How do organisms interact?

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1 Lesson 1 Energy Flow in Ecosystems Lesson 2 Relationships in Ecosystems Lesson 3 Adaptation and Survival How do organisms interact?

2 ecosystem population community food chain food web predator prey energy pyramid

3 What is an ecosystem? An ecosystem includes all the living and nonliving things in an environment.

4 How are food chains alike? producer Energy flows in one direction in food chains. The energy in a food chain starts with the Sun. primary consumer secondary consumer Producers are at the base of every food chain. decomposer

5 What are food webs made of? Food webs are networks of food chains that have some links in common. decomposer

6 How do energy pyramids compare? Energy pyramids show that it takes a huge number of organisms to support an ecosystem.

7 How does change affect a food web? red tide algae Changes to populations in a food web set off a chain of events that can affect all the organisms in a food web.

8 Main Idea How do producers and consumers obtain energy? Producers get energy from the Sun. Consumers eat plants and animals to get energy.

9 Vocabulary Prey are organisms that are eaten by other animals. The path that energy and nutrients follow in an ecosystem is called a. An includes all living and nonliving things in an environment. A is an animal that hunts other animals for food. ecosystem food chain predator prey

10 Vocabulary A is a network of food chains that have some links in common. A includes all members of a single species. An is a diagram that shows the amount of energy available at each level of an ecosystem. A includes all the living things in an ecosystem. community energy pyramid food population web

11 Sequence Describe the events that take place as energy from the Sun travels through an energy pyramid. Sunlight hits plants and helps them make food. Plant food energy is eaten by an herbivore. Herbivores are eaten by a carnivore. End of Lesson

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20 limiting factor carrying capacity habitat niche symbiosis mutualism commensalism parasitism

21 Why do organisms compete? Organisms compete with one another as they struggle to get their share of limited resources such as food, water, space, sunlight, or shelter.

22 How do organisms avoid competition? An organism avoids competition by having a specific territory and a unique role within its ecosystem.

23 How do organisms benefit from interactions? Interdependence is the reliance of organisms on other organisms for their survival. Symbiosis is a relationship between two or more kinds of organisms that lasts over time. Two kinds of symbiotic relationships are mutualism and commensalism.

24 What are parasites? tick Parasitism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed. tapeworm Parasites live on host organisms and survive by using the host organism s body for nutrients. lamprey

25 Main Idea How can biotic and abiotic factors affect the size of a population? Both can be limiting factors. Biotic factors can include competing organisms. Abiotic factors can include temperature, which will determine what can grow.

26 Vocabulary Symbiosis is a relationship between two or more kinds of organisms that lasts over time. Parasitism is a symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and the other is harmed. The is the greatest number of individuals within a population that an ecosystem can support. A symbiotic relationship that benefits one organism without harming the other is called. carrying capacity commensalism parasitism symbiosis

27 Vocabulary A is the physical place where an organism lives and hunts for food. A is any source that restricts the growth of populations. A is the special role that an organism plays in a community. A symbiotic relationship that benefits both organisms is called. habita t limiting factor mutualism niche

28 Infer A predator suddenly decreases even though the prey stays the same. Besides disease, what could explain this change? predator population decreases different predator enters the community some of old predator s prey is taken End of Lesson

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37 adaptation camouflage protective coloration protective resemblance mimicry

38 What is adaptation? Adaptations are physical structures or behaviors that help an organism survive in its environment.

39 What are some plant adaptations? scented flowers to attract pollinators leaves that drain excess water waxy stems to prevent water loss

40 What are some animal adaptations? streamlined bodies in water environments camouflage thick fur and extra body fat for warmth

41 What is mimicry? Mimicry is an adaptation in which an animal is protected from predators because it looks like a dangerous or unpleasant animal.

42 Main Idea What are structural and behavioral adaptations? Structural and behavioral adaptations give organisms an advantage in surviving and reproducing in their environments.

43 Vocabulary Protective coloration is a type of camouflage in which the color of an animal helps it blend with its background. Any coloring, shape, or pattern that allows an organism to blend with its environment is called. Matching the color, shape, and texture of an environment is called. camouflage protective coloration protective resemblance

44 Vocabulary An adaptation in which an animal is protected against predators by its resemblance to an unpleasant animal is called. An is any characteristic that helps an organism survive in its environment. adaptation mimicry

45 Problem and Solution How are aquatic animals able to survive in water? How do snapping turtles catch fish? structures for swimming, gills for oxygen the fish is caught End of Lesson

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