops, because sorr r(rjcture is not Ehat inportanl in pipe 1v3ireEers' to'ever, jdverse effeccs of raters containing Rsc shduld be on crops 9ror. under field conditions thev also observed tha! accumutation of 6olubIe salte rnd exchangeable sodium was leduced signilicantly by lncreasing the LFlsee the risb of chemlcar eymbo!s add abbrevtationsl, indicatlng this!a!er managenelt practice for eff clive use of saline-sodic!rriqatlon vaters. Good drainage 1s asiomat!c to maintain irri9ated agliculture and should be coneid.led fron Lhe Point oi view of nalntaininq a favourable salt-balance for crop productlon as a function of tire. Accordinq Lo van schilfgaarde and Hoftnan (r97i '*'' :fi:::il";::i:' :::':l'[,;'l:?a.i Hcor) - (c' - xe) vhen.lf r Lec.hinq A'rudl fraction ot ied wd'cr 'ppl in (e;ns or equrvalent eurface depth' - it"t ".i'." pr..t rool zone' no'mdrrv expresseu

19 2n r.!:m_jl9!a!t j!!! rhvsi.nr Jm,rriorrri.n croring of hiqh-eare.-reqrir6rinr.rops is hr'll,frl f.. fe.l:rf,inq snl itr.-:i)di. :oi t,;. All,,lrr crops such as vh at and barley produc.d tonparable yi':lds on deep plooghod (1o 40-t0.ii), s!brr)i ed 1.1,rs3wi:;. 4a-1t, ttt atr I, a^t) t<,.r apart) 3nd s!b.or r.r arus qypsun (r,-16 rons/ha) rtltt!) t).t. lrdsmussen 9! rl.,tc64. l9r2; r.:rnuss.n, 1973). trtt:it:)t^ t.ad l.verrins fol lovcd by rice culrivotron effecrive farn-rever approach, Deep row chisalring iet!,,cts of ehtch may tast foi 4 cropping years) and deep ploughi!9/5ubso!1rn9 {,10 cm deep) iloi9!ith qypsum dpplic!tion ar lhe r!r,,!l l0c! ot the cr My have residual eff cls o. crop production fo. about ro yej' c (ob..ianu d dt., r q70l. Lavado and cairns I19311 cor best yields of wheat, barley ird Dats by xrr! rlro,{, B r'rj c soil ho.izons 1n corbinarion wrll rlypsun applicdrtotr.qurvalerr to 100f oi rh. cr for sol0.6rizrc soi16 having 23.7 to 4r.61 clay in the Ap, BnL and Csk holizons. a single deep plough!nq produced conpalable yields of rhese c.ops for many years. tn field experinents on alfalfa. cairns tt971) observed beerer avrrlability of N, P, (, ca,cu. zn and lig, and rhu. rn 'Fased c/op p!od!c.ro, on.re oajgn >.lt ioor and rtre xavanagr toam solonetzrc soils folloring a slngle deep ptou,lhtn9!o a deplh.t :. C.op response to vater and soil sallnilv/sodicitv siqh-varer-re(luirenenr, rops 9et the benefiti of dilulion, rh!le salt-tolerant crop6 entoy ehe feciliry of tbeir nalural n..lr.rnisns rr w.ll ns rhc adnplivo mrxrhnriih or sdlr lolcrance

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