Community Interactions

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1 Community Interactions

2 Niche and Habitat Habitat is where an organism lives can be thought of as an organisms address Niche is all the interactions and relationships an organism has with its surroundings (environment) Can be thought of as an organisms profession or job

3 Types of Interactions Predator-Prey Prey is when one animal (predator) eats another (prey) BUT.there is so many other ways that organisms can interact with eachother Let s s see what they are!

4 Types of Interactions, cont Symbiotic relationship: a relationship in which two organisms closely interact Main types of symbioses are competition, parasitism, commensalism and mutualism

5 Symbiotic Relationships Competition occurs when ever two organisms rely on the same resources to survive Ex: hyenas and vultures fighting over a carcass two plants competing for water or sunlight, or space

6 Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism: one organism benefits from the relationship and the other is harmed Ex: a tick and a dog, a tapeworm and a moose Mistletoe on a tree Wasp larva on a Tomato hornworm Brood parasitism: : one organism lays it s s eggs in another species nest (usually birds, some fish and insects)

7 Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism: both organisms benefit or are helped Ex. Humans and our good intestinal bacteria We give them a warm, safe place to live, they help us digest and process Vitamin K (important for blood clotting) Lichen (Algae and Fungus) Algae photosynthesizes (makes energy), fungus provides structure

8 Symbiotic Relationships Commensalism: one organism benefits, the other is not helped or harmed Ex: Shark and remora Remora attaches itself to shark, or swims right behind it and eats food scraps. Shark is just eating and swimming like it would normally be

9 More interactions Many organisms have mechanisms to avoid being eaten or to avoid competition. Some ways to avoid predation are: camouflage, chemical defenses, and mimicry

10 Camouflage Body coloration that allows an animal to blend in with it s surroundings If you blend in with your surroundings, then you have less of a chance of being spotted!

11 Chemical Defenses Many plants and animals use chemicals to repel predators Ex: Skunks spray, many insects spray acid when threatened, and some plants produce bitter tasting (or even poisonous) compounds

12 Aposematic Coloration Some animals have bright coloration to warn potential predators that they are dangerous or toxic.

13 Aposematic Coloration

14 Batesian Mimicry Mimicry is when a harmless animal looks like another animal that causes harm If an animal isn t t toxic to predators, why not look like an animal that is? A coral snake, which produces an very potent neurotoxin, and a harmless milk snake A stinging wasp and a harmless fly Henry Walter Bates

15 Müllerian Mimicry Mimicry, cont This is when poisonous/harmful species exhibit similar colorations Both species can benefit from the losses of the others Ex: Monarch and Viceroy butterflies! Stinging insects Yellow jacket Paper wasp Honey bee Fritz Muller

16 Aggressive Mimicry is when predators are disguised to better ambush their unsuspecting prey Some predators have turned the tables and display camouflage or resemble other organisms or even non-living things! This anglerfish lures in unsuspecting prey

17 Plant Defenses In addition to physical deterrents (thorns, hairs), some plants produce bad tasting or harmful chemicals to steer away foraging animals. Some plants produce chemicals that are not only toxic to animals, but also to other plants! This is called allelopathy. Allelopathic plants ensure that they won t t have much competition for water, sunlight, space, etc. by killing off the other plants!

18 So, to sum it all up. There are many more interactions going on in a community than just feeding relationships Organisms can help, harm or trick each other. When one tugs at a single thing in nature, he finds it attached to the rest of the world. --John Muir

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